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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779275/-salivary-microbial-communities-associated-with-severe-early-childhood-caries
#1
Tong-Zheng Sun, Fei Teng, Song-Bo Jia, Yong-Ping Tang, Ming Jiang, Shi Huang, Xiao Yuan, Xiao-Lan Li, Fang Yang
OBJECTIVE: To compare the salivary microbial profiles of healthy subjects and those with severe early childhood caries (S-ECC) by using high-throughput sequencing. METHODS: Salivary samples were obtained from children with S-ECC (group C, n=24) and healthy children (group H, n=24). Total metagenomic DNA was extracted, and DNA amplicons of the V1-V3 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene were generated and subjected to 454 sequencing. The characteristics of oral microbial communities from the two groups were compared based on microbial diversity and taxonomy assignment...
April 1, 2018: Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue za Zhi, Huaxi Kouqiang Yixue Zazhi, West China Journal of Stomatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778467/short-communication-effect-of-abomasal-inorganic-phosphorus-infusion-on-phosphorus-absorption-in-large-intestine-milk-production-and-phosphorus-excretion-of-dairy-cattle
#2
X Feng, P P Ray, J P Jarrett, L Karpinski, B Jones, K F Knowlton
The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of inorganic phosphorus (Pi) infusion on P absorption in large intestine, milk production, and phosphorus excretion. Four ruminally and ileally cannulated crossbred cows were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square with 21-d periods. Cows were fed a total mixed ration containing 0.21% P, providing 50% of the cows' P requirement. Cobalt-EDTA was used as marker to measure large intestine digesta flow. On d 13 to 21 of each period, each cow was infused daily with 0, 20...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778428/status-dystonicus-due-to-missense-variant-in-arx-diagnosis-and-management
#3
Kathleen M Gorman, Heather Cary, Laura Gaffney, Eva Forman, Dympna Waldron, Fowzy Al-Delami, Bryan J Lynch, Mary D King, Nicholas M Allen
Movement disorders are increasingly identified in infantile encephalopathies due to single gene disorders (e.g. SCN2A, CDKL5, ARX). The associated movement disorder can be challenging to recognise and treat. We report a 2 year-old boy with a background history of Ohtahara syndrome due to a missense variant in ARX (the aristaless-related homeobox gene) who subsequently developed status dystonicus. ARX is a transcription factor that plays a critical role in cortical neuronal development and is associated with a range of important neurodevelopmental disorders depending on the site of the pathogenic variant...
May 3, 2018: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777534/is-it-necessary-to-have-a-dentist-within-an-intensive-care-unit-team-report-of-a-randomised-clinical-trial
#4
Wanessa Teixeira Bellissimo-Rodrigues, Mayra Gonçalves Menegueti, Gilberto Gambero Gaspar, Hayala Cristina Cavenague de Souza, Maria Auxiliadora-Martins, Anibal Basile-Filho, Roberto Martinez, Fernando Bellissimo-Rodrigues
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of dental treatment in improving oral health in critical patients. METHODS: This randomised clinical trial was conducted in a general intensive care unit (ICU) at a tertiary care public facility from 1 January 2011 to 8 August 2013. Data from 254 adult patients staying in the ICU for 48 hours or more were analysed. The experimental group (n = 127) had access to dental treatment provided by a dentist four to five times a week, in addition to routine oral hygiene, whereas the control group (n = 127) had access only to routine oral hygiene, including topical application of chlorhexidine, provided by the ICU nursing staff...
May 18, 2018: International Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776641/cortisol-awakening-response-is-decreased-in-patients-with-first-episode-psychosis-and-increased-in-healthy-controls-with-a-history-of-severe-childhood-abuse
#5
Simone Ciufolini, Charlotte Gayer-Anderson, Helen L Fisher, Tiago Reis Marques, Heather Taylor, Marta Di Forti, Patricia Zunszain, Craig Morgan, Robin M Murray, Carmine M Pariante, Paola Dazzan, Valeria Mondelli
BACKGROUND: Childhood abuse is highly prevalent in psychosis patients, but whether/how it affects hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis at the onset of psychosis remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the effects of severity of childhood abuse on HPA axis activity, in first-episode psychosis (FEP) and healthy controls. METHODS: We recruited 169 FEP patients and 133 controls with different degrees of childhood physical and sexual abuse (i.e. no abuse exposure, non-severe abuse exposure, and severe abuse exposure)...
