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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762380/clinical-characteristics-of-disaccharidase-deficiencies-among-children-undergoing-upper-endoscopy
#1
Stanley A Cohen, Hannah Oloyede, Benjamin D Gold, Aminu Mohammed, Heather E Elser
OBJECTIVES: The epidemiology and clinical significance of disaccharidase deficiencies have not been thoroughly characterized. Recent work suggests at least genetic sucrase-isomaltase deficiency is more prevalent than previously believed. Because lactase deficiency (LD) is well described, the present study focuses on the clinical characteristics of children with disaccharidase deficiencies determined by esophagogastroduodenoscopy. METHODS: Endoscopic records were reviewed from patients undergoing esophagogastroduodenoscopies with biopsies assayed for disaccharidase activity performed by 13 pediatric gastroenterologists during 5 years (2010-2014)...
June 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762379/demographic-and-clinical-correlates-of-mucosal-disaccharidase-deficiencies-in-children-with-functional-dyspepsia
#2
Bruno P Chumpitazi, Claudia C Robayo-Torres, Cynthia M Tsai, Antone R Opekun, Susan S Baker, Buford L Nichols, Mark A Gilger
BACKGROUND: A subset of children with functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs), which includes functional dyspepsia, may have duodenal disaccharidase deficiencies. OBJECTIVES: To determine the frequency, demographics, and clinical characteristics associated with duodenal disaccharidase deficiencies in children with functional dyspepsia. METHODS: Children ages 4 to 18 years undergoing esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) evaluation for dyspepsia were enrolled in either a retrospective (study 1) or prospective (study 2) evaluation...
June 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762372/metabolic-impacts-of-maltase-deficiencies
#3
Buford L Nichols, Susan S Baker, Roberto Quezada-Calvillo
The mucosal maltase enzymes are characterized by an activity that produces glucose from linear glucose polymers, assayed with the disaccharide maltose. The related enzyme isomaltase produces glucose from branched glucose polymers, assayed with palatinose. Maltase and isomaltase activities are part of the 4 disaccharidases assayed from clinical duodenal biopsy homogenates. The reported maltase activities are more difficult to interpret than lactase or sucrase activities because both the sucrase-isomaltase and maltase-glucoamylase proteins have overlapping maltase activities...
June 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753774/facile-fabrication-of-microparticles-with-ph-responsive-macropores-for-small-intestine-targeted-drug-formulation
#4
Bahman Homayun, Chengmeng Sun, Ankit Kumar, Carlo Montemagno, Hyo-Jick Choi
Oral drugs present the most convenient, economical, and painless route for self-administration. Despite commercialization of multiple technologies relying on micro- and nanocrystalline drugs, research on microparticles (MPs) based oral biopharmaceuticals delivery systems has still not culminated well enough in commercial products. This is largely due to the drugs being exposed to the destabilizing environment during MP synthesis process, and partly because of complicated process conditions. Hence, we developed a solvent swelling-evaporation method of producing pH-responsive MPs with micron-sized macropores using poly(methacrylic acid-co-ethyl acrylate) in 1:1 ratio (commercial name: Eudragit® L100-55 polymer)...
May 10, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738550/genome-wide-association-meta-analysis-of-circulating-odd-numbered-chain-saturated-fatty-acids-results-from-the-charge-consortium
#5
Marcia C de Oliveira Otto, Rozenn N Lemaitre, Qi Sun, Irena B King, Jason H Y Wu, Ani Manichaikul, Stephen S Rich, Michael Y Tsai, Y D Chen, Myriam Fornage, Guan Weihua, Stella Aslibekyan, Marguerite R Irvin, Edmond K Kabagambe, Donna K Arnett, Majken K Jensen, Barbara McKnight, Bruce M Psaty, Lyn M Steffen, Caren E Smith, Ulf Risérus, Lars Lind, Frank B Hu, Eric B Rimm, David S Siscovick, Dariush Mozaffarian
BACKGROUND: Odd-numbered chain saturated fatty acids (OCSFA) have been associated with potential health benefits. Although some OCSFA (e.g., C15:0 and C17:0) are found in meats and dairy products, sources and metabolism of C19:0 and C23:0 are relatively unknown, and the influence of non-dietary determinants, including genetic factors, on circulating levels of OCSFA is not established. OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the biological processes that influence circulating levels of OCSFA by investigating associations between genetic variation and OCSFA...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723971/assessment-of-lactose-free-diet-on-the-phalangeal-bone-mineral-status-in-italian-adolescents-affected-by-adult-type-hypolactasia
#6
Alessandro Baldan, Sylvie Tagliati, Daniela Saccomandi, Andrea Brusaferro, Laura Busoli, Andrea Scala, Cristina Malaventura, Giuseppe Maggiore, Caterina Borgna-Pignatti
Adult-type hypolactasia (ATH) is a clinical syndrome of primary lactase deficiency. A lactose-free diet is advisable to avoid the symptoms linked to the condition, but this potentially creates problems for optimal bone mineralization due to reduced calcium intake. To evaluate the effect of the lactose-free diet on the bone mineral status (BMS), we compared the phalangeal BMS of adolescents with ATH to that of peers on a normal diet. Also, we analyzed the correlations between BMS and dietary behavior, physical exercise, and calcium and vitamin D intake...
