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mucosal melanoma

Sung-Ho Shin, Hyun Seok, Seong-Gon Kim, Seong-Doo Hong
Sinonasal mucosal melanoma (SNMM) in the maxillary sinus is a rare disease condition. Compared to oral mucosal melanoma, SNMM has a bulky, exophytic, and polypoid appearance, is weakly pigmented, and associated with unspecific symptoms. Due to these features, SNMM in the maxillary sinus has been misdiagnosed as nasal polyps and chronic sinusitis. In this case report, we described SNMM occurring in the right maxillary sinus simulated as a cystic or benign lesion. Cortical bone thinning and expansion were observed around the mass...
February 2018: Journal of the Korean Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
Akira Utsunomiya, Noritaka Oyama, Shiro Iino, Natsuki Baba, Takenao Chino, Natsuko Utsunomiya, Minoru Hasegawa
Immune checkpoint inhibitors, such as ipilimumab and nivolumab, reverse the imbalance of antitumor self-tolerance and enhance T-cell responses. Currently, ipilimumab and nivolumab have a reported therapeutic impact on unresectable or metastatic melanomas; however, they also induce immune-related adverse events (irAEs). Ipilimumab-induced cutaneous irAEs are mostly low grade and manageable, although all-grade rash may occur in approximately 45% of all patients. We here report the case of a young woman with erythema multiforme major, which developed after sequential use of these 2 immune checkpoint inhibitors for advanced melanoma of the scalp...
January 2018: Case Reports in Dermatology
Xiaojing Kang, Ying Zeng, Junqin Liang, Jing Li, Danyang Ren, Li Chai, Zhenzhu Sun, Shirong Yu, Xiujuan Wu, Wen Han, Weijia Wang
Malignant melanoma (MM) is a highly malignant melanocytic tumor, it occurs mostly in the skin, the mucous membrane close to the skin, but also in the tunicae rhagoides and the pia mater. The Uyghur is the largest ethnic group living in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of China, accounting for 46% of the total population of 20 million. Large-scale studies on MMs in Asian countries are limited. This study aimed to investigate BRAF mRNA expression and mutations in Chinese Uyghur patients with MMs and to identify the clinical features associated with these parameters...
January 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Moran Amit, Shorook Na'ara, Ehab Y Hanna
Sinonasal mucosal melanoma (SNMM) is a rare oncological entity that comprises most head and neck mucosal melanomas. SNMM has distinctive genetic background, different from cutaneous melanoma. Survival outcomes among SNMM patients are poor; while there is no clear consensus on the optimal management of SNMM, the primary treatment modality is generally considered to be wide surgical excision, and radiation therapy (RT) is often used in the postoperative adjuvant setting to improve locoregional control. Systemic therapies have demonstrated little or no survival benefit, and most SNMM patients die of distant metastatic disease...
February 28, 2018: Current Oncology Reports
Giulia Malaguarnera, Roberto Madeddu, Vito Emanuele Catania, Gaetano Bertino, Luca Morelli, Rosario Emanuele Perrotta, Filippo Drago, Michele Malaguarnera, Saverio Latteri
Anorectal melanoma is an uncommon and aggressive mucosal melanocytic malignancy. Due to its rarity, the pre-operative diagnosis remains difficult. The first symptoms are non-specific such as anal bleeding, anal mass or pain. Although anorectal melanoma carries a poor prognosis; optimal therapeutics strategies are unclear. Surgical resection remains the mainstay of treatment. The optimal surgical procedure for primary tumours is controversial and can vary from wide local excision or endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) to an abdomino-perineal resection...
February 2, 2018: Oncotarget
Berislav Topić, Tarik Mašić, Svjetlana Radović, Ivor Lincender, Edin Muhić
Oral melanoma (OM) occurs from activated or genetically altered epidermal melanocytes. There is no scientific evidence that OM can be linked to physical, chemical and thermal irritation, or to other risk factors of the oral cavity. According to fi gures from various countries, OM accounts for 0.2% to 7.5% ( Japan) of all cases of melanoma of the skin and mucous membrane. The male to female ratio of OM is 2:1. About 80% of OMs are located in the mucosa of the palate and maxillary gingiva. This paper presents two cases of oral mucosal melanoma of the upper and lower lips in women aged 62 and 59 years...
June 2017: Acta Clinica Croatica
Özlenen Özkan, Ömer Özkan, Anı Çinpolat, Mehmet Can Ubur, Gamze Bektaş, Adil Jumshudov, Hilmi Uysal
BACKGROUND: The repair of extensive lower lip defects is difficult due to the presence of both functional and esthetic requirements. This report describes functional lip repair using the partial latissimus dorsi free flap without nerve coaptation. METHODS: Reconstruction of the lower lip due to subtotal and total tissue defects was performed using latissimus dorsi free flap on twelve patients, between 2013 and 2017. The etiology was squamous cell carcinoma in six patients, malignant melanoma in one, firearm injury in three and microstomia in two...
