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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562339/dietary-chlorogenic-acid-improves-growth-performance-of-weaned-pigs-through-maintaining-antioxidant-capacity-and-intestinal-digestion-and-absorption-function
#1
Jiali Chen, Yan Li, Bing Yu, Daiwen Chen, Xiangbing Mao, Ping Zheng, Junqiu Luo, Jun He
Chlorogenic acid (CGA) is a natural phenolic acid, which is an important component of biologically active dietary phenols isolated from various species. Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of CGA on growth performance, antioxidant capacity, nutrient digestibility, diarrhea incidence, intestinal digestion and absorption function, and the expression levels of intestinal digestion and absorption-related genes in weaned pigs. In Exp. 1, 200 weaned pigs were randomly allotted to four dietary treatments and fed with a basal diet or a basal diet supplemented with 250, 500, or 1,000 mg/kg CGA, respectively, in a 14-d trial...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550680/effect-of-different-dietary-non-starch-fiber-fractions-on-growth-performance-nutrient-digestibility-and-intestinal-development-in-weaned-pigs
#2
Xiying Wu, Daiwen Chen, Bing Yu, Yuheng Luo, Ping Zheng, Xiangbing Mao, Jie Yu, Jun He
OBJECTIVES: This study explored the effects of different fiber fractions on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and intestinal development in a porcine model. METHODS: Blood and tissue samples were collected from thirty-two weaned pigs fed with control diet (CON) or diet containing 5 % cellulose (CEL), xylan (XYL) or β-glucan (GLU). RESULTS: This reserch showed that GLU supplementation decreased the growth performance of pigs (P <0...
February 6, 2018: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543768/calorie-restriction-effect-of-heat-processed-onion-extract-oni-using-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-animal-models
#3
Yu-Ri Kang, Hwang-Yong Choi, Jung-Yun Lee, Soo In Jang, Hanna Kang, Jung-Bae Oh, Hae-Dong Jang, Young-In Kwon
Onion ( Allium cepa L.) is widely consumed as food or medicinal plant due to its well-defined health benefits. The antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic effects of onion and its extracts have been reported well. However, very limited information on anti-hyperglycemic effect is available in processed onion extracts. In our previous study, we reported that Amadori rearrangement compounds (ARCs) produced by heat-processing in Korean ginseng can reduce carbohydrate absorption by inhibiting intestinal carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes in both in vitro and in vivo animal models...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29524000/nutritional-implications-of-olives-and-sugar-attenuation-of-post-prandial-glucose-spikes-in-healthy-volunteers-by-inhibition-of-sucrose-hydrolysis-and-glucose-transport-by-oleuropein
#4
Asimina Kerimi, Hilda Nyambe-Silavwe, Alison Pyner, Ebun Oladele, Julia S Gauer, Yala Stevens, Gary Williamson
PURPOSE: The secoiridoid oleuropein, as found in olives and olive leaves, modulates some biomarkers of diabetes risk in vivo. A possible mechanism may be to attenuate sugar digestion and absorption. METHODS: We explored the potential of oleuropein, prepared from olive leaves in a water soluble form (OLE), to inhibit digestive enzymes (α-amylase, maltase, sucrase), and lower [14 C(U)]-glucose uptake in Xenopus oocytes expressing human GLUT2 and [14 C(U)]-glucose transport across differentiated Caco-2 cell monolayers...
March 9, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29508680/medium-chain-tag-improve-intestinal-integrity-by-suppressing-toll-like-receptor-4-nucleotide-binding-oligomerisation-domain-proteins-and-necroptosis-signalling-in-weanling-piglets-challenged-with-lipopolysaccharide
#5
Xiao Xu, Shaokui Chen, Haibo Wang, Zhixiao Tu, Shuhui Wang, Xiuying Wang, Huiling Zhu, Chunwei Wang, Jiadong Zhu, Yulan Liu
This study was conducted to evaluate whether medium-chain TAG (MCT) could alleviate Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced intestinal injury by regulating intestinal epithelial inflammatory response, as well as necroptosis. A total of twenty-four weanling piglets were randomly allotted to one of four treatments in a 2×2 factorial arrangement including diet type (5 % maize oil v. 4 % MCT+1 % maize oil) and immune stress (saline v. E. coli LPS). The piglets were fed diets containing maize oil or MCT for 21 d...