May 1, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715699/effect-of-gestational-and-lactational-exposure-to-dehp-dinp-and-dep-on-intestinal-morphology-disaccharidases-and-alkaline-phosphatase-in-rats-during-postnatal-development
#7
K Setti Ahmed, O Kharoubi, A E K Aoues, M Bouchekara, B Khaladi, M Taleb
INTRODUCTION:  The diesters of 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid (phthalic acid), commonly known as phthalates, are used primarily as plasticizers of polyvinyl chloride and as additives in consumer and personal care products. OBJECTIVE:  This study was designed to evaluate the impact of in utero and postnatal exposure to diisononyl phthalate (DINP), diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), and diethyl phthalate (DEP) on gut maturation in a Wistar rat model. MATERIALS AND METHODS:  Pregnant females were gavaged from day 8 of gestation through postnatal day (pd) 30 with 0 (vehicle control), DEHP (380 mg/kg/d), DINP (380 mg/kg/d), or DEP (800 mg/kg/d) dissolved in corn oil...
May 1, 2018: American Journal of Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680656/the-influence-of-mulberry-leaf-flavonoids-and-candida-tropicalis-on-antioxidant-function-and-gastrointestinal-development-of-preweaning-calves-challenged-with-escherichia-coli-o141-k99
#8
B Wang, C T Yang, Q Y Diao, Y Tu
This study investigated the effects of mulberry (Morus alba Linn. sp.) leaf flavonoids and Candida tropicalis on the growth, gastrointestinal development, enzyme activity of gastrointestinal digesta, and blood antioxidant function of dairy calves challenged with Escherichia coli O141:K99. A total of 15 Holstein preweaning bull calves (age = 28 d; body weight = 51 ± 3.9 kg, mean ± standard deviation) were randomly divided into 3 homogeneous groups with no supplementation (control, CON), Candida tropicalis added at 1 g/calf per day (CT), and mulberry leaf flavonoids added at 3 g/calf per day (MLF)...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652728/intestinal-microbiota-in-hirschsprung-disease
#9
Malla I Neuvonen, Katri Korpela, Kristiina Kyrklund, Risto J Rintala, Mikko P Pakarinen
OBJECTIVES: To characterize the microbiota profiles of patients with Hirschsprung's disease (HD), and to evaluate this in relation to postoperative bowel function and the incidence of Hirschsprung-associated enterocolitis (HAEC). METHODS: All patients operated on for HD at our center between 1987-2011 were invited to answer questionnaires on bowel function and to participate in a clinical follow-up for laboratory investigations, including fecal DNA extraction, fecal calprotectin (FC), and brush border lactase (LCT) genotyping...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618745/differences-in-dna-methylation-and-functional-expression-in-lactase-persistent-and-non-persistent-individuals
#10
Milena N Leseva, Richard J Grand, Hagen Klett, Melanie Boerries, Hauke Busch, Alexandra M Binder, Karin B Michels
In humans the expression of lactase changes during post-natal development, leading to phenotypes known as lactase persistence and non-persistence. Polymorphisms within the lactase gene (LCT) enhancer, in particular the -13910C > T, but also others, are linked to these phenotypes. We were interested in identifying dynamic mediators of LCT regulation, beyond the genotype at -13910C > T. To this end, we investigated two levels of lactase regulation in human intestinal samples obtained from New England children and adolescents of mixed European ancestry: differential expression of transcriptional regulators of LCT, and variations in DNA methylation, and their relation to phenotype...
