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Zhao Dehua, Chu Mingming, Wang Jisheng
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of gemcitabine (GEM) at 30 min standard-dose infusion (30 min-SDI) compared with prolonged low-dose infusion (P-LDI) in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: Electronic databases including Pubmed, EMbase, Cochrane Library, CNKI, CBM, and VIP were searched using keywords "GEM", "P-LDI", and "NSCLC". Review Manager 5.3 was used to perform the meta-analysis. Primary endpoints were overall response rate (ORR) and 1-year survival rate (1-year SR)...
2018: PloS One
Dan Zhang, Jiarui Wu, Kaihuan Wang, Xiaojiao Duan, Shi Liu, Bing Zhang
BACKGROUND: The optimal Chinese herbal injections (CHIs) combined with XELOX regimen for patients with gastric cancer remains elusive. The aim of our network meta-analysis (NMA) is to explore the best options among different CHIs for gastric cancer. METHODS: PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, the China National Knowledge Infrastructure Database (CNKI), Wan-fang Database, Cqvip Database (VIP), China Biology Medicine disc (CBMdisc) were searched to identify RCTs which focused on CHIs against gastric cancer...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Xinyun Liang, Olusegun Famure, Yanhong Li, S Joseph Kim
CONTEXT: Valganciclovir is used not only for cytomegalovirus prophylaxis after kidney transplantation but can also induce leukopenia, thereby making patients more susceptible to other infections. The epidemiology of leukopenia in patients on valganciclovir remains poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence and risk factors for leukopenia in patients receiving valganciclovir for cytomegalovirus prophylaxis after kidney transplantation. METHODS: In this single-center, retrospective, cohort study, we included kidney recipients transplanted from January 1, 2003, to December 31, 2010, to determine the incidence and risk factors for leukopenia in patients who received valganciclovir for cytomegalovirus prophylaxis...
January 1, 2018: Progress in Transplantation
Tetsuo Saito, Ryo Toya, Tomohiko Matsuyama, Satoshi Ninomura, Natsuo Oya
PURPOSE: As predictors of hematologic toxicity (HT) after palliative radiotherapy (RT) have been studied insufficiently, we explored predictors of leukopenia, neutropenia, and thrombocytopenia attributable to palliative RT. METHODS: We retrospectively assessed patients with various solid tumors who had received palliative RT at our institution. Excluded from our study were patients who had undergone chemotherapy from one month before to one month after the start of RT...
January 2018: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
H Lindman, M Andersson, J Ahlgren, E Balslev, A Sverrisdottir, S B Holmberg, N O Bengtsson, E H Jacobsen, A B Jensen, J Hansen, M K Tuxen, L Malmberg, K Villman, H Anderson, B Ejlertsen, J Bergh, C Blomqvist
STUDY AIM: Retrospective studies have demonstrated a worse outcome in breast cancer patients not developing leukopenia during adjuvant chemotherapy. The SBG 2000-1 is the first randomised trial designed to compare individually dosed chemotherapy without G-CSF support based on grade of toxicity to standard-dosed chemotherapy based on body surface area (BSA). METHODS: Patients with early breast cancer were included and received the first cycle of standard FEC (fluorouracil 600 mg/m2 , epirubicin 60 mg/m2 , cyclophosphamide 600 mg/m2 )...
March 13, 2018: European Journal of Cancer
Ahmed A Aljohaney
OBJECTIVES: To determine the mortality rates and predictors among patients hospitalized with active tuberculosis (TB) at King Abdulaziz University Hospital (KAUH) in Jeddah. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed on 291 active TB patients hospitalized in KAUH, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia from December 2011 to December 2016. Medical records were collected and evaluated using a dedicated data extraction sheet. The records included demographics, clinical, radiological, laboratory, and drug resistance data...
March 2018: Saudi Medical Journal
Rebecca Strong, Simon P Graham, S A La Rocca, Rudiger Raue, Ilse Vangeel, Falko Steinbach
The objective of this study was to develop a bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2 (BVDV-2) challenge model suitable for evaluation of efficacy of BVDV vaccines; a model that mimics natural infection and induces clear leukopenia and viremia. Clinical, hematological and virological parameters were evaluated after infection of two age groups of calves (3 and 9 months) with two BVDV-2 strains (1362727 and 502643). Calves became pyrexic between 8 and 9 days post inoculation and exhibited symptoms, such as nasal discharge, mild depression, cough, and inappetence...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Stefan Sleijfer, Elisa Rizzo, Saskia Litière, Ron H J Mathijssen, Ian Robert Judson, Hans Gelderblom, Winette T A Van Der Graaf, Alessandro Gronchi
INTRODUCTION: As both anti-tumour effects and toxicity are thought to be dose-dependent, patients with the greatest toxicity may also have the best outcome. We assessed whether severity of doxorubicin-induced hematological toxicity is associated with outcome in advanced soft tissue sarcoma (STS) patients. In addition, risk factors for hematological toxicity were explored. METHODS: Worst haematological toxicities (anaemia, leukopenia, neutropenia and thrombocytopenia) seen during treatment were scored according to CTCAE toxicity score...
