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Helle Km Bergholdt, Morten K Larsen, Anette Varbo, Børge G Nordestgaard, Christina Ellervik
BACKGROUND: Whether a causal relationship exists between milk intake and reduced risk of fractures is unclear. OBJECTIVES: We tested the hypothesis that genetically determined milk intake reduces the risk of fractures and increases bone mineral density(BMD). METHODS: We investigated the association between milk intake, LCT-13910 C/T (rs4988235) which is associated with lactase persistence (TT/TC) in Northern Europeans, and hip fractures in three Danish prospective studies(N=97,811,age ≥20 years)...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
W Philip T James
BACKGROUND: This analysis sets out an overview of an IUNS presentation of a European clinician's assessment of the challenges of coping with immediate critical clinical problems and how to use metabolic and a mechanistic understanding of disease when developing nutritional policies. SUMMARY: Critically ill malnourished children prove very sensitive to both mineral and general nutritional overload, but after careful metabolic control they can cope with a high-quality, energy-rich diet provided their initial lactase deficiency and intestinal atrophy are taken into account...
March 8, 2018: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
Huiling Zhu, Haibo Wang, Shuhui Wang, Zhixiao Tu, Lin Zhang, Xiuying Wang, Yongqing Hou, Chunwei Wang, Jie Chen, Yulan Liu
SCOPE: Flaxseed oil is a rich source of α-linolenic acid (ALA), which is the precursor of the long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) including docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). This study investigated the protective effect of flaxseed oil against intestinal injury induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). MATERIALS AND RESULTS: Twenty-four weaned pigs were used in a 2 × 2 factorial experiment with dietary treatment (5% corn oil vs...
March 6, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Yoshinori Munemoto, Mitsuro Kanda, Koji Oba, Ho Min Kim, Hiroyoshi Takemoto, Tadamichi Denda, Naoki Nagata, Nao Takano, Mutsumi Fukunaga, Masato Kataoka, Yukihiko Tokunaga, Junichi Sakamoto, Hideyuki Mishima
PURPOSE: Fluorouracil monotherapy, instead of the FOLFOX or FOLFIRI regimen, is administered to patients intolerant to oxaliplatin or irinotecan because of their adverse effects. A prospective clinical trial was designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of fluorouracil monotherapy combined with panitumumab administered to patients with KRAS wild-type (WT) metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) intolerant to oxaliplatin and irinotecan. Screening for potential serum biomarkers to predict early therapeutic responses was conducted...
March 5, 2018: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
Stanley A Cohen, Hannah Oloyede
Background and Aims: Patients with a disaccharidase deficiency typically present with abdominal discomfort and often with diarrhea. However, disaccharidase deficiency is often overlooked as a cause of these complaints. Therefore, we sought to determine the prevalence of lactase and sucrase deficiencies in a pediatric population undergoing diagnostic esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) and to describe disaccharidase testing practices among pediatric gastroenterologists. Methods: Endoscopic records from patients undergoing diagnostic EGD and disaccharidase analysis (DA) were retrospectively reviewed...
January 2018: Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Ichiro Takajo, Kunihiko Umekita, Yoshihiko Ikei, Koichi Oshima, Akihiko Okayama
The patient was a 74-year-old Japanese woman with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who developed generalized lymphadenopathy with elevated levels of lactase dehydrogenase (LD), and soluble IL-2 receptor (sIL-2R). She was found to be positive for anti-human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) antibodies. Her symptoms and laboratory abnormalities spontaneously regressed after the cessation of methotrexate (MTX), suggesting that she had an MTX-associated lymphoproliferative disorder; however, her lymphadenopathy appeared again approximately 14 months later with LD and sIL-2R elevation...
