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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142393/investigation-of-antihyperglycaemic-activity-of-banana-musa-sp-var-nanjangud-rasa-bale-flower-in-normal-and-diabetic-rats
#1
Ramith Ramu, Prithvi S Shirahatti, S P Dhanabal, Farhan Zameer, B L Dhananjaya, M N Nagendra Prasad
Background: The vital enzymes of starch digestion and absorption are intestinal α-glucosidases and their inhibition improves postprandial hyperglycaemia, constituting an effective mode of therapy in diabetes. Objectives: The present study was designed to assess the inhibitory potential of ethanol extract of banana flower (EF) on mammalian α-glucosidases and its pharmacological effects on postprandial hyperglycaemia in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: EF was evaluated for its inhibitory potential and mode of inhibition on mammalian α-glucosidases...
October 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053368/phytostabilization-potential-of-ornamental-plants-grown-in-soil-contaminated-with-cadmium
#2
Peng Zeng, Zhaohui Guo, Xia Cao, Xiyuan Xiao, Yanan Liu, Lei Shi
In a greenhouse experiment, five ornamental plants, Osmanthus fragrans (OF), Ligustrum vicaryi L. (LV), Cinnamomum camphora (CC), Loropetalum chinense var. rubrum (LC), and Euonymus japonicas cv. Aureo-mar (EJ), were studied for the ability to phytostabilization for Cd-contaminated soil. The results showed that these five ornamental plants can grow normally when the soil Cd content is less than 24.6 mg·kg(-1). Cd was mainly deposited in the roots of OF, LV, LC and EJ which have grown in Cd-contaminated soils, and the maximum Cd contents reached 15...
October 20, 2017: International Journal of Phytoremediation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052391/-research-on-bacteria-microecology-in-root-rot-rhizosphere-soil-of-coptis-chinensis-produced-in-shizhu-city
#3
Xu-Hong Song, Yu Wang, Long-Yun Li, Jun Tan
Illumina Hiseq 2500 high-throughput sequencing platform was used to study the bacteria richness and diversity, the soil enzyme activities, nutrients in unplanted soil, root-rot and healthy rhizophere soil of Coptis chinensis for deeply discussing the mechanism of the root-rot of C. chinensis. The high-throughput sequencing result showed that the artificial cultivation effected the bacteria community richness and diversity. The bacteria community richness in healthy and diseased rhizosphere soil showed significant lower than that of in unplanted soil (P<0...
April 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027951/effects-of-maternal-low-energy-diet-during-gestation-on-intestinal-morphology-disaccharidase-activity-and-immune-response-to-lipopolysaccharide-challenge-in-pig-offspring
#4
Yuling Chen, Daolin Mou, Liang Hu, Jie Zhen, Lianqiang Che, Zhengfeng Fang, Shengyu Xu, Yan Lin, Bin Feng, Jian Li, De Wu
Maternal nutrition during gestation is involved in the offspring's intestinal development and immunity. The aim of this study was to (1) determine the effects of maternal energy on intestinal digestion and absorption function in offspring, using pigs as a model; and (2) to evaluate the potential effect and mechanisms of maternal energy in modulating immune responses of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenged piglets. After mating, thirty-six nine-parity sows (Landrace × Yorkshire), body weight (BW) (initial body weight 233...
October 13, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994704/characterization-of-mucosal-disaccharidases-from-human-intestine
#5
Mahdi Amiri, Hassan Y Naim
In this study, we used a brush border membrane (BBM) preparation from human small intestine to analyze the proportion and the activity of major intestinal disaccharidases, including sucrase-isomaltase (SI), maltase-glucoamylase (MGAM) and lactase-phlorizin hydrolase (LPH). SI, MGAM and LPH respectively constituted 8.2%, 2.7% and 1.4% of total BBM protein. The activity of SI and LPH decreased threefold after purification from the brush border membrane, which highlights the effect of membrane microdomains on the functional capacity of these enzymes...
