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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934590/the-relationship-between-the-human-genome-and-microbiome-comes-into-view
#1
Julia K Goodrich, Emily R Davenport, Andrew G Clark, Ruth E Ley
The body's microbiome, composed of microbial cells that number in the trillions, is involved in human health and disease in ways that are just starting to emerge. The microbiome is assembled at birth, develops with its host, and is greatly influenced by environmental factors such as diet and other exposures. Recently, a role for human genetic variation has emerged as also influential in accounting for interpersonal differences in microbiomes. Thus, human genes may influence health directly or by promoting a beneficial microbiome...
September 20, 2017: Annual Review of Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885022/effect-of-storage-on-lactase-treated-%C3%AE-casein-and-%C3%AE-lactoglobulin-with-respect-to-bitter-peptide-formation-and-subsequent-in-vitro-digestibility
#2
Di Zhao, Thao T Le, Søren Drud Nielsen, Lotte Bach Larsen
Using active lactose to hydrolyze lactose during storage is a common process to produce lactose-hydrolyzed (LH) milk. Proteolysis induced by residual proteases in commercial lactase was studied in a system using purified β-casein or β-lactoglobulin during a 60-day storage period at 22 or 38 °C. The proteolysis of β-casein by residual proteases occurred more extensively than that of β-lactoglobulin. Peptidomic analysis by LC-ESI-MS/MS revealed that Ile, Leu, Tyr, and Phe residues near the C-terminus of β-casein were the main sites of cleavage by the residual proteases, generating assumed bitter peptides...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873691/encapsulation-of-lactase-in-ca-ii-alginate-beads-effect-of-stabilizers-and-drying-methods
#3
Maria Victoria Traffano-Schiffo, Marta Castro-Giraldez, Pedro J Fito, Patricio R Santagapita
The purpose of the present work was to analyze the effect of trehalose, arabic and guar gums on the preservation of β-galactosidase activity in freeze-dried and vacuum dried Ca(II)-alginate beads. Freezing process was also studied as a first step of freeze-drying. Trehalose was critical for β-galactosidase conservation, and guar gum as a second excipient showed the highest conservation effect (close to 95%). Systems with Tg values ~40°C which were stables at ambient temperature were obtained, being trehalose the main responsible of the formation of an amorphous matrix...
October 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855970/lactase-persistence-in-tunisia-as-a-result-of-admixture-with-other-mediterranean-populations
#4
Yosra Ben Halima, Rym Kefi, Marco Sazzini, Cristina Giuliani, Sara De Fanti, Chokri Nouali, Majdi Nagara, Giacomo Mengozzi, Sahar Elouej, Abdelmajid Abid, Henda Jamoussi, Lotfi Chouchane, Giovanni Romeo, Sonia Abdelhak, Donata Luiselli
BACKGROUND: The ability to digest lactose after weaning, namely, lactase persistence (LP), is encoded by polymorphisms in the MCM6 gene and varies widely in frequency among different human populations. Although, evolution of LP-related genetic variants was investigated in many groups of Sub-Saharan African, Middle Eastern, and European ancestry, only few studies have focused on populations from North Africa and no data are especially available from the Tunisian one. For this reason, there is an urgent need to investigate the frequency patterns at these loci in Tunisia since this adaptive trait is implicated in health...
2017: Genes & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853996/effect-of-probiotic-strain-lactobacillus-acidophilus-lbkv-3-on-fecal-residual-lactase-activity-in-undernourished-children-below-10-year
#5
Sunil Tulshiram Hajare, Genene Bekele
Clinically proven Lactobacillus acidophilus strain LBKV-3 intended as probiotc for human was used to test its effect on fecal residual lactase activity in undernourished children below 10 years. The children were selected from malnutrition declared area of Maharashtra (India). One of the major causes of malnutrition is lactose intolerance which leads to diarrhea. The basic consideration in selecting the probiotic strain of Lactobacillus acidophilus-LBKV3 in this investigation was the fact that the organism is isolated from human vaginal surface swab and it was found extensively studied for probiotic characteristic...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Immunoassay & Immunochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830381/comparing-the-intestinal-transcriptome-of-meishan-and-large-white-piglets-during-late-fetal-development-reveals-genes-involved-in-glucose-and-lipid-metabolism-and-immunity-as-valuable-clues-of-intestinal-maturity
#6
Ying Yao, Valentin Voillet, Maeva Jegou, Magali SanCristobal, Samir Dou, Véronique Romé, Yannick Lippi, Yvon Billon, Marie-Christine Père, Gaëlle Boudry, Laure Gress, Nathalie Iannucelli, Pierre Mormède, Hélène Quesnel, Laurianne Canario, Laurence Liaubet, Isabelle Le Huërou-Luron
BACKGROUND: Maturity of intestinal functions is critical for neonatal health and survival, but comprehensive description of mechanisms underlying intestinal maturation that occur during late gestation still remain poorly characterized. The aim of this study was to investigate biological processes specifically involved in intestinal maturation by comparing fetal jejunal transcriptomes of two representative porcine breeds (Large White, LW; Meishan, MS) with contrasting neonatal vitality and maturity, at two key time points during late gestation (gestational days 90 and 110)...