February 28, 2018: Internal Medicine
Jing Sun, Yanqi Li, Duc Ninh Nguyen, Martin S Mortensen, Chris H P van den Akker, Tom Skeath, Susanne E Pors, Stanislava Pankratova, Silvia Rudloff, Søren J Sørensen, Douglas G Burrin, Thomas Thymann, Per T Sangild
Background: Nutrient fortification of human milk is often required to secure adequate growth and organ development for very preterm infants. There is concern that formula-based fortifiers (FFs) induce intestinal dysfunction, feeding intolerance, and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Bovine colostrum (BC) may be an alternative nutrient fortifier, considering its high content of protein and milk bioactive factors. Objective: We investigated whether BC was superior to an FF product based on processed bovine milk and vegetable oil to fortify donor human milk (DHM) for preterm pigs, used as a model for infants...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Sophia J Oak, Rajesh Jha
Over 60 percent of the human population has a reduced ability to digest lactose due to low levels of lactase enzyme activity. Probiotics are live bacteria or yeast that supplements the gastrointestinal flora. Studies have shown that probiotics exhibit various health beneficial properties such as improvement of intestinal health, enhancement of the immune responses, and reduction of serum cholesterol. Accumulating evidence has shown that probiotic bacteria in fermented and unfermented milk products can be used to alleviate the clinical symptoms of lactose intolerance (LI)...
February 9, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Shan Liu, Yang Yang, Yan Qiu Song, Jie Geng, Qing Liang Chen
To explore the protective effect of N(2)-L-alanyl-L-glutamine (NLAG) on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI), and observe the influence of NLAG on the Janus activated kinase signal transducer 2 and activator of transcription 3 (JAK2/STAT3) signaling pathway‑associated molecules. Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: Sham, IRI and NLAG. In the IRI rat model, the cardiac hemodynamics, the maximum rate of left ventricular pressure (+dP/dtmax) and the left ventricular end‑diastolic pressure (LVDP) were recorded...
February 2, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
André Castagna Wortmann, Daniel Simon, Luiz Edmundo Mazzoleni, Guilherme Becker Sander, Carlos Fernando de Magalhães Francesconi, Débora Dreher Nabinger, Camila Schultz Grott, Tássia Flores Rech, Felipe Mazzoleni, Vagner Ricardo Lunge, Laura Renata de Bona, Tobias Cancian Milbradt, Themis Reverbel da Silveira
Functional dyspepsia and lactose intolerance (adult-type hypolactasia, ATH) are common conditions that may coexist or even be confounded. Their clinical presentation can be similar, however, lactose intolerance does not form part of the diagnostic investigation of functional dyspepsia. Studies on the association between functional dyspepsia and ATH are scarce. This study aimed to evaluate whether ATH is associated with symptoms of functional dyspepsia. Patients fulfilling the Rome III diagnostic criteria for functional dyspepsia underwent genetic testing for ATH...
January 22, 2018: Genetics and Molecular Biology
Katarzyna Pawłowska, Rafał Seredyński, Wioleta Umławska, Barbara Iwańczak
Introduction: Lactose malabsorption arises from lactase deficiency and may lead to lactose intolerance - gastrointestinal symptoms after lactose ingestion. Occurrence and severity of the symptoms are influenced by many factors, including the dose of lactose and the intensity of its colonic fermentation to short chain fatty acids and gases. Material and methods: The hydrogen breath test (HBT) after 30 g or 50 g of lactose was performed in 387 children. Further analysis included children who had a positive HBT result...
January 2018: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
E Y Zong, P F Huang, H S Yang, W Zhang, J Z Li, Y L Li, X Q Ding, X Xiong, Y L Yin
Early weaning results in intestinal dysfunction in piglets while sulfur amino acids (SAA) are involved in improving intestinal functions. We tested a hypothesis that dietary supplementation with SAA can improve intestinal functions of weaning piglets and analyzed the effects of different dietary SAA levels on intestinal functions. A total of 80 piglets (Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire) were weaned at 21 d of age and randomly assigned to one of five diets that contained 0.53, 0.63, 0.74, 0.85, or 0.96% SAA, which corresponded to 70, 85, 100, 115 or, 130% of the SAA:Lys ratio recommended by the NRC (2012)...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Yougen Wu, Yinghua Li, Yunqing Cui, Yunjiao Zhou, Qingqing Qian, Yang Hong
A number of studies have investigated the association of lactase (LCT,C/T-13910) gene polymorphismwith bonemineral density (BMD) and fracture risk, but previous results were inconclusive. In this study, a meta-analysis was performed to quantify the association of LCT (C/T-13910) polymorphism with BMD and fracture risk. Eligible publications were searched in the PubMed, Web of Science, Embase databases, Google Scholar, Yahoo and Baidu. Pooled weighed mean difference (WMD) or odds ratio (OR) with their 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated using a fixed-effects or random-effects model...