March 6, 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29495635/the-postprandial-anti-hyperglycemic-effect-of-pyridoxine-and-its-derivatives-using-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-animal-models
#6
Hyuk Hwa Kim, Yu-Ri Kang, Jung-Yun Lee, Hung-Bae Chang, Ki Won Lee, Emmanouil Apostolidis, Young-In Kwon
In the current study, we investigated the inhibitory activity of pyridoxine, pyridoxal, and pyridoxamine, against various digestive enzymes such as α-glucosidases, sucrase, maltase, and glucoamylase. Inhibition of these enzymes involved in the absorption of disaccharide can improve post-prandial hyperglycemia due to a carbohydrate-based diet. Pyridoxal (4.14 mg/mL of IC50 ) had the highest rat intestinal α-glucosidase inhibitory activity, followed by pyridoxamine and pyridoxine (4.85 and 5.02 mg/mL of IC50 , respectively)...
February 28, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29491758/variable-use-of-disaccharidase-assays-when-evaluating-abdominal-pain
#7
Stanley A Cohen, Hannah Oloyede
Background and Aims: Patients with a disaccharidase deficiency typically present with abdominal discomfort and often with diarrhea. However, disaccharidase deficiency is often overlooked as a cause of these complaints. Therefore, we sought to determine the prevalence of lactase and sucrase deficiencies in a pediatric population undergoing diagnostic esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) and to describe disaccharidase testing practices among pediatric gastroenterologists. Methods: Endoscopic records from patients undergoing diagnostic EGD and disaccharidase analysis (DA) were retrospectively reviewed...
January 2018: Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465310/dietary-starch-breakdown-product-sensing-mobilizes-and-apically-activates-%C3%AE-glucosidases-in-small-intestinal-enterocytes
#8
Mohammad Chegeni, Mahdi Amiri, Buford L Nichols, Hassan Y Naim, Bruce R Hamaker
Dietary starch is finally converted to glucose for absorption by the small intestine mucosal α-glucosidases (sucrase-isomaltase [SI] and maltase-glucoamylase), and control of this process has health implications. Here, the molecular mechanisms were analyzed associated with starch-triggered maturation and transport of SI. Biosynthetic pulse-chase in Caco-2 cells revealed that the high MW SI species (265 kDa) induced by maltose (an α-amylase starch digestion product) had a higher rate of early trafficking and maturation compared with a glucose-induced SI (245 kDa)...
February 20, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453261/molecular-and-functional-study-of-a-branching-sucrase-like-glucansucrase-reveals-an-evolutionary-intermediate-between-two-subfamilies-of-the-gh70-enzymes
#9
Minghui Yan, Bing-Hua Wang, Xiaofen Xu, Peng Chang, Feng Hang, Zhengjun Wu, Chunping You, Zhenmin Liu
Family GH70 glucansucrases (GSs) catalyze the synthesis of α-glucans from sucrose, a reaction widely seen in lactic acid bacteria (LAB). These enzymes have been implicated in many aspects of the microbial life. Products of GSs have great commercial value as food supplements and medical materials, therefore these enzymes have attracted much attention from both fields of science and industry. However, certain issues concerning the origin and evolution of GS are still to be addressed, although an increasing number of GH70 enzymes have been characterized...
February 16, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414174/valorisation-of-food-and-beverage-waste-via-saccharification-for-sugars-recovery
#10
Tsz Him Kwan, Khai Lun Ong, Md Ariful Haque, Wing Hei Kwan, Sandeep Kulkarni, Carol Sze Ki Lin
Valorisation of mixed food and beverage (F&B) waste was studied for the recovery of sugars via saccharification. Glucoamylase and sucrase were employed to hydrolyse the starch and sucrose present in the mixed F&B waste because of the high cost-effectiveness for such recovery. The Michaelis-Menten kinetics model suggests that preservatives and additives in beverages did not inhibit glucoamylase and sucrase during saccharification. High levels of glucose (228.1 g L-1) and fructose (55.7 g L-1) were efficiently produced within 12 h at a solid-to-liquid ratio of 37...
