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Yair Field, Evan A Boyle, Natalie Telis, Ziyue Gao, Kyle J Gaulton, David Golan, Loic Yengo, Ghislain Rocheleau, Philippe Froguel, Mark I McCarthy, Jonathan K Pritchard
Detection of recent natural selection is a challenging problem in population genetics. Here we introduce the Singleton Density Score (SDS), a method to infer very recent changes in allele frequencies from contemporary genome sequences. Applied to data from the UK10K Project, SDS reflects allele frequency changes in the ancestors of modern Britons during the past ~2,000-3,000 years. We see strong signals of selection at lactase and the MHC, and in favor of blond hair and blue eyes. For polygenic adaptation we find that recent selection for increased height has driven allele frequency shifts across most of the genome...
October 13, 2016: Science
H Diao, H L Yan, Y Xiao, B Yu, J Yu, J He, P Zheng, B H Zeng, H Wei, X B Mao, D W Chen
BACKGROUND: The present study was conducted to compare the differences in gut microbiota composition and gut-phenotypes among pig breeds, and determine whether these differences would transmit to mice colonized with fecal microbiota of different pig breeds. A total of 24 1-day-old germ-free BALB/C mice were divided into 3 groups (TFM, YFM and RFM), which were transplanted with intact fecal microbiota of Tibetan pig (TP), Yorkshire pig (YP) and Rongchang pig (RP), respectively. RESULTS: Results showed that different pig breeds exhibited distinct gut microbiota profile based on high-throughput pyrosequencing...
October 11, 2016: BMC Microbiology
Samaneh Kazemi, Gholam Khayati, Mohammad Faezi-Ghasemi
BACKGROUND: Enzymatic hydrolysis of lactose is one of the most important biotechnological processes in the food industry, which is accomplished by enzyme β-galactosidase (β-gal, β-D-galactoside galactohydrolase, EC, trivial called lactase. Orthogonal arrays design is an appropriate option for the optimization of biotechnological processes for the production of microbial enzymes. METHODS: Design of experimental (DOE) methodology using Taguchi orthogonal array (OA) was employed to screen the most significant levels of parameters, including the solid substrates (wheat straw, rice straw, and peanut pod), the carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratios, the incubation time, and the inducer...
May 25, 2016: Iranian Biomedical Journal
Anke Liebert, Bryony L Jones, Erik Thomas Danielsen, Anders Krüger Olsen, Dallas M Swallow, Jesper T Troelsen
The genetic trait that allows intestinal lactase to persist into adulthood in some 35% of humans worldwide operates at the level of transcription, the effect being caused by cis-acting nucleotide changes upstream of the lactase gene (LCT). A single nucleotide substitution, -13910 C>T, the first causal variant to be identified, accounts for lactase persistence over most of Europe. Located in a region shown to have enhancer function in vitro, it causes increased activity of the LCT promoter in Caco-2 cells, and altered transcription factor binding...
October 7, 2016: Annals of Human Genetics
Carlos Fernando de Magalhães Francesconi, Marta Brenner Machado, Flavio Steinwurz, Rodrigo Bremer Nones, Flávio Antonio Quilici, Wilson Roberto Catapani, Sender Jankiel Miszputen, Mauro Bafutto
Background: Primary hypolactasia is a common condition where a reduced lactase activity in the intestinal mucosa is present. The presence of abdominal symptoms due to poor absorption of lactose, which are present in some cases, is a characteristic of lactose intolerance. Objective: Evaluate the efficacy of a product containing exogenous lactase in tablet form compared to a reference product with proven effectiveness in patients with lactose intolerance. Methods: Multicentre, randomized, parallel group, single-blind, comparative non-inferiority study...
October 2016: Arquivos de Gastroenterologia
Teresa Esposito, Jean Marc Lobaccaro, Maria Grazia Esposito, Vincenzo Monda, Antonietta Messina, Giuseppe Paolisso, Bruno Varriale, Marcellino Monda, Giovanni Messina
The thyroid is one of the metabolism regulating glands. Its function is to determine the amount of calories that the body has to burn to maintain normal weight. Thyroiditides are inflammatory processes that mainly result in autoimmune diseases. We have conducted the present study in order to have a clear picture of both autoimmune status and the control of body weight. We have evaluated the amount of either thyroid hormones, or antithyroid, or anti-microsomal, or anti-peroxidase antibodies (Abs) in patients with high amounts of Abs...