December 2017: Journal of Genetics
Andrew Szilagyi, Xiaoqing Xue
Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) shares overlapping symptoms and some features of pathogenesis with Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD: Crohn's disease [CD], and Ulcerative Colitis [UC]). Geographic markers such as latitude/sunshine and more recently lactase population distributions are found to be correlated with IBD. As a result of clinical and pathogenic similarities between the 2 conditions, some authorities questioned whether a connection exists between them. We compare IBS directly with IBD, and indirectly with geographic markers associated with IBD, in order to evaluate possible evolutionary links between IBS and IBD...
January 2018: Medical Hypotheses
Chenling Xu Antelope, Davide Marnetto, Fergal Casey, Emilia Huerta-Sanchez
Access to a geographically diverse set of modern human samples from the present time and from ancient remains, combined with archaic hominin samples, provides an unprecedented level of resolution to study both human history and adaptation. The amount and quality of ancient human data continue to improve and enable tracking the trajectory of genetic variation over time. These data have the potential to help us redefine or generate new hypotheses of how human evolution occurred and to revise previous conjectures...
January 2017: Human Biology
Nitirut Nernpermpisooth, Eakkapote Prompunt, Sarawut Kumphune
Endothelial dysfunction is an essential deleterious modulator of ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) has demonstrated myocardial protection in cardiac transplantation; however, the effect of SLPI in endothelial I/R injury remains unexplored. In the present study, the effect of recombinant human SLPI (rhSLPI) treatment against endothelial cells (ECs) subjected to simulated I/R injury and the effect of treatment at different time points were determined. Human umbilical vein ECs (HUVECs) were subjected to normoxic or simulated I/R (sI/R) conditions, and rhSLPI at concentrations of 1, 10, 100 and 1,000 ng/ml was added to the cells prior to ischaemia, during ischaemia or at the onset of reperfusion...
December 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Lu He, Yawei Liu, Yanfang Guo, Kejia Shen, Huaying Hui, Zhoujin Tan
The current investigation is trying to study the impact of the mixture of Chinese herbs Qi Wei Bai Zhu San (QWBZS) on bacterial lactase gene from antibiotics-induced diarrhea (AAD) mice, as the good curative effect of QWBZS on diarrhea. Mice (6 mice per group) were randomly selected as control, model and treatment groups. To induce diarrhea, mice in both model and treatment groups were intragastrically injected with mixture of gentamycin sulfate and cefradine (23.33 mL kg-1 day-1) twice per day and continuously for totally 5 days...
January 2018: 3 Biotech
Cheng-Xing Long, Lu He, Yan-Fang Guo, Ya-Wei Liu, Nen-Qun Xiao, Zhou-Jin Tan
AIM: To investigate the diversity of bacterial lactase genes in the intestinal contents of mice with antibiotics-induced diarrhea. METHODS: Following 2 d of adaptive feeding, 12 specific pathogen-free Kunming mice were randomly divided into the control group and model group. The mouse model of antibiotics-induced diarrhea was established by gastric perfusion with mixed antibiotics (23.33 mL·kg-1 ·d-1 ) composed of gentamicin sulfate and cephradine capsules administered for 5 days, and the control group was treated with an equal amount of sterile water...
November 14, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Grégory Pimentel, Kathryn J Burton, Marta Rosikiewicz, Carola Freiburghaus, Ueli von Ah, Linda H Münger, François P Pralong, Nathalie Vionnet, Gilbert Greub, René Badertscher, Guy Vergères
The absence of a dedicated transport for disaccharides in the intestine implicates that the metabolic use of dietary lactose relies on its prior hydrolysis at the intestinal brush border. Consequently, lactose in blood or urine has mostly been associated with specific cases in which the gastrointestinal barrier is damaged. On the other hand, lactose appears in the blood of lactating women and has been detected in the blood and urine of healthy men, indicating that the presence of lactose in the circulation of healthy subjects is not incompatible with normal physiology...
December 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Associations between dairy intake and body mass index (BMI) have been inconsistently observed in epidemiological studies, and the causal relationship remains ill defined. METHODS: We performed Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis using an established dairy intake-associated genetic polymorphism located upstream of the lactase gene ( LCT -13910 C/T, rs4988235) as an instrumental variable (IV). Linear regression models were fitted to analyze associations between ( a ) dairy intake and BMI, ( b ) rs4988235 and dairy intake, and ( c ) rs4988235 and BMI in each study...
January 2018: Clinical Chemistry
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