May 15, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775637/modified-resin-infiltration-of-non-micro-and-cavitated-proximal-caries-lesions-in-vitro
#6
H Askar, F Schwendicke, J Lausch, H Meyer-Lueckel, S Paris
OBJECTIVE: Infiltrant resin (IR) is currently indicated for non-cavitated caries lesions. However, modifying the technique might expand its indication spectrum to micro-cavitated lesions. The present study aimed to evaluate the penetration/filling ability of a newly developed micro-filled infiltrant resin (MFIR) in non-, micro- and cavitated natural caries lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Proximal lesions in 120 extracted human teeth with ICDAS-2 (n = 30), 3 (n = 45) and 5 (n = 45) lesions were etched with 15% hydrochloric acid gel for 2 min and allocated to one of the following treatments; IR: lesions (ICDAS-2, 3 and 5; each n = 15) were treated with commercial infiltrant resin for 3 min...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774628/efficacy-and-safety-of-brexpiprazole-for-the-treatment-of-acute-schizophrenia-in-japan-a-6-week-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-study
#7
Jun Ishigooka, Shuichi Iwashita, Yoshihiro Tadori
AIMS: This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of brexpiprazole compared to placebo in Japanese patients with acute schizophrenia. METHODS: We conducted a 6-week, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2/3 study in Japan. Patients with acute schizophrenia were randomized (1:1:1:1) to receive brexpiprazole 1, 2, or 4 mg or placebo once a day. The primary endpoint was the change from baseline to week 6 in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total scores...
May 18, 2018: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771679/acceptability-of-contraceptive-self-injection-with-dmpa-sc-among-adolescents-in-gulu-district-uganda
#8
Jane Cover, Jeanette Lim, Allen Namagembe, Justine Tumusiime, Jennifer Kidwell Drake, Carie Muntifering Cox
CONTEXT: In Uganda, an estimated one in four adolescent women have begun childbearing. Many adolescent pregnancies are unintended because of substantial barriers to contraceptive access. The injectable contraceptive is the most commonly used method in Uganda, and a new subcutaneous version offers the possibility of reducing access barriers by offering a self-injection option. However, more information about adolescent attitudes toward and interest in self-injection is needed. METHODS: In 2015, in-depth interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 46 adolescent women aged 15-19 from rural and urban areas of Gulu District...
December 1, 2017: International Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771337/randomized-trial-of-the-impact-of-empowering-childhood-cancer-survivors-with-survivorship-care-plans
#9
Nina S Kadan-Lottick, Wilhelmenia L Ross, Hannah-Rose Mitchell, Jaime Rotatori, Cary P Gross, Xiaomei Ma
Background: A survivorship care plan (SCP), that is, individualized treatment summary and schedule of off-therapy surveillance, will be mandated by January 2019. It is unclear whether SCPs improve adherence to recommended follow-up care in the community. In this trial, we evaluated the impact of randomly assigning childhood cancer survivors to 1) SCPs to be taken to their primary care physician (PCP) to implement or 2) survivorship clinic (SC) on health care quality measures. Methods: Eligibility included cancer diagnosis younger than age 18 years (2000-2012), cancer free, one or more years off therapy, and no prior survivorship clinic attendance...
May 15, 2018: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771131/mouthwash-containing-croton-doctoris-essential-oil-in-vitro-study-using-a-validated-model-of-caries-induction
#10
Yasmin Etienne Albuquerque, Marcelle Danelon, Marcos José Salvador, Cristiane Yumi Koga-Ito, Alberto Carlos Botazzo Delbem, Román Yesid Ramirez-Rueda, Aline Vidal Lacerda Gontijo, Fernanda Lourenção Brighenti
AIM: To validate an in vitro caries model and to evaluate an experimental mouthwash containing Croton doctoris essential oil.  Materials & methods: To validate the experimental model, we used McBain medium and polymicrobial biofilms. The EOM (essential oil mouthwash) was tested using the validated model. Microbial composition (colony-forming unit/ml), acidogenicity, enamel demineralization (percentage of surface enamel hardness loss), cytotoxicity and essential oil composition were evaluated...
