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Protein intake

Shuting Cao, Huan Wu, ChunChun Wang, Qianhui Zhang, Lefei Jiao, Fanghui Lin, Caihong Hu
In the present study, we investigated the influence of diquat-induced oxidative stress on intestinal barrier, mitochondrial function and the level of mitophagy in piglets. Twelve male Duroc×Landrace×Yorkshire 35-d-old pigs (weaned at 21d of age), with an average body of 9.6 kg, were allotted to two treatments of six piglets each including the challenged group and the control group. The challenged pigs were injected with 100 mg/kg bodyweight diquat and control pigs injected with 0.9% (w/v) NaCl solution. The results showed that diquat injection decreased average daily feed intake and average daily gain...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Kimberley Jae Botting, Xin Yee Loke, Song Zhang, Johnnie B Andersen, Jens Randel Nyengaard, Janna L Morrison
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) increases the risk of ischaemic heart disease in adulthood. Studies in rats suggest cardiac vulnerability is more pronounced in males and in offspring that were exposed to hypoxia in utero. Therefore, we aimed to test the hypotheses that 1) IUGR adolescent males, but not females, have fewer cardiomyocytes and altered expression of cardiometabolic genes compared to Controls and 2) IUGR due to hypoxia has a greater effect on these parameters compared to IUGR due to nutrient restriction...
March 21, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Autumn N Harris, Hyun-Wook Lee, Gunars Osis, Lijuan Fang, Kierstin L Webster, Jill W Verlander, I David Weiner
Renal ammonia metabolism has a major role in the maintenance of acid-base homeostasis. Sex differences are well recognized as an important biological variable in many aspects of renal function, including fluid and electrolyte metabolism. However, sex differences in renal ammonia metabolism have not been previously reported. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to investigate sex differences in renal ammonia metabolism. We studied 4-month-old wild type C57BL/6 mice fed a normal diet. Despite similar levels of food intake, and thus protein intake, which is the primary determinant of endogenous acid production, female mice excreted greater amounts of ammonia, but not titratable acids, than did male mice...
March 21, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Kelei Li, Jiaomei Li, Jiaojiao Gu, Xiaofei Guo, Tianlin Gao, Duo Li
Sodium valproate (VPA) is an anti-epileptic drug, but has a strong embryotoxicity due to its induced disturbance of folate-homocysteine (Hcy) metabolism and fatty acid metabolism. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake during pregnancy can relieve the embryotoxicity of VPA. VPA (dose: 500 mg kg-1, concentration: 38.5 mg ml-1) was intraperitoneally injected into pregnant mice on day 8.5 of gestation (E8.5d). PUFA intake significantly decreased fetal mortality and NTD incidence induced by VPA: n-3 long chain PUFAs (n-3 LCPUFAs) in fish oil had the best decreasing effect, followed by C18:3n-3 in flaxseed oil and then C18:2n-6 in corn oil...
March 21, 2018: Food & Function
Hualiang Liang, Ahmed Mokrani, Hopeson Chisomo-Kasiya, Ogwok-Manas Wilson-Arop, Haifeng Mi, Ke Ji, Xianping Ge, Mingchun Ren
Facilitative glucose transporters (GLUT) are transmembrane transporters involved in glucose transport across the plasma membrane. In this study, blunt snout bream GLUT2 gene was cloned, and its expression in various tissues and in liver in response to diets with different carbohydrate levels (17.1; 21.8; 26.4; 32.0; 36.3; and 41.9% of dry matter). Blunt snout bream GLUT2 was also characterized. A full-length cDNA fragment of 2577 bp was cloned, which contains a 5'-untranslated region (UTR) of 73 bp, a 3'-UTR of 992 bp, and an open reading frame of 1512 bp that encodes a polypeptide of 503 amino acids with predicted molecular mass of 55...
March 20, 2018: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
Fernando Pablo Canale, Silvia Del Valle Dávila, Corina Verónica Sasso, Nicolás Wilson Pellarín, María Aída Mattar Domínguez
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen implicated in nosocomial infections for which no vaccines have been approved. Larrea divaricata Cav. (Jarilla) is a widely spread plant in America and it is used in folk medicine to treat several pathologies. It has also been shown that antibodies elicited against Jarilla proteins of crude extract (JPCE) cross-react with proteins from gram-negative bacteria. In this study we aim to assess the contribution of anti-JPCE antibodies in the opsonophagocytosis of P...