2016: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
Guanlin Wang, John R Speakman
The "thrifty gene hypothesis" suggests genetic susceptibility to obesity arises because of positive selection for alleles that favored fat deposition and survival during famines. We used public domain data to locate signatures of positive selection based on derived allele frequency, genetic diversity, long haplotypes, and differences between populations at SNPs identified in genome-wide association studies (GWASs) for BMI. We used SNPs near the lactase (LCT), SLC24A5, and SLC45A2 genes as positive controls and 120 randomly selected SNPs as negative controls...
October 11, 2016: Cell Metabolism
Daniel Ferraz de Campos Mazo, Rejane Mattar, José Tadeu Stefano, Joyce Matie Kinoshita da Silva-Etto, Márcio Augusto Diniz, Sebastião Mauro Bezerra Duarte, Fabíola Rabelo, Rodrigo Vieira Costa Lima, Priscila Brizolla de Campos, Flair José Carrilho, Claudia P Oliveira
AIM: To assess lactase gene (LCT)-13910C>T polymorphisms in Brazilian non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) patients in comparison with healthy controls. METHODS: This was a transverse observational clinical study with NAFLD patients who were followed at the Hepatology Outpatient Unit of the Hospital das Clínicas, São Paulo, Brazil. The polymorphism of lactase non-persistence/lactase persistence (LCT-13910C>T) was examined by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism technique in 102 liver biopsy-proven NAFLD patients (steatosis in 9 and NASH in 93) and compared to those of 501 unrelated healthy volunteers...
August 28, 2016: World Journal of Hepatology
Caren E Smith, Oscar Coltell, Jose V Sorlí, Ramón Estruch, Miguel Ángel Martínez-González, Jordi Salas-Salvadó, Montserrat Fitó, Fernando Arós, Hassan S Dashti, Chao Q Lai, Leticia Miró, Lluís Serra-Majem, Enrique Gómez-Gracia, Miquel Fiol, Emilio Ros, Stella Aslibekyan, Bertha Hidalgo, Marian L Neuhouser, Chongzhi Di, Katherine L Tucker, Donna K Arnett, José M Ordovás, Dolores Corella
Controversy persists on the association between dairy products, especially milk, and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Genetic proxies may improve dairy intake estimations, and clarify diet-disease relationships through Mendelian randomization. We meta-analytically (n ≤ 20,089) evaluated associations between a lactase persistence (LP) SNP, the minichromosome maintenance complex component 6 (MCM6)-rs3754686C>T (nonpersistence>persistence), dairy intake, and CVD biomarkers in American (Hispanics, African-American and Whites) and Mediterranean populations...
2016: Scientific Reports
Carlos Moctezuma-Velázquez, Jonathan Aguirre-Valadez
Diet is considered an important triggering factor for gastrointestinal symptoms whose physiopathology includes not only measurable, inflammatory reactions, but also functional disorders, where no organic effects may be measured or demonstrated. Moreover, the prevalence of the perceived intolerance to certain foods ranges from 20-25% (within the general population) to 50-70% in diseases like irritable bowel syndrome. This intolerance has been observed particularly after the consumption of milk and dairy products, which are frequently considered as causative of gastrointestinal symptoms, thus limiting their ingestion...
September 2016: Gaceta Médica de México
Jorge L Rosado
The most common problem limiting milk consumption worldwide is lactose intolerance (LI), which is defined as the experience of gastrointestinal symptoms due to the intake of lactose-containing food. When symptoms ensue the intake of milk, the condition is referred as milk intolerance, and it may or may not be due to LI. The most common cause of LI is primary lactase deficiency which occurs in 30% of Mexican adults when one glass of milk is consumed (12-18 g of lactose). LI occurs in less than 15% of adults after the intake of this dose of lactose...
September 2016: Gaceta Médica de México
Dietmar Enko, Gernot Kriegshäuser, Gabriele Halwachs-Baumann, Harald Mangge, Wolfgang J Schnedl
OBJECTIVES: Recently, an intermediate lactose intolerance (LI) phenotype based on the lactase gene (LCT) C/T-13910 polymorphism was proposed. However, a multifactorial genesis of LI phenotypic variation including endogenous and exogenous factors cannot be ruled out. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate a possible association between serum diamine oxidase (DAO) and LI phenotypes in individuals with lactose malabsorption (LM). DESIGN AND METHODS: A total of 121 ambulatory patients with LM were included in this retrospective study...
September 2, 2016: Clinical Biochemistry
L Manco, H Dias, M Muc, C Padez
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Several studies reported associations of the lactase gene (LCT) polymorphism -13910C>T (rs4988235) with obesity-related variables and obesity in adults. This study aimed to replicate previously reported associations in a population sample of Portuguese young adults. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We genotyped 447 subjects from central and northern regions of Portugal (mean age 20.81±4.24 years) for the lactase variant -13910C>T (rs4988235), using TaqMan probes...
