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Kevin D Kohl, M Eugenia Ciminari, Juan G Chediack, James O Leafloor, William H Karasov, Scott R McWilliams, Enrique Caviedes-Vidal
In nature, birds are faced with variable food sources that may differ in composition (protein vs. carbohydrates) and quality (highly digestible material vs. indigestible fiber). Studies in passerine birds and some commercial poultry demonstrate that the gastrointestinal tract can respond to varying diet composition and quality by changing morphology and/or activities of digestive enzymes. However, studies in additional avian species are warranted to understand generalities of these trends. We first fed juvenile mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), chickens (Gallus gallus), and quails (Coturnix coturnix) on either high-carbohydrate or high-protein diets...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
Jianmin Yuan, Xingyu Wang, Dafei Yin, Maofei Wang, Xiaonan Yin, Zhao Lei, Yuming Guo
This study compared the effect of different amylases on the utilization of cornstarch in broiler chickens fed a corn-based diet. Three-day-old Arbor Acres plus male chickens were randomly divided into 7 treatments and fed a diet supplemented with different sources and concentrations of amylase: 1,500 U/kg and 3,000 U/kg α-1,4 amylase from Aspergillus oryzae (α-amylase A); 480 U/kg and 960 U/kg α-1,4 amylase from Bacillus subtilis (α-amylase B); 200 U/kg and 400 U/kg α-1,6 isoamylase from B...
September 23, 2016: Poultry Science
Antone R Opekun, Albert M Balesh, Harold T Shelby
Sucrase insufficiency has been observed in children with of functional bowel disorders (FBD) and symptoms of dietary carbohydrate intolerance may be indistinguishable from those of FBD. A two-phase (13)C-sucrose/(13)C-glucose breath test ((13)C-S/GBT) was used to assess sucrase activity because disaccharidase assays are seldom performed in adults. When (13)C-sucrose is hydrolyzed to liberate monosaccharides, oxidation to (13)CO2 is a proportional indicator of sucrase activity. Subsequently, (13)C-glucose oxidation rate was determined after a secondary substrate ingestion (superdose) to adjust for individual habitus effects (Phase II)...
2016: BioMed Research International
T Keltanen, C Mariottini, A-M Walta, A-L Rahikainen, I Ojanperä
Buprenorphine and methadone are commonly used medications for opioid maintenance treatment (OMT), using sublingual and oral administration, respectively. Although beneficial for OMT, these drugs can also be abused by intravenous administration. In intravenous abuse cases, the adjuvants lactose and sucrose are excreted in urine without hydrolysis to monosaccharides, since there are no disaccharidases in the blood. We validated enzymatic methods for the analysis of lactose and sucrose in urine. The analytical performance of both assays was considered appropriate for detecting intravenous drug abuse...
August 9, 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
Aleksander Keselman, Erqiu Li, Jenny Maloney, Steven M Singer
Giardia duodenalis is a noninvasive luminal pathogen that impairs digestive function in its host in part by reducing intestinal disaccharidase activity. This enzyme deficiency has been shown in mice to require CD8(+) T cells. We recently showed that both host immune responses and parasite strain affected disaccharidase levels during murine giardiasis. However, high doses of antibiotics were used to facilitate infections in that study, and we therefore decided to systematically examine the effects of antibiotic use on pathogenesis and immune responses in the mouse model of giardiasis...
October 2016: Infection and Immunity
Howaida I H Ismail, Hassan T Sheir
Giardiasis is a major global cause of water borne diarrheal disease, which contributes greatly to the burden of malnutrition and malabsorption especially in children. There is a great demand for a new effective therapeutic agent against giardiasis that can be used safely during pregnancy, lactation and in infants. In the present study, the therapeutic effect of spiramycin as well as its immunomodulatory mechanism of action in giardiasis had been investigated. 90 Swiss albino mice were used in this study and classified into 3 groups: GI: 40 mice infected with Giardia lamblia cysts, GII: 40 infected mice that received spiramycin treatment in a daily oral dose of 1000 IU/gm body weight for one week starting one week post infection and GIII: 10 control uninfected untreated mice...
April 2016: Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology
Fabio Turco, Ilaria Palumbo, Paolo Andreozzi, Giovanni Sarnelli, Francesca De Ruberto, Giuseppe Esposito, Adriana Basile, Rosario Cuomo
Feijoa sellowiana fruit has been shown to possess various biological activities, such as anti-bacterial and anti-cancer properties, in a variety of cellular models, but its activity on human intestinal epithelial cells has never been tested. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the acetonic extract of F. sellowiana fruits on the viability, membrane peroxidation, disaccharidases activities and proliferation of in vitro models of human intestinal epithelial cells. To obtain this goal, Caco-2 and HT-29 cells were exposed to the acetonic extract for 24 h...