March 17, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Alex Molassiotis, Shelley Roberts, Hui Lin Cheng, Henry K F To, Po Shan Ko, Wang Lam, Yuk Fong Lam, Jessica Abbott, Deborah Kiefer, Jasotha Sanmugarajah, Andrea P Marshall
BACKGROUND: Malnutrition is frequent in patients with cancer, particularly those in advanced stages of the disease. The aim of the present study was to test the feasibility of a family-centred nutritional intervention, based on the Family Systems theory and past research. METHODS: This was a single-arm trial assessing feasibility (eligibility, recruitment and retention rates); acceptability by patients, family caregivers and health professionals; intervention fidelity, and energy/protein intake (in one site only)...
March 20, 2018: BMC Palliative Care
Vanesa Bellou, Lazaros Belbasis, Ioanna Tzoulaki, Evangelos Evangelou
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a global epidemic associated with increased health expenditure, and low quality of life. Many non-genetic risk factors have been suggested, but their overall epidemiological credibility has not been assessed. METHODS: We searched PubMed to capture all meta-analyses and Mendelian randomization studies for risk factors of T2DM. For each association, we estimated the summary effect size, its 95% confidence and prediction interval, and the I2 metric...
2018: PloS One
Baubak Shamim, John A Hawley, Donny M Camera
Human skeletal muscle satellite cells are activated in response to both resistance and endurance exercise. It was initially proposed that satellite cell proliferation and differentiation were only required to support resistance exercise-induced hypertrophy. However, satellite cells may also play a role in muscle fibre remodelling after endurance-based exercise and extracellular matrix regulation. Given the importance of dietary protein, particularly branched chain amino acids, in supporting myofibrillar and mitochondrial adaptations to both resistance and endurance-based training, a greater understanding of how protein intake impacts satellite cell activity would provide further insight into the mechanisms governing skeletal muscle remodelling with exercise...
March 20, 2018: Sports Medicine
Fernanda Nunes, Daniela Pochmann, Amanda Staldoni Almeida, Daniela Melo Marques, Lisiane de Oliveira Porciúncula
Epidemiological studies suggest sex differences in attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptomatology. The potential benefits of caffeine have been reported in the management of ADHD, but its effects were not properly addressed with respect to sex differences. The present study examined the effects of caffeine (0.3 g/L) administered since childhood in the behavior and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its related proteins in both sexes of a rat model of ADHD (spontaneously hypertensive rats-SHR)...
March 20, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Tali Sinai, Shely Ben-Avraham, Inbal Guelmann-Mizrahi, Michael R Goldberg, Larisa Naugolni, Galia Askapa, Yitzhak Katz, Marianna Rachmiel
PURPOSE: The use of soy products is common in young children with cow milk allergy (CMA). The aim was to examine prospectively the association between infantile consumption of soy-based formula, growth parameters and early pubertal signs, in comparison to cow milk-based formula. METHODS: A nested case-control study was conducted, selected from a cohort of infants prospectively followed from birth until the age of 3 years for eating habits and the development of IgE-mediated CMA...
March 20, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
Carmen Losasso, Ester M Eckert, Eleonora Mastrorilli, Jorg Villiger, Marzia Mancin, Ilaria Patuzzi, Andrea Di Cesare, Veronica Cibin, Federica Barrucci, Jakob Pernthaler, Gianluca Corno, Antonia Ricci
Diet and lifestyle have a strong influence on gut microbiota, which in turn has important implications on a variety of health-related aspects. Despite great advances in the field, it remains unclear to which extent the composition of the gut microbiota is modulated by the intake of animal derived products, compared to a vegetable based diet. Here the specific impact of vegan, vegetarian, and omnivore feeding type on the composition of gut microbiota of 101 adults was investigated among groups homogeneous for variables known to have a role in modulating gut microbial composition such as age, anthropometric variables, ethnicity, and geographic area...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Victoria Pons, Joan Riera, Xavier Capó, Miquel Martorell, Antoni Sureda, Josep A Tur, Franchek Drobnic, Antoni Pons
Background: Caloric restriction induces mitochondrial biogenesis and improves physical fitness in rodents. We aimed to provide evidence of how caloric restriction affects the body composition and physical performance of trained athletes and to evaluate the possible impact of an every-other-day feeding diet on nutritional deficiencies of micronutrients and essential fatty acids. Methods: The study was performed with 12 healthy male athletes by carrying out a 33% caloric restriction with respect to their usual diet...