April 4, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596814/lactase-persistence-genotyping-on-whole-blood-by-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification-and-melting-curve-analysis
#11
Anders Abildgaard, Sara K Tovbjerg, Axel Giltay, Liselot Detemmerman, Peter H Nissen
BACKGROUND: The lactase persistence phenotype is controlled by a regulatory enhancer region upstream of the Lactase (LCT) gene. In northern Europe, specifically the -13910C > T variant has been associated with lactase persistence whereas other persistence variants, e.g. -13907C > G and -13,915 T > G, have been identified in Africa and the Middle East. The aim of the present study was to compare a previously developed high resolution melting assay (HRM) with a novel method based on loop-mediated isothermal amplification and melting curve analysis (LAMP-MC) with both whole blood and DNA as input material...
March 26, 2018: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568104/gut-microbiome-related-lct-genotype-and-2-year-changes-in-body-composition-and-fat-distribution-the-pounds-lost-trial
#12
Yoriko Heianza, Dianjianyi Sun, Wenjie Ma, Yan Zheng, Catherine M Champagne, George A Bray, Frank M Sacks, Lu Qi
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Gut microbiome regulates host energy metabolism and adiposity. A recent study identified a genome-wide significant variant in the lactase (LCT) gene that determines gut-microbiome abundance. We investigated whether the LCT variant influenced long-term changes in adiposity among overweight and obese individuals. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We included 583 whites with LCT variant rs4988235 (G allele as Bifidobacterium-abundance-increasing allele) who were randomly assigned to one of four weight-loss diets varying in macronutrient contents...
February 26, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556430/bacterial-lactase-genes-diversity-in-intestinal-mucosa-of-mice-with-dysbacterial-diarrhea-induced-by-antibiotics
#13
Chengxing Long, Yawei Liu, Lu He, Qinquan Tan, Zizhen Yu, Nenqun Xiao, Zhoujin Tan
The current study aimed at exploring the diversity of bacterial lactase genes in the intestinal mucosa of mice with dysbacterial diarrhea induced by antibiotics and to provide experimental basis for antibiotics-induced diarrhea. Mice model of dysbacterial diarrhea was established by gastric perfusion with mixture of cephradine capsules and gentamicin sulfate (23.33 mL kg-1  d-1 ), twice a day and continuously for 5 days. Intestinal mucosa from jejunum to ileum was collected, and bacterial metagenomic DNA was extracted for Miseq metagenome sequencing to carry out diversity analysis...
March 2018: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29537719/lactase-persistence-milk-intake-hip-fracture-and-bone-mineral-density-a-study-of-97-811-danish-individuals-and-a-meta-analysis
#14
H K M Bergholdt, M K Larsen, A Varbo, B G Nordestgaard, C Ellervik
BACKGROUND: Whether a causal relationship exists between milk intake and reduced risk of fractures is unclear. OBJECTIVES: We tested the hypothesis that genetically determined milk intake reduces the risk of fractures and increases bone mineral density (BMD). METHODS: We investigated the association between milk intake, LCT-13910 C/T (rs4988235), which is associated with lactase persistence (TT/TC) in Northern Europeans, and hip fractures in three Danish prospective studies (N = 97 811, age ≥20 years)...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29518765/from-treating-childhood-malnutrition-to-public-health-nutrition
#15
W Philip T James
BACKGROUND: This analysis sets out an overview of an IUNS presentation of a European clinician's assessment of the challenges of coping with immediate critical clinical problems and how to use metabolic and a mechanistic understanding of disease when developing nutritional policies. SUMMARY: Critically ill malnourished children prove very sensitive to both mineral and general nutritional overload, but after careful metabolic control they can cope with a high-quality, energy-rich diet provided their initial lactase deficiency and intestinal atrophy are taken into account...
