keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Disaccharidase

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166771/glycemic-insulinemic-and-incretin-responses-after-oral-trehalose-ingestion-in-healthy-subjects
#1
Chiyo Yoshizane, Akiko Mizote, Mika Yamada, Norie Arai, Shigeyuki Arai, Kazuhiko Maruta, Hitoshi Mitsuzumi, Toshio Ariyasu, Shimpei Ushio, Shigeharu Fukuda
BACKGROUND: Trehalose is hydrolyzed by a specific intestinal brush-border disaccharidase (trehalase) into two glucose molecules. In animal studies, trehalose has been shown to prevent adipocyte hypertrophy and mitigate insulin resistance in mice fed a high-fat diet. Recently, we found that trehalose improved glucose tolerance in human subjects. However, the underlying metabolic responses after trehalose ingestion in humans are not well understood. Therefore, we examined the glycemic, insulinemic and incretin responses after trehalose ingestion in healthy Japanese volunteers...
February 6, 2017: Nutrition Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114245/human-milk-oligosaccharides-influence-intestinal-epithelial-cell-maturation-in-vitro
#2
Hannah D Holscher, Lars Bode, Kelly A Tappenden
OBJECTIVES: Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are reported to promote epithelial cell differentiation in vitro. The aim of the present study was to assess induction of epithelial cell differentiation by individual and combined administration of 3 HMOs. METHODS: An in vitro epithelial model of the crypt-villus axis consisting of preconfluent HT-29, preconfluent Caco-2Bbe, and postconfluent Caco-2Bbe cells was used. Cultures were randomized to 17 treatments for 72 hours of incubation: low- and high-dose HMOs (3'sialyllactose [3'SL] at 0...
February 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002030/anti-hyperglycemic-activity-of-aegle-marmelos-l-corr-is-partly-mediated-by-increased-insulin-secretion-%C3%AE-amylase-inhibition-and-retardation-of-glucose-absorption
#3
Prawej Ansari, Nadia Afroz, Shahnaz Jalil, Sohel Bin Azad, Md Gazi Mustakim, Sabbir Anwar, S M Nazmul Haque, Saad Mosharraf Hossain, Ramisha Rifat Tony, J M A Hannan
BACKGROUND: Aegle marmelos (commonly known as Bael, golden apple) was formerly described to have anti-hyperglycemic activity. The present study aimed to explore the possible effects, in depth, of A. marmelos extracts on carbohydrate absorption, glucose utilization, and α-amylase inhibition and insulin content in pancreases of type 2 diabetic rats. METHODS: This research begins with fasting blood glucose and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) to evaluate the primary anti-hyperglycemic effect in chemically induced type 2 diabetic rats...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872184/functional-variants-in-the-sucrase-isomaltase-gene-associate-with-increased-risk-of-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#4
Maria Henström, Lena Diekmann, Ferdinando Bonfiglio, Fatemeh Hadizadeh, Eva-Maria Kuech, Maren von Köckritz-Blickwede, Louise B Thingholm, Tenghao Zheng, Ghazaleh Assadi, Claudia Dierks, Martin Heine, Ute Philipp, Ottmar Distl, Mary E Money, Meriem Belheouane, Femke-Anouska Heinsen, Joseph Rafter, Gerardo Nardone, Rosario Cuomo, Paolo Usai-Satta, Francesca Galeazzi, Matteo Neri, Susanna Walter, Magnus Simrén, Pontus Karling, Bodil Ohlsson, Peter T Schmidt, Greger Lindberg, Aldona Dlugosz, Lars Agreus, Anna Andreasson, Emeran Mayer, John F Baines, Lars Engstrand, Piero Portincasa, Massimo Bellini, Vincenzo Stanghellini, Giovanni Barbara, Lin Chang, Michael Camilleri, Andre Franke, Hassan Y Naim, Mauro D'Amato
OBJECTIVE: IBS is a common gut disorder of uncertain pathogenesis. Among other factors, genetics and certain foods are proposed to contribute. Congenital sucrase-isomaltase deficiency (CSID) is a rare genetic form of disaccharide malabsorption characterised by diarrhoea, abdominal pain and bloating, which are features common to IBS. We tested sucrase-isomaltase (SI) gene variants for their potential relevance in IBS. DESIGN: We sequenced SI exons in seven familial cases, and screened four CSID mutations (p...