August 22, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821216/successful-treatment-with-phenobarbitone-following-lactase-supplementation-in-an-infant-with-lactose-intolerance
#7
Aisling R Geoghegan, David Webb
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 1, 2017: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820081/effects-of-1-5-anhydroglucitol-on-postprandial-blood-glucose-and-insulin-levels-and-hydrogen-excretion-in-rats-and-healthy-humans
#8
Sadako Nakamura, Kenichi Tanabe, Kazuhiro Yoshinaga, Fumio Shimura, Tsuneyuki Oku
The inhibition by 1,5-anhydro-d-glucitol (1,5-AG) was determined on disaccharidases of rats and humans. Then, the metabolism and fate of 1,5-AG was investigated in rats and humans. Although 1,5-AG inhibited about 50 % of sucrase activity in rat small intestine, the inhibition was less than half of d-sorbose. 1,5-AG strongly inhibited trehalase and lactase, whereas d-sorbose inhibited them very weakly. 1,5-AG noncompetitively inhibited sucrase. The inhibition of 1,5-AG on sucrase and maltase was similar between humans and rats...
July 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812575/response-to-challenge-in-interpretation-of-mendelian-randomization-studies-using-lactase-persistence-as-instrumental-variable
#9
Q Yang, C M Schooling
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 16, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812574/challenge-in-interpretation-of-mendelian-randomization-studies-using-lactase-persistence-as-instrumental-variable
#10
L E T Vissers, Y T van der Schouw, I Sluijs
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 16, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805888/development-of-small-intestinal-enzyme-activities-and-their-relationship-with-some-gut-regulatory-peptides-in-grazing-sheep
#11
C L Wang, X Lang, P J Wu, D P Casper, F D Li
Growth depends on an animal's capacity to digest and assimilate ingested nutrients, and insufficient supply and impairment will constrain lamb growth. Eight groups of Alpine Finewool lambs were harvested on 0, 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, 42, and 56 d to measure pH and enzymatic activities in the duodenum, proximal jejunum, middle jejunum, distal jejunum, and ileum mucosa or digesta. From the duodenum to the ileum the pH of intestinal mucosa and digesta increased, whereas pH changed very little with age. The trypsin, chymotrypsin, lipase, lactase, and α-amylase activities observed at birth decreased by d 3, followed by a nonuniform enzymatic response in the small intestine...
August 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768891/the-evolution-of-dual-meat-and-milk-cattle-husbandry-in-linearbandkeramik-societies
#12
Rosalind E Gillis, Lenka Kovačiková, Stéphanie Bréhard, Emilie Guthmann, Ivana Vostrovská, Hana Nohálová, Rose-Marie Arbogast, László Domboróczki, Joachim Pechtl, Alexander Anders, Arkadiusz Marciniak, Anne Tresset, Jean-Denis Vigne
Cattle dominate archaeozoological assemblages from the north-central Europe between the sixth and fifth millennium BC and are frequently considered as exclusively used for their meat. Dairy products may have played a greater role than previously believed. Selective pressure on the lactase persistence mutation has been modelled to have begun between 6000 and 4000 years ago in central Europe. The discovery of milk lipids in late sixth millennium ceramic sieves in Poland may reflect an isolated regional peculiarity for cheese making or may signify more generalized milk exploitation in north-central Europe during the Early Neolithic...
August 16, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753186/bioactive-whey-protein-concentrate-and-lactose-stimulate-gut-function-in-formula-fed-preterm-pigs
#13
Yanqi Li, Duc Ninh Nguyen, Karina Ryom, Anders D Andersen, Thomas Thymann, Dereck E W Chatterton, Stig Purup, Anne B Heckmann, Stine B Bering, Per T Sangild
OBJECTIVE: Formula feeding is associated with compromised intestinal health in preterm neonates compared with maternal milk, but the mechanisms behind this are unclear. We hypothesized that the use of maltodextrin and whey protein concentrates (WPCs) with reduced bioactivity due to thermal-processing are important factors. METHOD: Ninety-two caesarean-delivered preterm pigs were fed increasing doses of formulas for 5 days (24-120 mL/kg/d). In Experiment 1, four groups of pigs (n = 15-16) were fed lactose- or maltodextrin-dominant formulas (lactose/maltodextrin ratios 3:1 or 1:3, respectively), containing WPC with either high or low levels of IgG (WPC1 or WPC2, respectively)...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717763/burkitt-s-lymphoma-and-b-cell-lymphoma-unclassifiable-with-features-intermediate-between-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma-and-burkitt-s-lymphoma-in-patients-with-hiv-outcomes-in-a-south-african-public-hospital
#14
Gerhard Sissolak, Matthew Seftel, Thomas S Uldrick, Tonya M Esterhuizen, Nooroudien Mohamed, Danie Kotze
PURPOSE: Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) is a common HIV-associated lymphoma in South Africa. B-cell lymphoma unclassifiable with features intermediate between diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and Burkitt's lymphoma (BL/DLBCL) also occurs in HIV infection. Outcomes of HIV-infected patients with BL or BL/DLBCL in a resource-constrained setting are not defined. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of HIV-positive patients with BL or BL/DLBCL treated from 2004 to 2012 with curative intent at a publically funded academic medical center in South Africa...