October 10, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920455/a-new-4-arylflavan-from-the-pericarps-of-horsfieldia-motleyi-displaying-dual-inhibition-against-%C3%AE-glucosidase-and-free-radicals
#6
Rico Ramadhan, Irawan Wijaya Kusuma, Rudianto Amirta, Wisuttaya Worawalai, Preecha Phuwapraisirisan
In search for effective antidiabetic agents that simultaneously inhibit α-glucosidase and scavenge free radicals, Horsfieldia motleyi showed promising bioactivity according to the proposed criteria. Bioassay-guided isolation of pericarp extract yielded a new 4-arylflavan named myristinin G (6), whose gross structure and absolute configuration were verified by 2D NMR and electronic circular dichorism (ECD). Myristinin G (6) concomitantly inhibited α-glucosidases (IC50 107.0 and 126.9 μM) and free radicals (SC50 54...
September 18, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914528/inhibition-of-human-and-rat-sucrase-and-maltase-activities-to-assess-antiglycemic-potential-optimization-of-the-assay-using-acarbose-and-polyphenols
#7
Alison Pyner, Hilda Nyambe-Silavwe, Gary Williamson
We optimized the assays used to measure inhibition of rat and human α-glucosidases (sucrase and maltase activities), intestinal enzymes which catalyze the final steps of carbohydrate digestion. Cell-free extracts from fully differentiated intestinal Caco-2/TC7 monolayers were shown to be a suitable source of sucrase-isomaltase, with the same sequence as human small intestine, and were compared to a rat intestinal extract. The kinetic conditions of the assay were optimized, including comparison of enzymatic and chromatographic methods to detect the monosaccharide products...
September 26, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875556/melatonin-alleviates-weanling-stress-in-mice-involvement-of-intestinal-microbiota
#8
Wenkai Ren, Peng Wang, Jiameng Yan, Gang Liu, Benhua Zeng, Tarique Hussain, Can Peng, Jie Yin, Bie Tan, Tiejun Li, Hong Wei, Guoqiang Zhu, Russel J Reiter, Yulong Yin
Melatonin influences intestinal microbiota, and the pathogenesis of various diseases. This study was conducted to explore whether melatonin alleviates weanling stress through intestinal microbiota in a weanling mouse model. Melatonin supplementation in weanling mice (provided in the drinking water at a dosage of 0.2mg/ml for 2 weeks) significantly improved body weight gain (1.4±0.03 g/day in melatonin group vs. 1.2±0.06 g/day in control group) and intestinal morphology [i.e., villus length (258.1±12.2 um in melatonin group vs...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868668/green-and-chamomile-teas-but-not-acarbose-attenuate-glucose-and-fructose-transport-via-inhibition-of-glut2-and-glut5
#9
Jose A Villa-Rodriguez, Ebru Aydin, Julia S Gauer, Alison Pyner, Gary Williamson, Asimina Kerimi
SCOPE: High glycaemic sugars result in blood glucose spikes, while high doses of post-prandial fructose inundate the liver, causing an imbalance in energy metabolism, both leading to increased risk of metabolic malfunction and type 2 diabetes. Acarbose, used for diabetes management, reduces post-prandial hyperglycaemia by delaying carbohydrate digestion. METHODS AND RESULTS: Chamomile and green teas both inhibited digestive enzymes (α-amylase and maltase) related to intestinal sugar release, as already established for acarbose...
September 3, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846615/responses-of-biogeochemical-characteristics-and-enzyme-activities-in-sediment-to-climate-warming-under-a-simulation-experiment-in-geographically-isolated-wetlands-of-the-hulunbuir-grassland-china
#10
Liliang Han, Derong Su, Shihai Lv, Yan Luo, Xingfu Li, Jian Jiao, Zhaoyan Diao, He Bu
Climate warming generates a tremendous threat to the stability of geographically-isolated wetland (GIW) ecosystems and changes the type of evaporation and atmospheric precipitation in a region. The intrinsic balance of biogeochemical processes and enzyme activity in GIWs may be altered as well. In this paper, we sampled three types of GIWs exhibiting different kinds of flooding periods. With the participation of real-time temperature regulation measures, we assembled a computer-mediated wetland warming micro-system in June 2016 to simulate climate situation of ambient temperature (control group) and two experimental temperature differences (+2...