November 21, 2016: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871371/effect-of-c-terminal-domain-truncation-of-thermus-thermophilus-trehalose-synthase-on-its-substrate-specificity
#5
Chang-Bae Cho, Da-Yeon Park, Soo-Bok Lee
The C-terminal domain of the three-domain-comprising trehalose synthase from Thermus thermophilus was truncated in order to study the effect on the enzyme's activity and substrate specificity. Compared with the wild-type (WT) enzyme, the two truncated enzymes (DM1 and DM2) showed lower maltose- and trehalose-converting activities and a different transglycosylation reaction mechanism. In the mutants, the glucose moiety cleaved from the maltose substrate was released from the enzyme and intercepted by external glucose oxidase, preventing the production of trehalose...
January 2017: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811623/analysis-of-the-duodenal-microbiome-in-autistic-individuals-association-with-carbohydrate-digestion
#6
Rafail I Kushak, Harland S Winter, Timothy M Buie, Stephen B Cox, Caleb D Phillips, Naomi L Ward
OBJECTIVES: There is evidence that symptoms of maldigestion or malabsorption in autistic individuals are related to changes in the indigenous microbiota. Analysis of colonic bacteria has revealed microbial dysbiosis in children with autism; however, characteristics of the duodenal microbiome are not well described. In this study the microbiome of the duodenal mucosa of subjects with autism was evaluated for dysbiosis, bacteria overgrowth and microbiota associated with carbohydrate digestion...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695931/modulation-of-digestive-enzyme-activities-in-the-avian-digestive-tract-in-relation-to-diet-composition-and-quality
#7
Kevin D Kohl, M Eugenia Ciminari, Juan G Chediack, James O Leafloor, William H Karasov, Scott R McWilliams, Enrique Caviedes-Vidal
In nature, birds are faced with variable food sources that may differ in composition (protein vs. carbohydrates) and quality (highly digestible material vs. indigestible fiber). Studies in passerine birds and some commercial poultry demonstrate that the gastrointestinal tract can respond to varying diet composition and quality by changing morphology and/or activities of digestive enzymes. However, studies in additional avian species are warranted to understand generalities of these trends. We first fed juvenile mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), chickens (Gallus gallus), and quails (Coturnix coturnix) on either high-carbohydrate or high-protein diets...
February 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664199/effect-of-different-amylases-on-the-utilization-of-cornstarch-in-broiler-chickens
#8
Jianmin Yuan, Xingyu Wang, Dafei Yin, Maofei Wang, Xiaonan Yin, Zhao Lei, Yuming Guo
This study compared the effect of different amylases on the utilization of cornstarch in broiler chickens fed a corn-based diet. Three-day-old Arbor Acres plus male chickens were randomly divided into 7 treatments and fed a diet supplemented with different sources and concentrations of amylase: 1,500 U/kg and 3,000 U/kg α-1,4 amylase from Aspergillus oryzae (α-amylase A); 480 U/kg and 960 U/kg α-1,4 amylase from Bacillus subtilis (α-amylase B); 200 U/kg and 400 U/kg α-1,6 isoamylase from B...
September 23, 2016: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27579322/use-of-the-biphasic-13-c-sucrose-glucose-breath-test-to-assess-sucrose-maldigestion-in-adults-with-functional-bowel-disorders
#9
Antone R Opekun, Albert M Balesh, Harold T Shelby
Sucrase insufficiency has been observed in children with of functional bowel disorders (FBD) and symptoms of dietary carbohydrate intolerance may be indistinguishable from those of FBD. A two-phase (13)C-sucrose/(13)C-glucose breath test ((13)C-S/GBT) was used to assess sucrase activity because disaccharidase assays are seldom performed in adults. When (13)C-sucrose is hydrolyzed to liberate monosaccharides, oxidation to (13)CO2 is a proportional indicator of sucrase activity. Subsequently, (13)C-glucose oxidation rate was determined after a secondary substrate ingestion (superdose) to adjust for individual habitus effects (Phase II)...
2016: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27504930/enzymatic-assays-for-detecting-lactose-and-sucrose-in-urine-to-reveal-intravenous-drug-abuse-with-emphasis-on-buprenorphine
#10
T Keltanen, C Mariottini, A-M Walta, A-L Rahikainen, I Ojanperä
Buprenorphine and methadone are commonly used medications for opioid maintenance treatment (OMT), using sublingual and oral administration, respectively. Although beneficial for OMT, these drugs can also be abused by intravenous administration. In intravenous abuse cases, the adjuvants lactose and sucrose are excreted in urine without hydrolysis to monosaccharides, since there are no disaccharidases in the blood. We validated enzymatic methods for the analysis of lactose and sucrose in urine. The analytical performance of both assays was considered appropriate for detecting intravenous drug abuse...