May 17, 2018: Future Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771123/carotenoids-experimental-ionization-energies-and-capacity-at-inhibiting-lipid-peroxidation-in-a-chemical-model-of-dietary-oxidative-stress
#11
Olivier Dangles, Pascale Goupy, Michel Carail, Alexandre Giuliani, Denis Duflot, Catherine Caris-Veyrat
Carotenoids are important natural pigments and micronutrients contributing to health prevention by several mechanisms, including their electron-donating (antioxidant) activity. In this work, a large series of carotenoids, including 11 carotenes and 14 xanthophylls, has been investigated by wavelength-resolved atmospheric pressure photoionization mass spectrometry (DISCO line of SOLEIL synchrotron), thus allowing the experimental determination of their ionization energy (IE) for the first time. On the other hand, the carotenoids have been also investigated for their ability to inhibit the heme iron-induced peroxidation of linoleic acid in mildly acidic micelles, a simple but relevant chemical model of oxidative stress in the gastric compartment...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769814/combined-deficiencies-of-25-hydroxyvitamin-d-and-anemia-in-preschool-children-with-severe-early-childhood-caries-a-case-control-study
#12
Shannon Deane, Robert J Schroth, Atul Sharma, Celia Rodd
Background: Severe early childhood caries (S-ECC) is common and has adverse affects on children's health. Children with S-ECC have been shown to have anemia or vitamin D deficiency. No studies have assessed the presence of combined deficiencies with S-ECC. The purpose of our study was to examine whether those with S-ECC had a higher prevalence of combined anemia and low 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) compared to controls. Covariates associated with elevated parathyroid hormone (PTH), previously noted in S-ECC, were examined...
May 2018: Paediatrics & Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769430/oral-lactobacilli-and-salivary-acidic-proline-rich-proteins-aprp-1-2-in-dental-caries
#13
A K Szkaradkiewicz-Karpinska, A Zeidler, O Goslinska-Kuzniarek, K Uram, A Szkaradkiewicz
A previous study shows that levels of acidic salivary proline-rich phosphoproteins-1/2 (APRP-1/2) increase with caries severity. The aim of this study was to examine whether this relationship also depends on the presence of H2 O2 -producing strains of Lactobacillus spp. Adults with severe caries (decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) > 13.9, n = 28) were compared with similarly aged adults who had minimal caries (DMFT < 5, n = 20). A total of 48 samples of whole unstimulated saliva were collected in the morning and centrifuged...
February 2018: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768975/arresting-dentine-caries-with-silver-diamine-fluoride-what-s-behind-it
#14
M L Mei, E C M Lo, C H Chu
Unlike other fluoride-based caries preventive agents, silver diamine fluoride (SDF) can simultaneously prevent and arrest coronal and root dentine caries. The profound clinical success of SDF has drawn many clinicians and researchers to study the mechanism of SDF in arresting dentine caries. This critical review discusses how silver and fluoride contribute to caries arrest, in terms of their effects on bacteria as well as on the mineral and organic content of dentine. Silver interacts with bacterial cell membrane and bacterial enzymes, which can inhibit bacterial growth...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768525/effects-of-a-food-enriched-with-probiotics-on-streptococcus-mutans-and-lactobacillus-spp-salivary-counts-in-preschool-children-a-cluster-randomized-trial
#15
Judy Villavicencio, Lina Maria Villegas, Maria Cristina Arango, Susana Arias, Francia Triana
Probiotics have provided benefits to general health, but they are still insufficient to dental health. This study aimed to evaluate milk supplemented with probiotic bacteria and standard milk, measured by levels of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) and Lactobacillus spp., in 3-4-year-old children after 9 months of intervention. The study was a triple-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial. The sample was composed of 363 preschoolers attending five child development centers in Cali, Colombia. They were randomized to two groups: children in the intervention group drank 200 mL of milk with Lactobacillus rhamnosus 5x106 and Bifidobacteruim longum 3x106, and children in the control group drank 200 mL of standard milk...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Applied Oral Science: Revista FOB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768083/sebo-pharmacokinetics-a-proposed-percutaneous-sebum-egression-method