February 23, 2018: Microsurgery
Yoshio Kiyohara, Hisashi Uhara, Yoshihiko Ito, Noritake Matsumoto, Tetsuya Tsuchida, Naoya Yamazaki
A postmarketing surveillance study is ongoing to evaluate nivolumab treatment for Japanese patients with malignant melanoma and accumulate data on all adverse events (AE) and efficacy. In this interim analysis, we evaluated data from approximately 100 Japanese medical institutions obtained from the nivolumab approval date in Japan (4 July 2014) through 3 July 2016. Patients were monitored during the first 12 months of treatment. Nivolumab was administrated by i.v. infusion (2 mg/kg every 3 weeks). A total of 680 and 610 patients were evaluated for safety and efficacy, respectively...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Dermatology
M Boccellino, D Di Stasio, A Romano, M Petruzzi, A Lucchese, R Serpico, L Frati, M Di Domenico
Stem cells play a role in many mucosal disorders characterised by abnormal proliferation and differentiation of keratinocytes, such as oral lichen planus (OLP). In OLP there were changes in stem cell markers as component of integrin complexes α6 and β1 integrin increased along with increase of melanoma-associated chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan (MCSP) and decreased of notch1 (N1) and keratin 15 (K15). Stem cell marker expression may be altered by pathological signalling in these lesions. Cadherins are transmembrane receptors that provide cell-cell contact and communication function through calcium-dependent homophilic and heterophilic interactions...
January 2018: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
Paras B Patel, John M Wright, David R Kang, Yi-Shing Lisa Cheng
Oral mucosal melanoma (OMM) is notorious for having a poor prognosis. Recognition of the early features of OMM by both clinicians and pathologists can play an important role in improving survival. Therefore, the purpose of this report is to increase awareness of the early features of OMM, by presenting 2 cases with longitudinal clinical and histopathologic documentation showing progression of OMM from a deceptively bland premalignant (noninvasive) oral melanocytic lesion (POML). By analyzing the clinical and histopathologic features of POML in our cases, and those in the literature, we found that the concerning features are (1) clinically, a pigmented lesion violating the ABCDE criteria or showing multiple recurrences; and (2) histologically, a melanocytic proliferation, in either a lentiginous or pagetoid pattern with or without cellular atypia...
December 28, 2017: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
Eleni-Marina Kalogirou, Demos Kalyvas, Konstantinos I Tosios, Kostas Tsiklakis, Alexandra Sklavounou
Sinonasal mucosal melanoma is a rare tumor that develops slowly and may manifest with non specific signs and symptoms, causing significant delay in diagnosis. Local recurrence is common and usually occurs within the first two years after the initial treatment. Prognosis of recurrent lesions is poor and 5-year survival ranges between 10-47%. We report the clinical, radiographic, histopathological and immunohistochemical findings of a recurrent sinonasal mucosal melanoma which was diagnosed 10 years after the initial treatment, in a patient who presented with unilateral facial swelling and one-sided difficulty in breathing of two years duration...
December 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Dentistry
B Sipos
Neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) are infrequent in sensory organs. There are well-differentiated neuroendocrine neoplasms that should be classified as neuroendocrine tumors, in analogy to their gastrointestinal counterparts, however the nomenclature is inconsistent. The best defined entities are neuroendocrine tumors in the middle ear and ectopic pituitary adenoma in the sphenoid region. Poorly differentiated NENs most often arise in the olfactory organ and nasal cavity that are represented by olfactory neuroblastomas and poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas...
February 1, 2018: Der Pathologe
Yvonne Y R Ng, Grace H C Tan, Richard H H Quek, Mohamad B H R Farid, Khee Chee Soo, Melissa C C Teo
BACKGROUND: Primary mucosal melanomas (MM) are rare neoplasms arising from melanocytes in mucosal membranes. Delayed diagnosis and aggressive disease biology contribute to a poorer prognosis. The clinical patterns of MMs treated in a large tertiary centre, and the differences between MMs in the head and neck versus other anatomical sites are described. METHODS: A retrospective review of 43 patients diagnosed with MM in the head and neck, urogenital, esophageal and anorectal sites from 1993 to 2015 was conducted...