2018: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
Yongtao Bai, Lihua Song, Guoliang Dai, Meijuan Xu, Lijing Zhu, Weidong Zhang, Wen Jing, Wenzheng Ju
Evidence showed that the stress hormone corticosterone (CORT) injection resulted in dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis implicated in major depressive disorder. Magnolol, main constituent identified in the barks of Magnolia officinalis, exerted antidepressant effects in a rat model of depression induced by chronic unpredictable mild stress in previous studies. However, its antidepressant-like effects and mechanisms have never been studied in depression model induced by CORT administration in rodents...
March 16, 2018: Steroids
Francesca Pistollato, Ruben Calderón Iglesias, Roberto Ruiz, Silvia Aparicio, Jorge Crespo, Luis Dzul Lopez, Piera Pia Manna, Francesca Giampieri, Maurizio Battino
Ample epidemiological evidence suggests a strong correlation among diet, lifestyle factors and the onset and consolidation of dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD). It has been demonstrated that AD, diabetes, obesity, insulin resistance, and cardiovascular disease are strongly interconnected pathologies. Preventive strategies and nutritional interventions seem to be promising approaches to delay neurocognitive decline and reduce the risk of AD and other non-psychiatric co-morbidities. In this regard, healthy dietary patterns, characterized by high intake of plant-based foods, probiotics, antioxidants, soy beans, nuts, and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and a low intake of saturated fats, animal-derived proteins, and refined sugars, have been shown to decrease the risk of neurocognitive impairments and eventually the onset of AD...
March 16, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Ane Storch Jakobsen, Helene Speyer, Hans Christian Brix Nørgaard, Mette Karlsen, Carsten Hjorthøj, Jesper Krogh, Ole Mors, Merete Nordentoft, Ulla Toft
OBJECTIVES: People with severe mental disorders die 10-25years earlier than people in the Western background population, mainly due to lifestyle related diseases, with cardiovascular disease (CVD) being the most frequent cause of death. Major contributors to this excess morbidity and mortality are unhealthy lifestyle factors including tobacco smoking, unhealthy eating habits and lower levels of physical activity. The aim of this study was to investigate the dietary habits and levels of physical activity in people with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and overweight and to compare the results with the current recommendations and with results from the general Danish population...
March 16, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Mónica Garcia-Peris, Ester Donat Aliaga, María Roca Llorens, Etna Masip Simó, Begoña Polo Miquel, Carmen Ribes Koninckx
INTRODUCTION: Anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies (tTG) have high specificity for coeliac disease (CD). However, positive anti-tTG antibodies have been described in non-coeliac patients. Aim To assess positive anti-tTG antibodies not related to gluten intake. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Retrospective review and follow up conducted on patients with suspected CD (increase anti-tTG levels and gastrointestinal symptoms) but with atypical serology results, positive anti-tTG with gluten free diet and a decrease in anti-tTG levels despite gluten intake...
March 16, 2018: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
Nevena Kardum, Maria Glibetic
Regular and optimal intake of polyphenols associates with numerous health-promoting effects. Bioavailability and activity of polyphenols depend on foods' structure and interactions with other food constituents, especially proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates. Polyphenols-proteins interactions can result in various biological effects, such as sense of astringency. So far, polyphenols interactions with food lipids have not been of special importance, except in case of plant oils. Polyphenols-carbohydrates interactions can influence the organoleptic properties, while interactions with dietary fibers are particularly significant...
2018: Advances in Food and Nutrition Research
Carole Mast, Dominique Dardevet, Isabelle Papet
The optimisation of nutritional support for the growing number of older individuals does not usually take into account medication. Paracetamol (acetaminophen; APAP) is the first intention treatment of chronic pain that is highly prevalent and persistent in the elderly. Detoxification of APAP occurs in the liver and utilises sulfate and glutathione (GSH), both of which are issued from cysteine (Cys), a conditionally indispensable amino acid. The detoxification-induced siphoning of Cys could reduce the availability of Cys for skeletal muscle...
March 20, 2018: Nutrition Research Reviews
G K Sarfo, A Larbi, J A Hamidu, A Donkoh
The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of intermittent use of direct-fed microbial addition (DFM-"RE3®") on growth performance and health status of indigenous guinea fowls in northern Ghana. One-hundred and eighty day-old guinea keets were randomly assigned to 4 direct-fed microbial (DFM) treatments that included: control, daily, 3 consecutive days per wk (3CDW), and 7 days repeated every other wk (7DREOW) at 1.5 ml/L through water from day 1 to 56 days. Feed intake, body weight gain, and blood hematological and serum biochemical properties were recorded...
March 15, 2018: Poultry Science
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