August 31, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Judit Domokos, Katalin Kristóf, Dóra Szabó
The purpose of this study was to determine prevalence and molecular characterization of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes [qnrA, qnrB, qnrC, qnrD, qnrS, aac(6')-Ib-cr, qepA, and oqxAB] among extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. isolates from bloodcultures in Hungary. A total of 103 isolates were tested for quinolone susceptibility by microdilution method and PMQR genes were detected by polymerase chain reaction. About 40 ESBL-producing E. coli (39%) and 50 ESBL-producing Klebsiella spp...
August 19, 2016: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Riad Bayoumi, Sara De Fanti, Marco Sazzini, Cristina Giuliani, Andrea Quagliariello, Eugenio Bortolini, Alessio Boattini, Molham Al-Habori, Adel Sharaf Al-Zubairi, Jeffrey I Rose, Giovanni Romeo, Abdulrahim Al-Abri, Donata Luiselli
OBJECTIVE: Frequency patterns of the lactase persistence (LP)-associated -13,915 G allele and archaeological records pointing to substantial role played by southern regions in the peopling and domestication processes that involved the Arabian Peninsula suggest that Southern Arabia plausibly represented the center of diffusion of such adaptive variant. Nevertheless, a well-defined scenario for evolution of Arabian LP is still to be elucidated and the burgeoning archaeological picture of complex human migrations occurred through the peninsula is not matched by an equivalent high-resolution description of genetic variation underlying this adaptive trait...
August 18, 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Rhea Faye D Felicilda-Reynaldo, Maria Kenneally
Maldigestion occurs when digestive enzymes are lacking to help break complex food components into absorbable nutrients within the gastrointestinal tract. Education is needed to help patients manage the intricacies of digestive enzyme replacement therapies and ensure their effectiveness in reducing symptoms of maldigestion.
May 2016: Medsurg Nursing: Official Journal of the Academy of Medical-Surgical Nurses
Andrew Szilagyi, Polymnia Galiatsatos, Xiaoqing Xue
BACKGROUND: Relationships between inflammatory bowel disease and lactose containing foods remain controversial and poorly defined regarding symptoms, nutritional outcomes, and epidemiologic associations for lactose maldigestion. METHODS: A literature review was performed using Pub Med, Cochrane library and individual references, to extract data on lactose maldigestion prevalence in inflammatory bowel diseases. A meta-analysis was done using selected articles, to determine odds ratios of maldigestion...
2016: Nutrition Journal
Constance B Hilliard
This ecological correlation study explores the marked differential in osteoporosis susceptibility between East and West Africans. African tsetse belt populations are lactase non-persistent (lactose intolerant) and possess none of the genetic polymorphisms carried by lactase persistent (lactose tolerant) ethnic populations. What appears paradoxical, however, is the fact that Niger-Kordofanian (NK) West African ethnicities are also at minimal risk of osteoporosis. Although East Africans share a genetic affinity with NK West Africans, they display susceptibility rates of the bone disorder closer to those found in Europe...
2016: BoneKEy Reports
Joana C Pinto, Sandra Oliveira, Sérgio Teixeira, Dayana Martins, Anne-Maria Fehn, Teresa Aço, Magdalena Gayà-Vidal, Jorge Rocha
OBJECTIVES: We investigated the frequency distribution and haplotype diversity of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) resistance and lactase persistence (LP) variants in populations from the Angolan Namib to trace the spread of these genetic adaptations into southwestern Africa. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We resequenced two fragments of the LCT enhancer and the APOL1 gene and genotyped flanking short tandem repeat loci in six groups with different subsistence traditions living in the Angolan Namib, and in a comparative dataset including other populations from Africa and Europe...
July 12, 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Claudia Ojeda-Granados, Arturo Panduro, João Renato Rebello Pinho, Omar Ramos-Lopez, Ketti Gleyzer, Fernanda de Mello Malta, Karina Gonzalez-Aldaco, Sonia Roman
BACKGROUND/AIM: Lactase (LCT) -13910 C>T and -22018 G>A polymorphisms associated with the lactase non-persistence (LNP)/persistence (LP) phenotypes vary globally. LP has been associated with obesity in Europeans. However, it has not been genetically evaluated in Mexico, a country with admixed population, recent introduction of dairy, and a high prevalence of obesity. Thus, we aimed to determine the distribution of the LCT polymorphisms and their association with the nutritional profile of West Mexico's populations...
July 2, 2016: Journal of Nutrigenetics and Nutrigenomics
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