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Savant syndrome

Rahul Badheka, Narendra Kumar Barad, Charulata Savant Sankhla
Pediatric movement disorders are commonly encountered clinical entities in the pediatric outpatient department. These disorders are a heterogenous group of disorders and may represent an underlying genetic disorder, a metabolic disorder or a hypoxic-ischemic insult during the perinatal period. Hyperkinetic movement disorders are more common as compared to hypokinetic disorders. This is unlike the situation in adult movement disorders where hypokinetic disorders are more often seen. A child's nervous system is more prone to hypoxic-ischemic insults due to its higher metabolic demands and the presence of an immature blood-brain barrier...
March 2018: Neurology India
Kasper Sipowicz, Tadeusz Pietras
The paper reports on a case of 57-year man with autism spectrum disorder and epilepsy with an unusual feature of calendar calculation. Namely, this is the case of savant syndrome, which appears rarely in the course of various neuropsychiatric disorders. Commorbidity of epilepsy and autism particularly predispose to the aforementioned syndrome. In the presented case, apart from the calendar calculation, the man has high language abilities. As previous studies suggest, the extraordinary abilities among persons with savant syndrome works similarly to the language module in healthy persons...
July 21, 2017: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Piyush Kumar, Sushil S Savant, Esther Nimisha, Anupam Das, Panchami Debbarman
Idiopathic calcinosis cutis refers to progressive deposition of crystals of calcium phosphate in the skin and other areas of the body, in the absence of any inciting factor. Idiopathic calcinosis cutis may sometimes take the form of small, milia-like lesions. Most commonly, such milia like lesions are seen in the setting of Down syndrome. Herein, we report a 5-year-old girl with multiple asymptomatic discrete milia-like firm papules distributed over the face and extremities. A diagnosis of milia-like idiopathic calcinosis cutis associated with Down Syndrome was provisionally made and was confirmed by histopathology and karyotyping...
May 15, 2016: Dermatology Online Journal
Mio Hamatani, Naoto Jingami, Kengo Uemura, Naoe Nakasone, Hisanori Kinoshita, Hodaka Yamakado, Haruaki Ninomiya, Ryosuke Takahashi
A 40-year-old man was referred to our hospital because of vertical supranuclear gaze palsy, frequent sudden loss of muscle tonus and ataxia for several years. He had a history of prolonged neonatal jaundice. He was given a diagnosis of autism in his childhood, followed by a diagnosis of schizophrenia in his teenage. He also developed a savant skill of calendar calculating. (123)I-IMP-SPECT showed decreased cerebral blood flow in the left frontotemporal lobe as often seen in savant syndrome. Although genetic analysis of NPC1 and NPC2 revealed no pathogenic mutation, filipin staining of cultured fibroblasts from his biopsied skin revealed a certain amount of intracellular cholesterol storage pattern, indicating a variant biochemical phenotype of Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC)...
June 22, 2016: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
Matteo De Marco, Alessandro Iavarone, Giovanna Santoro, Sergio Carlomagno
Special ability in computing the day of week for given dates was observed in a 24 year-old male (FB) diagnosed with Asperger syndrome. FB performed almost flawlessly (98.2%) both with past and future dates, over a span of 40 years. Response latency was slower as temporal remoteness of future dates increased. Within the future timespan, FB's performance was consistent with the active use of calendar regularities. On the contrary, within the past timespan (for which no remoteness effect was seen), his performance was mainly linked to memory retrieval of personal events...
March 2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Darold A Treffert, David L Rebedew
A registry has been established to document certain characteristics on a sizeable worldwide sample of individuals with savant syndrome, a rare but remarkable condition in which persons with developmental disabilities, brain injury, or brain disease have some spectacular "islands" of skill or ability that stand in jarring, marked contrast to overall handicap. Of the 319 savants included in the registry, 90% are congenital savants, while 10% are acquired savants. The registry includes individuals from 33 countries, with 70% from the United States or Canada...
August 2015: WMJ: Official Publication of the State Medical Society of Wisconsin
Darold A Treffert
It was 126 years ago that Down first described savant syndrome as a specific condition and 70 years ago that Kanner first described Early Infantile Autism. While as many as one in ten autistic persons have savant abilities, such special skills occur in other CNS conditions as well such that approximately 50 % of cases of savant syndrome have autism as the underlying developmental disability and 50 % are associated with other disabilities. This paper sorts out realities from myths and misconceptions about both savant syndrome and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) that have developed through the years...
March 2014: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Michael T Furlong, Ishani Savant, Moucun Yuan, Laura Scott, William Mylott, Thomas Mariannino, Pathanjali Kadiyala, Vikram Roongta, Mark E Arnold
Clopidogrel is prescribed for the treatment of Acute Coronary Syndrome and recent myocardial infarction, recent stroke, or established peripheral arterial disease. A sensitive and reliable high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) assay was developed and validated to enable reliable quantification of four diastereomeric and chemically reactive thiol metabolites, two of which are pharmacologically active, in human plasma. The metabolites were stabilized by alkylation of their reactive thiol moieties with 2-bromo-3'-methoxyacetophenone (MPB)...
May 1, 2013: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
John R Hughes
The goal of this chapter is to review the Savant syndrome (SS), characterized by outstanding islands of mental ability in otherwise handicapped individuals. Two forms exist: The congenital and acquired form. Among the many examples of the congenital form are the calendar calculators, who can quickly provide the day of the week for any date in the past. Other examples are the musical savants with perfect pitch and the hyperlexics, who (in one case) can read a page in 8 seconds and recall the text later at a 99% level...