March 9, 2018: Acta Oncologica
Yiping Zhu, Dandan Yin, Yali Su, Xuyang Xia, Takaya Moriyama, Rina Nishii, Fei Liao, Shouyue Zhang, Xia Guo, Qianqian Hou, Yuan Ai, Xueyan Zhou, Shuwen Sun, Duyu Zhang, Yan Zhang, Chao Lin, Yiqi Deng, Xiaoxi Lu, Yuelan Wang, Zhigui Ma, Heyao Wang, Bo Liu, Li Yang, Wei Zhang, Jun J Yang, Yang Shu, Ju Gao, Heng Xu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 8, 2018: Haematologica
D Nashan, S Dengler
The spectrum of dermato-oncological emergencies is multifaceted. They are particularly observed in cases with malignant melanoma due to the large number of patients and prolonged survival rates that are associated with new therapies for advanced disease. Dermato-oncological patients present to the hospital with symptoms like nausea and emesis, unexpected neurological deficits, various gastrointestinal problems, and even acute abdomen, acute breathlessness, or hemoptysis. Furthermore, emergencies can be caused by hematological problems like anemia and leukopenia...
March 7, 2018: Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift Für Dermatologie, Venerologie, und Verwandte Gebiete
Tsutomu Takeuchi, Hisashi Yamanaka, Masayoshi Harigai, Ryo Tamamura, Yuichi Kato, Yoshifumi Ukyo, Toshikazu Nakano, Benjamin Hsu, Yoshiya Tanaka
BACKGROUND: Sirukumab, a high-affinity human monoclonal antibody that selectively binds to interleukin-6, has demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in global phase 1 and phase 2 studies. The present study evaluated the safety and efficacy of sirukumab, as monotherapy in Japanese patients with RA refractory to methotrexate or sulfasalazine. METHODS: In this phase 3, double-blind study, 122 patients (age ≥ 20 years) were randomized (1:1, 61 patients in each arm) to sirukumab administered subcutaneously: 50 mg once every 4 weeks (q4w) or 100 mg once every 2 weeks (q2w) through 52 weeks...
March 7, 2018: Arthritis Research & Therapy
D S Xin, L Zhou, C Z Li, S Q Zhang, H Q Huang, G D Qiu, L F Lin, Y Q She, J T Zheng, C Chen, L Fang, Zhe-Sheng Chen, S Y Zhang
BACKGROUND: Paclitaxel (PTX) has remarkable anti-tumor activity, but it causes severe toxicities. There is an urgent need to seek an appropriate pharmacokinetic parameter of PTX to improve treatment efficacy and reduce adverse effects. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of pharmacokinetic parameter TC>0.05 of paclitaxel (PTX) and its therapeutic efficacy and toxicity in patients with solid tumors. METHOD: A total of 295 patients with ovarian cancer, esophageal cancer, breast cancer, and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), who were admitted to the Tumor Hospital of Shantou University Medical College, China, were recruited for this study...
March 5, 2018: Recent Patents on Anti-cancer Drug Discovery
David A Kahn
In this issue of the journal, 2 case reports are presented that describe rare but serious side effects of commonly used medications. These cases illustrate dilemmas in clinical decision-making. The first describes the induction of seizures by low-dose venlafaxine in a predisposed individual, and the second describes the development of mild but significant leukopenia with sequential trials of olanzapine and risperidone. The association between a drug and a rare but potentially serious side effect in an individual patient can be difficult to determine with precision, and the decision to press ahead and try to work around the reaction, versus stopping the likely offender and finding a substitute, is a matter for seasoned clinical judgment...
March 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Practice
Luke Sy-Cherng Woon, Chun Keat Tee, Lydia Lay Yen Gan, Kanit Tha Deang, Lai Fong Chan
Leukopenia is a known hematological side effect of atypical antipsychotics. We report a case of an antipsychotic-naive patient with schizophrenia who developed leukopenia after a single dose of olanzapine, which worsened during subsequent treatment with risperidone. Normalization of the white blood cell counts occurred within 24 hours of risperidone discontinuation. Possible synergistic mechanisms underlying olanzapine-induced and risperidone-induced leukopenia are discussed. This case highlights the challenges in identifying and managing nonclozapine antipsychotic-induced leukopenia in a susceptible patient...