January 31, 2018: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408290/increased-prevalence-of-rare-sucrase-isomaltase-si-pathogenic-variants-in-irritable-bowel-syndrome-patients
#11
Koldo Garcia-Etxebarria, Tenghao Zheng, Ferdinando Bonfiglio, Luis Bujanda, Aldona Dlugosz, Greger Lindberg, Peter T Schmidt, Pontus Karling, Bodil Ohlsson, Magnus Simren, Susanna Walter, Gerardo Nardone, Rosario Cuomo, Paolo Usai-Satta, Francesca Galeazzi, Matteo Neri, Piero Portincasa, Massimo Bellini, Giovanni Barbara, Daisy Jonkers, Shanti Eswaran, William D Chey, Purna Kashyap, Lin Chang, Emeran A Mayer, Mira M Wouters, Guy Boeckxstaens, Michael Camilleri, Andre Franke, Mauro D'Amato
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2, 2018: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408078/enzyme-activity-and-microbial-biomass-availability-in-artificial-soils-on-rock-cut-slopes-restored-with-outside-soil-spray-seeding-osss-influence-of-topography-and-season
#12
Wenjuan Zhang, Li Ruirui, Xiaoyan Ai, Jiao Chen, Wennian Xu, Wei Li, Yingwei Ai
Large-scale railway construction has resulted in large areas of bare-cut-slope, and outside soil spray seeding (OSSS), a frequently used technique, has been adopted for slope restoration for many years. However, compared with natural slope soils, the quality of artificial soils on rock-cut slopes is low. Enzyme activity and microbial biomass are the main indices used for estimating soil quality; thus, our objective was to explore the influence of slope position, slope aspect, and season on two important factors that positively influence the plant growth capability in artificial soil...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373684/the-effects-of-dietary-sulfur-amino-acids-on-growth-performance-intestinal-morphology-enzyme-activity-and-nutrient-transporters-in-weaning-piglets
#13
E Y Zong, P F Huang, H S Yang, W Zhang, J Z Li, Y L Li, X Q Ding, X Xiong, Y L Yin
Early weaning results in intestinal dysfunction in piglets while sulfur amino acids (SAA) are involved in improving intestinal functions. We tested a hypothesis that dietary supplementation with SAA can improve intestinal functions of weaning piglets and analyzed the effects of different dietary SAA levels on intestinal functions. A total of 80 piglets (Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire) were weaned at 21 d of age and randomly assigned to one of five diets that contained 0.53, 0.63, 0.74, 0.85, or 0.96% SAA, which corresponded to 70, 85, 100, 115 or, 130% of the SAA:Lys ratio recommended by the NRC (2012)...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29370981/enhanced-production-of-extracellular-inulinase-by-the-yeast-kluyveromyces-marxianus-in-xylose-catabolic-state
#14
Hisashi Hoshida, Kenta Kidera, Ryuta Takishita, Nobuhisa Fujioka, Taiki Fukagawa, Rinji Akada
The production of extracellular proteins by the thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus, which utilizes various sugars, was investigated using media containing sugars such as glucose, galactose, and xylose. SDS-PAGE analysis of culture supernatants revealed abundant production of an extracellular protein when cells were grown in xylose medium. The N-terminal sequence of the extracellular protein was identical to a part of the inulinase encoded by INU1 in the genome. Inulinase is an enzyme hydrolyzing β-2,1-fructosyl bond in inulin and sucrose and is not required for xylose assimilation...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29367163/recent-insights-in-microbial-exopolysaccharide-biosynthesis-and-engineering-strategies
#15
REVIEW
Jochen Schmid
The distinct biosynthesis pathways for microbial exopolysaccharide production provide different engineering strategies to tailor the chemical structures of the final polymers. This review focuses on the latest insights in the various pathways and identifies bottlenecks as well as promising targets for tailoring microbial polysaccharide production. The main engineering strategies includes the combinatorial assembly of glycosyltransferases and engineering of the Wzx and Wzy proteins for flipping of repeating units as well as polymerization...