#16
Rasika Reddy, John Havens Cary, Akram Elmahdy, Howard Maibach
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The sebaceous gland is widely believed a critical factor in the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris. Although extensive studies document the ability of oral and topical treatments to improve acne, little is known about the quantification and mechanism of drug delivery via the sebaceous gland. A percutaneous egression method presents a way to study how drugs reaching the bloodstream can enter the skin. METHODS: A literature search was performed across databases (PubMed, Embase, and Google Scholar) and the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) textbook library with relevant search terms...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Dermatological Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768075/evaluating-mice-lacking-serum-carboxylesterase-as-a-behavioral-model-for-nerve-agent-intoxication
#17
Emily N Dunn, Teresa M Ferrara-Bowens, Mark E Chachich, Cary L Honnold, Cristin C Rothwell, Heidi M Hoard-Fruchey, Catherine A Lesyna, Erik A Johnson, Douglas M Cerasoli, John H McDonough, C Linn Cadieux
Mice and other rodents are typically utilized for chemical warfare nerve agent research. Rodents have large amounts of carboxylesterase in their blood, while humans do not. Carboxylesterase non-specifically binds to and detoxifies nerve agent. The presence of this natural bioscavenger makes mice and other rodents poor models for studies identifying therapeutics to treat humans exposed to nerve agents. To obviate this problem, a serum carboxylesterase knockout (Es1 KO) mouse was created. In this study, Es1 KO and wild type (WT) mice were assessed for differences in gene expression, nerve agent (soman; GD) median lethal dose (MLD) values, and behavior prior to and following nerve agent exposure...
May 16, 2018: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767840/ethnicity-migration-status-and-dental-caries-experience-among-adults-in-east-london
#18
Elsa K Delgado-Angulo, Wagner Marcenes, Seeromanie Harding, Eduardo Bernabé
OBJECTIVE: To assess the interrelationship between ethnicity, migration status and dental caries experience among adults in East London. METHODS: We analysed data from 1910 adults (16-65 years) representing 9 ethnic groups, who took part in a community-based health survey in East London. Participants completed a supervised questionnaire and were clinically examined by trained dentists. Dental caries was assessed with the number of decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT)...
May 16, 2018: Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766564/personal-oral-hygiene-and-dental-caries-a-systematic-review-of-randomised-controlled-trials
#19
Philippe Pierre Hujoel, Margaux Louise A Hujoel, Georgios A Kotsakis
OBJECTIVE: To conduct a systematic review of randomised trials assessing the association between personal oral hygiene and dental caries in the absence of the confounding effects of fluoride. BACKGROUND: Dental caries continues to affect close to 100% of the global population. There is a century-old conflict on whether dental caries is caused by poor oral hygiene or poorly formed teeth (ie, teeth with dental defects). Resolving this conflict is of significant public health importance as these two hypotheses on dental caries aetiology can lead to different prevention strategies...
May 15, 2018: Gerodontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766414/oral-health-and-oral-health-risk-behaviour-in-children-with-and-without-externalising-behaviour-problems
#20
M Staberg, J G Norén, L Gahnberg, A Ghaderi, C Kadesjö, A Robertson
AIM: This was to study children with early detected externalising behaviour problems compared to matched controls regarding oral health, oral health risk behaviour and the parental evaluation of the child's oral health and dental care. METHODS: Children aged 10-13 years and with externalising behaviour problems, were compared to matched controls. Behavioural characteristics were based on the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire. The children and their parents completed questionnaires regarding dental fear, tooth brushing, dietary habits and evaluation of oral health and dental care...
May 15, 2018: European Archives of Paediatric Dentistry: Official Journal of the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry
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