June 2017: Journal of Global Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703957/lactose-free-frozen-yogurt-production-and-characteristics
#15
Katarzyna Skryplonek, David Gomes, Jorge Viegas, Carlos Pereira, Marta Henriques
BACKGROUND: Nowadays, consumer demand is driving better and more nutritious dairy products. Changing from traditional to new lactose-free products poses technological challenges for the food industry in order to maintain or improve their food characteristics and consumer preferences. METHODS: This study investigates the production of lactose-free frozen yogurt by enzymati- cally hydrolysis of lactose, and its influence on the final product characteristics. In the case of lactose-free products, commercial Ha-lactase® was used for hydrolysis, and the reaction occurred simultaneously with fermentation...
April 2017: Acta Scientiarum Polonorum. Technologia Alimentaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690131/country-regional-and-global-estimates-for-lactose-malabsorption-in-adults-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#16
Christian Løvold Storhaug, Svein Kjetil Fosse, Lars T Fadnes
BACKGROUND: Studies have shown wide variation in the prevalence of lactose malabsorption across the world, but no systematic reviews or meta-analyses have recently assessed the prevalence of lactose malabsorption in different geographical areas. We aimed to present an updated systematic review and meta-analysis on the prevalence of lactose malabsorption in adults, by countries and regions, and to assess the variation between different testing methods. METHODS: Studies reporting on prevalence of lactose malabsorption and lactase persistence were identified by searching MEDLINE and Embase from database inception to Nov 2, 2016...
July 6, 2017: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684688/gene-dairy-food-interactions-and-health-outcomes-a-review-of-nutrigenetic-studies
#17
REVIEW
Kevin B Comerford, Gonca Pasin
Each person differs from the next by an average of over 3 million genetic variations in their DNA. This genetic diversity is responsible for many of the interindividual differences in food preferences, nutritional needs, and dietary responses between humans. The field of nutrigenetics aims to utilize this type of genetic information in order to personalize diets for optimal health. One of the most well-studied genetic variants affecting human dietary patterns and health is the lactase persistence mutation, which enables an individual to digest milk sugar into adulthood...
July 6, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673071/lactase-non-persistent-genotype-distribution-in-italy
#18
Cristina Zadro, Savina Dipresa, Giovanni Zorzetti, Annalisa Pediroda, Francesco Menegoni
BACKGROUND: Adult-type hypolactasia is a frequent condition of lactose malabsorption; in Europe the distribution of adult-type hypolactasia have been shown to display a North-South gradient. Genotyping for LCT-13910 C>T polymorphism has been proposed as a useful diagnostic marker of adult-type hypolactasia. Data concerning lactase non-persistent genotype distribution in Italy are confused and not well characterized. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of CC-genotype corresponding to lactase non-persistence in Italian population...
September 2017: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667642/optimization-of-nutritional-components-of-medium-by-response-surface-methodology-for-enhanced-production-of-lactase
#19
T C Venkateswarulu, K Vidya Prabhakar, R Bharath Kumar
Lactase has excellent applications in dairy industry and commercially this enzyme is produced from bacterial sources but not in high yields. In this work, the production of lactase was improved by designing of nutrient components in fermentation medium by one factor at a time. Lactose and yeast extract were selected as preferable carbon and nitrogen sources for lactase production with tryptophan and MgSO4 showing enhanced production. Statistical analysis proved to be a useful and powerful tool in developing optimum fermentation conditions...
July 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664372/modeling-and-optimization-of-fermentation-variables-for-enhanced-production-of-lactase-by-isolated-bacillus-subtilis-strain-vuvd001-using-artificial-neural-networking-and-response-surface-methodology
#20
T C Venkateswarulu, K Vidya Prabhakar, R Bharath Kumar, S Krupanidhi
Modeling and optimization were performed to enhance production of lactase through submerged fermentation by Bacillus subtilis VUVD001 using artificial neural networks (ANN) and response surface methodology (RSM). The effect of process parameters namely temperature (°C), pH, and incubation time (h) and their combinational interactions on production was studied in shake flask culture by Box-Behnken design. The model was validated by conducting an experiment at optimized process variables which gave the maximum lactase activity of 91...
July 2017: 3 Biotech
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