January 17, 2018: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331942/sucrase-isomaltase-15phe-ibs-risk-variant-in-relation-to-dietary-carbohydrates-and-faecal-microbiota-composition
#16
Louise Thingholm, Malte Rühlemann, Jun Wang, Matthias Hübenthal, Wolfgang Lieb, Matthias Laudes, Andre Franke, Mauro D'Amato
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 13, 2018: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324356/inflammation-induced-er-stress-affects-absorptive-intestinal-epithelial-cells-function-and-integrity
#17
Sucheera Chotikatum, Hassan Y Naim, Nahed El-Najjar
Recent studies have linked impairment of intestinal epithelial function in inflammatory bowel disease to the disturbance of endoplasmic reticulum homeostasis (ER) in response to stress. Most studies are on goblet and Paneth cells, which are considered more susceptible to stress due to their role in the protection of intestinal epithelium against microbes and harmful substances. However, studies on the role of inflammation-induced ER stress in absorptive intestinal cells are scarce. In this study, we show, using Caco-2 cells as a model of intestinal epithelial barrier, that inducing ER stress using a cocktail mixture of pro-inflammatory mediators [TNFα (50ng/ml), MCP1 (50ng/ml), and IL-1β (25ng/ml)] as observed in IBD patients induces ER stress and leads to significant changes in key proteins of the apical (sucrase-isomaltase (SI), dipeptidyl-peptidase (DPPIV), and ezrin) and basolateral (E-cadherin, zonula occludens (ZO-1), and connexin-43) membranes...
February 2018: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311037/relationships-among-dietary-intakes-and-persistent-gastrointestinal-symptoms-in-patients-receiving-enzyme-treatment-for-genetic-sucrase-isomaltase-deficiency
#18
Anne Boney, Heather E Elser, Heidi J Silver
BACKGROUND: Sucrose-isomaltase deficiency (SID) remains underdiagnosed. Absent or reduced enzyme activity promotes diarrhea, abdominal bloating, and flatulence from undigested and malabsorbed disaccharides. Frequency and severity of gastrointestinal symptoms may be associated with the type of carbohydrates consumed. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the dietary intakes of patients treated with sacrosidase (Sucraid; QOL Medical) for SID and determine relationships between type of carbohydrates, sacrosidase dose, and gastrointestinal symptoms...
March 2018: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198708/knockdown-of-laminin-%C3%AE-5-stimulates-intestinal-cell-differentiation
#19
Manon Lepage, Amira Seltana, Marie-Pier Thibault, Éric Tremblay, Jean-François Beaulieu
Interactions between cells and the extracellular matrix regulate a wide range of cell processes such as proliferation and differentiation. Laminins are major components of the basement membrane that actively participate in most biological functions via their interactions with a variety of specific cell receptors. The α5-containing laminins (LAMA5) are one of the three main types of laminins identified at the epithelial basal lamina in the adult intestine. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of α5-containing laminins on intestinal cell proliferation and differentiation...
January 1, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180238/glucose-homeostasis-in-the-euryhaline-crab-cytograpsus-angulatus-effects-of-the-salinity-in-the-amylase-maltase-and-sucrase-activities-in-the-hepatopancreas-and-in-the-carbohydrate-reserves-in-different-tissues
#20
Antonela Asaro, Roberto Alejandro Paggi, Juana Cristina Del Valle, Alejandra Antonia López Mañanes
We studied the existence, biochemical characteristics and response to different environmental salinities of amylase, maltase and sucrase activity in the intertidal euryhaline crab Cyrtograpsus angulatus (Dana, 1852) along with the response to distinct salinities of glycogen and free glucose content in storage organs. Amylase, maltase and sucrase activities were kept over a broad range of pH and temperature and exhibited Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Zymography showed the existence of two amylase forms in crabs exposed to 35 (osmoconformation) and low (6-10psu; hyper-regulation) or high (40psu) (hypo-regulation) salinities...
February 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
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