August 27, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820081/effects-of-1-5-anhydroglucitol-on-postprandial-blood-glucose-and-insulin-levels-and-hydrogen-excretion-in-rats-and-healthy-humans
#11
Sadako Nakamura, Kenichi Tanabe, Kazuhiro Yoshinaga, Fumio Shimura, Tsuneyuki Oku
The inhibition by 1,5-anhydro-d-glucitol (1,5-AG) was determined on disaccharidases of rats and humans. Then, the metabolism and fate of 1,5-AG was investigated in rats and humans. Although 1,5-AG inhibited about 50 % of sucrase activity in rat small intestine, the inhibition was less than half of d-sorbose. 1,5-AG strongly inhibited trehalase and lactase, whereas d-sorbose inhibited them very weakly. 1,5-AG noncompetitively inhibited sucrase. The inhibition of 1,5-AG on sucrase and maltase was similar between humans and rats...
July 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791039/impact-of-transgenic-brassica-napus-harboring-the-antifungal-synthetic-chitinase-nic-gene-on-rhizosphere-microbial-diversity-and-enzyme-activities
#12
Mohammad S Khan, Syed U Sadat, Asad Jan, Iqbal Munir
Transgenic Brassica napus harboring the synthetic chitinase (NiC) gene exhibits broad-spectrum antifungal resistance. As the rhizosphere microorganisms play an important role in element cycling and nutrient transformation, therefore, biosafety assessment of NiC containing transgenic plants on soil ecosystem is a regulatory requirement. The current study is designed to evaluate the impact of NiC gene on the rhizosphere enzyme activities and microbial community structure. The transgenic lines with the synthetic chitinase gene (NiC) showed resistance to Alternaria brassicicola, a common disease causing fungal pathogen...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736300/towards-an-understanding-of-the-molecular-basis-of-effective-rnai-against-a-global-insect-pest-the-whitefly-bemisia-tabaci
#13
Yuan Luo, Qingguo Chen, Junbo Luan, Seung Ho Chung, Joyce Van Eck, R Turgeon, Angela E Douglas
In planta RNAi against essential insect genes offers a promising route to control insect crop pests, but is constrained for many insect groups, notably phloem sap-feeding hemipterans, by poor RNAi efficacy. This study conducted on the phloem-feeding whitefly Bemisia tabaci reared on tomato plants investigated the causes of low RNAi efficacy and routes to ameliorate the problem. Experiments using tomato transgenic lines containing ds-GFP (green fluorescent protein) revealed that full-length dsRNA is phloem-mobile, ingested by the insects, and degraded in the insect...
September 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727112/effect-of-in-ovo-feeding-of-l-arginine-on-the-hatchability-growth-performance-gastrointestinal-hormones-and-jejunal-digestive-and-absorptive-capacity-of-posthatch-broilers
#14
T Gao, M Zhao, L Zhang, J Li, L Yu, P Lv, F Gao, G Zhou
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of in ovo feeding (IOF) of Arg solution on the hatchability, growth performance, gastrointestinal hormones, serum AA, activities of digestive enzymes, and mRNA expressions of sensing receptors and nutrient transporters in the jejunum of posthatch broilers. One thousand two hundred embryonated eggs with similar weight were randomly allocated to 5 groups consisting of 8 replicates of 40 eggs each. The 5 treatments were arranged as a noninjected control, a diluent-injected (0...
July 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722261/dietary-rice-improves-growth-performance-mucosal-enzyme-activities-and-plasma-urea-nitrogen-in-weaning-piglets
#15
Kazuki Yagami, Ryozo Takada
In this study, we evaluated the nutritional functions of rice for weaning piglets. Sixteen weaning piglets with an average initial weight of 7.2 kg were divided into two groups. One group was fed a corn-soybean meal based diet, and the other was fed a rice-soybean meal based diet, containing 50% corn and rice, respectively. A 2 weeks growth trial was conducted and growth performance, intestinal mucosal enzyme activities and plasma urea nitrogen were measured. The average daily gain in rice-fed piglets was significantly higher than that in corn-fed piglets and the average daily feed intake tended to be higher in rice-fed piglets than in corn-fed piglets...