March 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Practice
T W Zhang, G B Rodrigues, A V Louie, D Palma, A R Dar, B Dingle, W Kocha, M Sanatani, B Yaremko, E Yu, J Younus, M D Vincent
Background: We designed a phase i study of concurrent chemoradiotherapy (ccrt) with docetaxel (D) and cisplatin (C), followed by consolidation dc, for unresectable stage iii non-small cell lung cancer (nsclc). Methods: Patients with histologically proven and unresectable stage iii nsclc were eligible. During ccrt, C was given every 3 weeks (75 mg/m2 ) and D given weekly. The starting dose of D was 20 mg/m2 , escalated in cohorts of 3 to define the maximum tolerated dose (mtd)...
February 2018: Current Oncology
Suguru Yamada, Tsutomu Fujii, Yukihiro Yokoyama, Hiroki Kawashima, Osamu Maeda, Kojiro Suzuki, Tohru Okada, Eizaburo Ono, Junpei Yamaguchi, Nao Takano, Hideki Takami, Masamichi Hayashi, Yukiko Niwa, Yoshiki Hirooka, Yoshiyuki Ito, Shinji Naganawa, Yuichi Ando, Masato Nagino, Hidemi Goto, Yasuhiro Kodera
PURPOSE: For unresectable locally advanced (UR-LA) pancreatic cancer, chemoradiotherapy has been recommended by the NCCN guidelines. We designed a chemoradiotherapy protocol using nab-paclitaxel combined with gemcitabine (GnP) for patients with UR-LA pancreatic cancer. The purpose of this phase I study was to determine a recommended dose (RD) for this novel regimen. METHODS: Patients with UR-LA pancreatic cancer were eligible. The frequency of dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) was evaluated, and the RD was determined...
March 3, 2018: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
Salman Khan, Timothy Sullivan, Mohsin Ali, Dallas Dunn, Gopi Patel, Shirish Huprikar
BACKGROUND: Liver transplant recipients (LTR) who are seropositive for cytomegalovirus (CMV) (R+) are at intermediate-risk for CMV disease. A preventive strategy following transplant is considered standard of care. Current guidelines recommend high-dose valganciclovir (VGCV) (900 mg/day adjusted for renal function) for prophylaxis given limited data on the efficacy and safety of low-dose VGCV (450 mg/day adjusted for renal function). We describe our experience using low-dose VGCV prophylaxis for R+ LTR at our institution...
March 3, 2018: Liver Transplantation
Daniela Matei, Sharad Ghamande, Lynda D Roman, Angeles Alvarez Secord, John Nemunaitis, Merry Jennifer Markham, Kenneth P Nephew, Simone Jueliger, Aram Oganesian, Sue Naim, Xiang-Yao Su, Harold N Keer, Mohammad Azab, Gini Fleming
PURPOSE: Epigenetic changes are implicated in acquired resistance to platinum. Guadecitabine is a next-generation hypomethylating agent (HMA). Here we report the clinical results, along with pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic analyses of the phase 1 study of guadecitabine and carboplatin (G+C) in patients with recurrent, platinum resistant high-grade serous ovarian cancer (OC), primary peritoneal carcinoma (PPC), or fallopian tube cancer (FTC). EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Guadecitabine was administered once daily on Days 1-5 followed by carboplatin IV on Day 8 of a 28-day cycle...
March 2, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Satoshi Ikeda, Terufumi Kato, Takashi Ogura, Akimasa Sekine, Tsuneyuki Oda, Noriyuki Masuda, Satoshi Igawa, Ken Katono, Sakiko Otani, Kouzo Yamada, Haruhiro Saito, Tetsuro Kondo, Yukio Hosomi, Yoshiro Nakahara, Masanori Nishikawa, Keiko Utumi, Yuki Misumi, Takeharu Yamanaka, Kentaro Sakamaki, Hiroaki Okamoto
BACKGROUND: Preclinical studies have demonstrated that docetaxel and bevacizumab may act synergistically by decreasing endothelial cell proliferation and preventing circulating endothelial progenitor mobilization. The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of a combination therapy of bevacizumab, cisplatin, and docetaxel in chemotherapy-naive Japanese patients with advanced non-squamous non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: Eligible patients were chemotherapy-naive and had advanced/recurrent non-squamous NSCLC...
March 2, 2018: BMC Cancer
Hong-Hui Wang, Ying He, Hong-Xian Wang, Cheng-Ling Liao, Yu Peng, Li-Jian Tao, Wei Zhang, Hui-Xiang Yang
AIM: To observe gene polymorphisms of TPMT and NUDT15 , and compare their predictive value for azathioprine (AZA)-induced leukopenia in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). METHODS: This study enrolled 219 patients diagnosed with IBD in Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China from February 2016 to November 2017. Peripheral blood of all patients was collected to detect their genotypes of TPMT and NUDT15 by pyrosequencing at the Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Hunan Key Laboratory of Pharmacogenetics, Xiangya Hospital...
February 28, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
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