February 1, 2018: ANZ Journal of Surgery
Belen Hernandez, Hibret A Adissu, Bih-Rong Wei, Helen T Michael, Glenn Merlino, R Mark Simpson
Melanoma remains mostly an untreatable fatal disease despite advances in decoding cancer genomics and developing new therapeutic modalities. Progress in patient care would benefit from additional predictive models germane for human disease mechanisms, tumor heterogeneity, and therapeutic responses. Toward this aim, this review documents comparative aspects of human and naturally occurring canine melanomas. Clinical presentation, pathology, therapies, and genetic alterations are highlighted in the context of current basic and translational research in comparative oncology...
January 30, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Alberto Schreiber, Vittorio Rampinelli, Marco Ferrari, Davide Mattavelli, Davide Farina, Simonetta Battocchio, Piero Nicolai
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Pretreatment biopsy is crucial in histology-based management of malignant nasoethmoidal tumors, because misdiagnosis can lead to inadequate therapeutic planning. Factors influencing the reliability of biopsy were retrospectively investigated in a tertiary referral center. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case series. METHODS: All patients who underwent biopsy, staging magnetic resonance, surgery, and histologic diagnosis for nasoethmoidal tumors in our hospital were retrospectively evaluated...
January 4, 2018: Laryngoscope
Wenjia Zhu, Shimin Li, Bingqing Zou, Hongqin Liu, Shuyi Wang
Sinonasal mucosal malignant melanoma (SNMMM) is a rare disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the expressions of HER4 and CD44 in human SNMMM tissues and their relationship with the clinicopathological features and prognosis of patients. In total, 64 paraffin-embedded samples of SNMMM treated in our hospital from 29 December 1999 to 24 June 2011 were collected. HER4 and CD44 were detected in the tissues of SNMMM by immunohistochemistry. The differences in the HER4 and CD44 expressions in the tissues were evaluated and matched with clinicopathological parameters and the survival rate, respectively...
January 5, 2018: Melanoma Research
Junya Yan, Xiaowen Wu, Jiayi Yu, Huan Yu, Tianxiao Xu, Kevin M Brown, Xue Bai, Jie Dai, Meng Ma, Huan Tang, Lu Si, Zhihong Chi, Xinan Sheng, Chuanliang Cui, Yan Kong, Jun Guo
BACKGROUND: Neuroblastoma rat-sarcoma (NRAS) mutations have been described in Chinese patients with melanoma. However, the status and the clinical significance of NRAS gain have not been investigated on a large scale. METHODS: A total of 657 melanoma samples were included in the study. NRAS copy number was examined using the QuantiGene Plex DNA assay. The sensitivities of cell lines and patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models containing NRAS gain to a MAP/ERK kinase (MEK) inhibitor (binimetinib) were also evaluated...
December 11, 2017: European Journal of Cancer
Marie Kristin Fritsche, Andreas Knopf
Despite worldwide prevention programs, the incidence for cutaneous melanoma is continuously increasing. Mucosal melanoma (MM) represents a rare but highly aggressive phenotype of common melanoma with predilection in the sinonasal system. Far away from ultraviolet sun exposure, the molecular mechanisms underlying tumorigenesis and the highly aggressive clinical behavior are poorly understood. In many solid malignomas of the head and neck region, p53 tumor suppressor functions as oncogene due to p53 protein stabilizing mutation...
December 13, 2017: Genes
Jiong Lyu, Zhijian Song, Jianhua Chen, Matthew J Shepard, Hao Song, Guoxin Ren, Zhiqiang Li, Wei Guo, Zhengping Zhuang, Yongyong Shi
Oral mucosal melanoma (OMM) is a rare and aggressive subtype of melanoma with little known about its pathogenesis or carcinogenesis. We therefore performed whole-exome sequencing (WES) on 19 matched OMM tumor/normal pairs in order to gain insight into potential genetic drivers of tumor formation. For the first time, we describe the comprehensive mutational profile of OMM. Our data suggest that the genetic background of OMM differs from those of other melanoma subtypes. We identified recurrent mutations involving KIT, POLE, PTPRD, PTCHD2, and DMXL2...
March 2018: Journal of Pathology
Phil F Cheng
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Bioinformatic insights from next-generation sequencing has been integral in understanding melanoma biology, resistance to treatment and provided new avenues for melanoma treatment. Whole-genome sequencing, whole-exome sequencing and RNA sequencing has redefined the molecular classification of melanoma, revealed distinct genetic aberrations that define clinical subtypes of melanoma and uncovered the diverse heterogeneity that resides in an individual tumor. RECENT FINDINGS: In this review, we will summarize the recent whole-genome study that catalogs the genomic landscape across many melanoma subtypes, the single-cell RNA sequencing studies that interrogates tumor heterogeneity and the personalized vaccine approaches to melanoma treatment...
March 2018: Current Opinion in Oncology
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