July 19, 2017: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704953/sugar-metabolism-in-hummingbirds-and-nectar-bats
#16
REVIEW
Raul K Suarez, Kenneth C Welch
Hummingbirds and nectar bats coevolved with the plants they visit to feed on floral nectars rich in sugars. The extremely high metabolic costs imposed by small size and hovering flight in combination with reliance upon sugars as their main source of dietary calories resulted in convergent evolution of a suite of structural and functional traits. These allow high rates of aerobic energy metabolism in the flight muscles, fueled almost entirely by the oxidation of dietary sugars, during flight. High intestinal sucrase activities enable high rates of sucrose hydrolysis...
July 12, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700666/effects-of-kluyveromyces-marxianus-supplementation-on-immune-responses-intestinal-structure-and-microbiota-in-broiler-chickens
#17
Weiwei Wang, Zhui Li, Zengpeng Lv, Beibei Zhang, Hong Lv, Yuming Guo
To investigate the effects of Kluyveromyces marxianus on immune responses, intestinal structure and microbiota in broilers, 840 1-d-old broiler chicks were randomly divided into seven groups (eight replicates) and were fed basal diets without or with 0.25, 0.50, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 g/kg of K. marxianus (2.0×1010 CFU/g). Serum and intestine samples were collected at 21 d of age. The results showed that increasing K. marxianus addition linearly reduced feed conversion ratio but linearly elevated relative thymus weight, as well as quadratically increased serum lysozyme and IgG levels, with the medium dose (1...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618651/modulatory-effects-of-caralluma-fimbriata-extract-against-high-fat-diet-induced-abnormalities-in-carbohydrate-metabolism-in-wistar-rats
#18
Sudhakara Gujjala, Mallaiah Putakala, Srinivasulu Nukala, Manjunatha Bangeppagari, Ramaswamy Rajendran, Saralakumari Desireddy
The present study was aimed to evaluate the modulatory effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Caralluma fimbriata (CFE) by assaying the activities of key enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism and changes in glycogen content (liver and muscle) in high-fat (HF) diet-induced diabetic rats. In vitro glucose uptake studies were carried out in both psoas muscle and adipose tissue. The inhibitory effect of the extract on α-amylase was determined in in vitro studies. Male Wistar rats of body weight around 180g were divided into five groups (n=8), two of these groups were fed with standard pellet diet and the other three groups were fed with HF- (60%) diet...
August 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618277/fate-and-adverse-effects-of-hexabromocyclododecane-diastereoisomers-hbcdds-in-a-soil-ryegrass-pot-system
#19
Hongkai Zhu, Hongwen Sun, Yiming Yao, Fei Wang, Yanwei Zhang, Xiaowei Liu
This study explored the fate and adverse effects of 3 main hexabromocyclododecane diastereoisomers (α-, β-, and γ-HBCDDs) in a soil pot system planted with ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) using a short-term (8 weeks) experiment. At the end of the experiment, soil urease activity in planted spiked soil increased and catalase activity decreased; while there was no obvious change in sucrase and peroxidase activities. HBCDDs mainly accumulated in the root of ryegrass, with root concentration factors (RCF) in the range of 1...
October 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603839/evaluation-of-the-effects-of-sweet-potato-ipomoea-batatas-l-lam-in-broiler-diets
#20
J Pandi, P Glatz, R Forder, B Komolong, K Chousalkar
Cereal grains such as maize and wheat are used extensively in feed formulations for poultry as the primary source of carbohydrates. High cost of these grains in many developing countries necessitates the evaluation of other ingredients that are grown locally. Sweet potato is one such crop. The study was conducted as a proof of concept experiment to test the hypothesis that in the presence and absence of enzyme, sweet potato roots when included in diets of broiler chickens may affect the total metabolisable energy content of the diets which may exert certain influences on dry matter digestibility of these diets as well as impacting on production and certain gut parameters...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
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