August 9, 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27456829/the-microbiota-contributes-to-cd8-t-cell-activation-and-nutrient-malabsorption-following-intestinal-infection-with-giardia-duodenalis
#11
Aleksander Keselman, Erqiu Li, Jenny Maloney, Steven M Singer
Giardia duodenalis is a noninvasive luminal pathogen that impairs digestive function in its host in part by reducing intestinal disaccharidase activity. This enzyme deficiency has been shown in mice to require CD8(+) T cells. We recently showed that both host immune responses and parasite strain affected disaccharidase levels during murine giardiasis. However, high doses of antibiotics were used to facilitate infections in that study, and we therefore decided to systematically examine the effects of antibiotic use on pathogenesis and immune responses in the mouse model of giardiasis...
October 2016: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27363037/immunotherapeutic-effect-of-spiramycin-in-experimental-giardiasis
#12
Howaida I H Ismail, Hassan T Sheir
Giardiasis is a major global cause of water borne diarrheal disease, which contributes greatly to the burden of malnutrition and malabsorption especially in children. There is a great demand for a new effective therapeutic agent against giardiasis that can be used safely during pregnancy, lactation and in infants. In the present study, the therapeutic effect of spiramycin as well as its immunomodulatory mechanism of action in giardiasis had been investigated. 90 Swiss albino mice were used in this study and classified into 3 groups: GI: 40 mice infected with Giardia lamblia cysts, GII: 40 infected mice that received spiramycin treatment in a daily oral dose of 1000 IU/gm body weight for one week starting one week post infection and GIII: 10 control uninfected untreated mice...
April 2016: Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27166598/acetonic-extract-from-the-feijoa-sellowiana-berg-fruit-exerts-antioxidant-properties-and-modulates-disaccharidases-activities-in-human-intestinal-epithelial-cells
#13
Fabio Turco, Ilaria Palumbo, Paolo Andreozzi, Giovanni Sarnelli, Francesca De Ruberto, Giuseppe Esposito, Adriana Basile, Rosario Cuomo
Feijoa sellowiana fruit has been shown to possess various biological activities, such as anti-bacterial and anti-cancer properties, in a variety of cellular models, but its activity on human intestinal epithelial cells has never been tested. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the acetonic extract of F. sellowiana fruits on the viability, membrane peroxidation, disaccharidases activities and proliferation of in vitro models of human intestinal epithelial cells. To obtain this goal, Caco-2 and HT-29 cells were exposed to the acetonic extract for 24 h...
August 2016: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27162343/taste-cell-expressed-%C3%AE-glucosidase-enzymes-contribute-to-gustatory-responses-to-disaccharides
#14
Sunil K Sukumaran, Karen K Yee, Shusuke Iwata, Ramana Kotha, Roberto Quezada-Calvillo, Buford L Nichols, Sankar Mohan, B Mario Pinto, Noriatsu Shigemura, Yuzo Ninomiya, Robert F Margolskee
The primary sweet sensor in mammalian taste cells for sugars and noncaloric sweeteners is the heteromeric combination of type 1 taste receptors 2 and 3 (T1R2+T1R3, encoded by Tas1r2 and Tas1r3 genes). However, in the absence of T1R2+T1R3 (e.g., in Tas1r3 KO mice), animals still respond to sugars, arguing for the presence of T1R-independent detection mechanism(s). Our previous findings that several glucose transporters (GLUTs), sodium glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1), and the ATP-gated K(+) (KATP) metabolic sensor are preferentially expressed in the same taste cells with T1R3 provides a potential explanation for the T1R-independent detection of sugars: sweet-responsive taste cells that respond to sugars and sweeteners may contain a T1R-dependent (T1R2+T1R3) sweet-sensing pathway for detecting sugars and noncaloric sweeteners, as well as a T1R-independent (GLUTs, SGLT1, KATP) pathway for detecting monosaccharides...