2012: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Makoto Yamaguchi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 31, 2011: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
Neva M Corrigan, Todd L Richards, Darold A Treffert, Stephen R Dager
OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study are to investigate the neuroanatomy, regional brain connectivity, and neurochemistry of a prodigious artistic savant; to place these findings within the context of existing neuroimaging literature of savant syndrome; and to discuss the utility of newer imaging modalities to extend our current understanding of mechanisms underlying savant skills. METHODS: High-resolution magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, J-resolved MR spectroscopy, and diffusion tensor imaging data were acquired during a single scanning session for a 63-year-old male autistic savant with prodigious artistic skills...
August 2012: Comprehensive Psychiatry
Hans J Gross
Human inborn numerical competence means our ability to recognize object numbers precisely under circumstances which do not allow sequential counting. This archaic process has been called "subitizing," from the Latin "subito" = suddenly, immediately, indicating that the objects in question are presented to test persons only for a fraction of a second in order to prevent counting. In contrast, however, sequential counting, an outstanding cultural achievement of mankind, means to count "1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8…" without a limit...
September 2011: Communicative & Integrative Biology
Keisuke Takahata, Masaru Mimura
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2010: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
Thorsten Fehr, Gregory L Wallace, Peter Erhard, Manfred Herrmann
Savants and prodigies are individuals with exceptional skills in particular mental domains. In the present study we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine neural correlates of calendar calculation in two individuals, a savant with Asperger's disorder and a self-taught mathematical prodigy. If there is a modular neural organization of exceptional performance in a specific mental domain, calendar calculation should be reflected in a considerable overlap in the recruitment of brain circuits across expert individuals...
August 2011: Neurocase
Massimiliano Conson, Sara Salzano, Dario Grossi
A striking special ability in arranging picture stories was reported in an Asperger child (C.M.) showing an exceptional performance on Wechsler picture arrangement subtest. Neuropsychological examination did not disclose visuoperceptual and spatial defects, or working memory, attention and executive disorders, but revealed an attentional bias towards local details of complex structures. A specific assessment of C.M.'s understanding of picture stories demonstrated that, with respect to normal controls, he showed an enhanced ability to detect causal links among elements of a story...
August 2011: Neurocase
Ali Emre Sevik, Ebru Cengel Kültür, Hilal Demirel, Kader Karlı Oğuz, Onur Akça, Eser Lay Ergün, Başaran Demir
Some patients with pervasive developmental disorders develop unusual talents, which are characterized as savant syndrome. Herein we present neuropsychological examination and brain imaging (fMRI and brain SPECT) findings of an 18-year-old male with Asperger syndrome and highly unusual calendar memory. Neuropsychological evaluation of the case indicated mild attention, memory, and problem solving deficits, and severe executive function deficits that included conceptualization, category formation, and abstraction...
2010: Türk Psikiyatri Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Psychiatry
Leonard F Koziol, Deborah Ely Budding, Dana Chidekel
Current cortico-centric models of cognition lack a cohesive neuroanatomic framework that sufficiently considers overlapping levels of function, from "pathological" through "normal" to "gifted" or exceptional ability. While most cognitive theories presume an evolutionary context, few actively consider the process of adaptation, including concepts of neurodevelopment. Further, the frequent co-occurrence of "gifted" and "pathological" function is difficult to explain from a cortico-centric point of view. This comprehensive review paper proposes a framework that includes the brain's vertical organization and considers "giftedness" from an evolutionary and neurodevelopmental vantage point...
December 2010: Cerebellum
Nicola Neumann, Anna M Dubischar-Krivec, Christoph Braun, Andreas Löw, Fritz Poustka, Sven Bölte, Niels Birbaumer
About 10% of autistic individuals exhibit some form of islets of abilities in the face of serious intellectual or mental disability ("savant syndrome"). The aim of this study was to investigate brain mechanisms in a sample of autistic subjects with outstanding memory. We investigated seven mnemonist savants with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder and seven matched controls with 151-channel whole-head magnetencephalography in a continuous old-new paradigm. They were presented with 300 pseudowords and 300 shapes and had to indicate by button press, whether the presented stimulus had been shown before...
December 20, 2010: Behavioural Brain Research
John R Hughes
The goal of this article is to review Savant Syndrome, characterized by outstanding islands of mental ability in otherwise handicapped individuals. Two forms exist: the congenital form and the acquired form. Among the many examples of the congenital form are the calendar calculators, who can quickly provide the day of the week for any date in the past; the musical savants, who have perfect pitch; and the hyperlexics, who (in one case) can read a page in 8s and recall the text later at a 99% level. Other types of talents and artistic skills involving three-dimensional drawing, map memory, poetry, painting, and sculpturing are also observed...
February 2010: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
John R Hughes
This publication, by reviewing 1300 studies published on autism in 2008, represents an update on this topic. Results include possible parental influences, maternal conditions, and studies on genes and chromosomes. Possible etiological factors involve the "extreme male brain," defects in the mirror neuron system, vaccines, underconnectivity, disorders of central coherence, and many other more specific etiologies. Assessments or tests for autism are also reviewed. Characteristics of autistic individuals include repetitive behavior, language disorders, sleep disturbances, social problems, joint attention disorders, seizures, allergic reactions, and various behavioral changes...
December 2009: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
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