2018: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29510469/flaxseed-oil-attenuates-intestinal-damage-and-inflammation-by-regulating-necroptosis-and-tlr4-nod-signaling-pathways-following-lipopolysaccharide-challenge-in-a-piglet-model
#16
Huiling Zhu, Haibo Wang, Shuhui Wang, Zhixiao Tu, Lin Zhang, Xiuying Wang, Yongqing Hou, Chunwei Wang, Jie Chen, Yulan Liu
SCOPE: Flaxseed oil is a rich source of α-linolenic acid (ALA), which is the precursor of the long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), including docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). This study investigates the protective effect of flaxseed oil against intestinal injury induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). MATERIALS AND RESULTS: Twenty-four weaned pigs were used in a 2 × 2 factorial experiment with dietary treatment (5% corn oil vs 5% flaxseed oil) and LPS challenge (saline vs LPS)...
May 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29508026/a-phase-ii-trial-to-evaluate-the-efficacy-of-panitumumab-combined-with-fluorouracil-based-chemotherapy-for-metastatic-colorectal-cancer-the-pf-trial
#17
Yoshinori Munemoto, Mitsuro Kanda, Koji Oba, Ho Min Kim, Hiroyoshi Takemoto, Tadamichi Denda, Naoki Nagata, Nao Takano, Mutsumi Fukunaga, Masato Kataoka, Yukihiko Tokunaga, Junichi Sakamoto, Hideyuki Mishima
PURPOSE: Fluorouracil monotherapy, instead of the FOLFOX or FOLFIRI regimen, is administered to patients intolerant to oxaliplatin or irinotecan because of their adverse effects. A prospective clinical trial was designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of fluorouracil monotherapy combined with panitumumab administered to patients with KRAS wild-type (WT) metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) intolerant to oxaliplatin and irinotecan. Screening for potential serum biomarkers to predict early therapeutic responses was conducted...
May 2018: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29491758/variable-use-of-disaccharidase-assays-when-evaluating-abdominal-pain
#18
Stanley A Cohen, Hannah Oloyede
Background and Aims: Patients with a disaccharidase deficiency typically present with abdominal discomfort and often with diarrhea. However, disaccharidase deficiency is often overlooked as a cause of these complaints. Therefore, we sought to determine the prevalence of lactase and sucrase deficiencies in a pediatric population undergoing diagnostic esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) and to describe disaccharidase testing practices among pediatric gastroenterologists. Methods: Endoscopic records from patients undergoing diagnostic EGD and disaccharidase analysis (DA) were retrospectively reviewed...
January 2018: Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29491299/adult-t-cell-leukemia-lymphoma-as-a-methotrexate-associated-lymphoproliferative-disorder-in-a-patient-with-rheumatoid-arthritis-a-case-report
#19
Ichiro Takajo, Kunihiko Umekita, Yoshihiko Ikei, Koichi Oshima, Akihiko Okayama
The patient was a 74-year-old Japanese woman with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who developed generalized lymphadenopathy with elevated levels of lactase dehydrogenase (LD), and soluble IL-2 receptor (sIL-2R). She was found to be positive for anti-human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) antibodies. Her symptoms and laboratory abnormalities spontaneously regressed after the cessation of methotrexate (MTX), suggesting that she had an MTX-associated lymphoproliferative disorder; however, her lymphadenopathy appeared again approximately 14 months later with LD and sIL-2R elevation...
February 28, 2018: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462356/nutrient-fortification-of-human-donor-milk-affects-intestinal-function-and-protein-metabolism-in-preterm-pigs
#20
Jing Sun, Yanqi Li, Duc Ninh Nguyen, Martin S Mortensen, Chris H P van den Akker, Tom Skeath, Susanne E Pors, Stanislava Pankratova, Silvia Rudloff, Søren J Sørensen, Douglas G Burrin, Thomas Thymann, Per T Sangild
Background: Nutrient fortification of human milk is often required to secure adequate growth and organ development for very preterm infants. There is concern that formula-based fortifiers (FFs) induce intestinal dysfunction, feeding intolerance, and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Bovine colostrum (BC) may be an alternative nutrient fortifier, considering its high content of protein and milk bioactive factors. Objective: We investigated whether BC was superior to an FF product based on processed bovine milk and vegetable oil to fortify donor human milk (DHM) for preterm pigs, used as a model for infants...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
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