May 24, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27158545/disaccharidase-activity-in-children-undergoing-esophagogastroduodenoscopy-a-systematic-review
#15
Taylor Daileda, Peter Baek, Morgan E Sutter, Kalpesh Thakkar
AIM: To investigate the utility of intestinal disaccharide analysis during esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) in children, we performed a systematic review of studies examining disaccharide activity. METHODS: All full-length articles published in English during 1966-2014 were included if: (1) participants had small intestinal biopsy evaluation of disaccharide activity; (2) levels of lactase, sucrase, maltase or palatinase were reported; and (3) age of participants was under 18 years...
May 6, 2016: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27104033/investigation-on-hypoglycemic-effects-of-ethanol-extract-of-alpinia-nigra-gaertn-in-animal-model
#16
Mohammad Shah Hafez Kabir, Mir Muhammad Nasir Uddin, S M Zahid Hosen
BACKGROUND: Our study aims at exploring the hypoglycemic effect, efficacy, and possible mode of action of ethanol extract of Alpinia nigra (EEAN) as an antidiabetic agent in an animal model. METHODS: Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was used to identify primary hypoglycemic effect in mice. Three tests (glucose absorption, sucrose absorption, and disaccharidase activity) were carried out by gut perfusion and six segments studies to assess carbohydrate absorption and glucose utilization...
March 2016: Journal of Intercultural Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27065261/bovine-milk-based-formula-leads-to-early-maturation-like-morphological-immunological-and-functional-changes-in-the-jejunum-of-neonatal-piglets
#17
R Pieper, L Scharek-Tedin, A Zetzsche, I Röhe, S Kröger, W Vahjen, J Zentek
Artificial rearing and formula feeding is coming more into the focus due to increasing litter sizes and limited nursing capacity of sows. The formula composition is important to effectively support the development of the gut and prevent intestinal dysfunction in neonatal piglets. In this study, newborn piglets ( = 8 per group) were fed a bovine milk-based formula (FO), containing skimmed milk and whey as the sole protein and carbohydrate sources, or were suckled by the sow (sow milk [SM]). After 2 wk, tissue from the jejunum was analyzed for structural (i...
March 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27031373/prebiotics-and-bioactive-milk-fractions-affect-gut-development-microbiota-and-neurotransmitter-expression-in-piglets
#18
Kirsten Berding, Mei Wang, Marcia H Monaco, Lindsey S Alexander, Austin T Mudd, Maciej Chichlowski, Rosaline V Waworuntu, Brian M Berg, Michael J Miller, Ryan N Dilger, Sharon M Donovan
OBJECTIVE: This study tested the hypothesis that the addition of prebiotics and 2 functional milk ingredients to infant formula would maintain normal growth and gut development, and modify microbiota composition and neurotransmitter gene expression in neonatal piglets. METHODS: Two-day-old male piglets (n = 24) were fed formula (CONT) or formula with polydextrose (1.2 g/100 g diet), galactooligosaccharides (3.5 g/100 g diet), bovine lactoferrin (0.3 g/100 g diet), and milk fat globule membrane-10 (2...
December 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26913756/evaluation-of-intestinal-function-in-children-with-autism-and-gastrointestinal-symptoms
#19
Rafail I Kushak, Timothy M Buie, Katherine F Murray, David S Newburg, Ceng Chen, Eirini Nestoridi, Harland S Winter
OBJECTIVE: Alterations in intestinal function, often characterized as a "leaky gut," have been attributed to children who are on the autism spectrum. Disaccharidase activity, intestinal inflammation, and permeability were analyzed in 61 children with autism and 50 nonautistic individuals with gastrointestinal symptoms. METHODS: All patients had duodenal biopsies assayed for lactase, sucrase, maltase, and palatinase activity. Intestinal permeability was evaluated by rhamnose/lactulose test and measured by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry...
May 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26812950/the-multiple-roles-of-sucrase-isomaltase-in-the-intestinal-physiology
#20
Birthe Gericke, Mahdi Amiri, Hassan Y Naim
Osmotic diarrhea and abdominal pain in humans are oftentimes associated with carbohydrate malabsorption in the small intestine due to loss of function of microvillar disaccharidases. Disaccharidases are crucial for the digestion and the subsequent absorption of carbohydrates. This review focuses on sucrase-isomaltase as the most abundant intestinal disaccharidase and the primary or induced pathological conditions that affect its physiological function. Congenital defects are primary factors which directly influence the transport and function of sucrase-isomaltase in a healthy epithelium...
December 2016: Molecular and Cellular Pediatrics
keyword
keyword
18482
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"