August 2016: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Sunil K Sukumaran, Karen K Yee, Shusuke Iwata, Ramana Kotha, Roberto Quezada-Calvillo, Buford L Nichols, Sankar Mohan, B Mario Pinto, Noriatsu Shigemura, Yuzo Ninomiya, Robert F Margolskee
The primary sweet sensor in mammalian taste cells for sugars and noncaloric sweeteners is the heteromeric combination of type 1 taste receptors 2 and 3 (T1R2+T1R3, encoded by Tas1r2 and Tas1r3 genes). However, in the absence of T1R2+T1R3 (e.g., in Tas1r3 KO mice), animals still respond to sugars, arguing for the presence of T1R-independent detection mechanism(s). Our previous findings that several glucose transporters (GLUTs), sodium glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1), and the ATP-gated K(+) (KATP) metabolic sensor are preferentially expressed in the same taste cells with T1R3 provides a potential explanation for the T1R-independent detection of sugars: sweet-responsive taste cells that respond to sugars and sweeteners may contain a T1R-dependent (T1R2+T1R3) sweet-sensing pathway for detecting sugars and noncaloric sweeteners, as well as a T1R-independent (GLUTs, SGLT1, KATP) pathway for detecting monosaccharides...
May 24, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Taylor Daileda, Peter Baek, Morgan E Sutter, Kalpesh Thakkar
AIM: To investigate the utility of intestinal disaccharide analysis during esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) in children, we performed a systematic review of studies examining disaccharide activity. METHODS: All full-length articles published in English during 1966-2014 were included if: (1) participants had small intestinal biopsy evaluation of disaccharide activity; (2) levels of lactase, sucrase, maltase or palatinase were reported; and (3) age of participants was under 18 years...
May 6, 2016: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Mohammad Shah Hafez Kabir, Mir Muhammad Nasir Uddin, S M Zahid Hosen
BACKGROUND: Our study aims at exploring the hypoglycemic effect, efficacy, and possible mode of action of ethanol extract of Alpinia nigra (EEAN) as an antidiabetic agent in an animal model. METHODS: Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was used to identify primary hypoglycemic effect in mice. Three tests (glucose absorption, sucrose absorption, and disaccharidase activity) were carried out by gut perfusion and six segments studies to assess carbohydrate absorption and glucose utilization...
March 2016: Journal of Intercultural Ethnopharmacology
R Pieper, L Scharek-Tedin, A Zetzsche, I Röhe, S Kröger, W Vahjen, J Zentek
Artificial rearing and formula feeding is coming more into the focus due to increasing litter sizes and limited nursing capacity of sows. The formula composition is important to effectively support the development of the gut and prevent intestinal dysfunction in neonatal piglets. In this study, newborn piglets ( = 8 per group) were fed a bovine milk-based formula (FO), containing skimmed milk and whey as the sole protein and carbohydrate sources, or were suckled by the sow (sow milk [SM]). After 2 wk, tissue from the jejunum was analyzed for structural (i...
March 2016: Journal of Animal Science
Kirsten Berding, Mei Wang, Marcia H Monaco, Lindsey S Alexander, Austin T Mudd, Maciej Chichlowski, Rosaline V Waworuntu, Brian M Berg, Michael J Miller, Ryan N Dilger, Sharon M Donovan
OBJECTIVE: This study tested the hypothesis that the addition of prebiotics and two functional milk ingredients to infant formula would maintain normal growth and gut development and modify microbiota composition and neurotransmitter gene expression in neonatal piglets. METHODS: Two-day-old male piglets (n = 24) were fed formula (CONT) or formula with polydextrose (PDX; 1.2 g/100 g diet), galactooligosaccharides (GOS; 3.5 g/100 g diet), bovine lactoferrin (Lf; 0...
March 23, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Rafail I Kushak, Timothy M Buie, Katherine F Murray, David S Newburg, Ceng Chen, Eirini Nestoridi, Harland S Winter
OBJECTIVE: Alterations in intestinal function, often characterized as a "leaky gut," have been attributed to children who are on the autism spectrum. Disaccharidase activity, intestinal inflammation, and permeability were analyzed in 61 children with autism and 50 nonautistic individuals with gastrointestinal symptoms. METHODS: All patients had duodenal biopsies assayed for lactase, sucrase, maltase, and palatinase activity. Intestinal permeability was evaluated by rhamnose/lactulose test and measured by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry...
May 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Birthe Gericke, Mahdi Amiri, Hassan Y Naim
Osmotic diarrhea and abdominal pain in humans are oftentimes associated with carbohydrate malabsorption in the small intestine due to loss of function of microvillar disaccharidases. Disaccharidases are crucial for the digestion and the subsequent absorption of carbohydrates. This review focuses on sucrase-isomaltase as the most abundant intestinal disaccharidase and the primary or induced pathological conditions that affect its physiological function. Congenital defects are primary factors which directly influence the transport and function of sucrase-isomaltase in a healthy epithelium...
December 2016: Molecular and Cellular Pediatrics
A Alizadeh, P Akbari, E Difilippo, H A Schols, L H Ulfman, M H C Schoterman, J Garssen, J Fink-Gremmels, S Braber
Prebiotic oligosaccharides, including galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS), are used in infant formula to mimic human milk oligosaccharides, which are known to have an important role in the development of the intestinal microbiota and the immune system in neonates. The maturation of the intestines in piglets closely resembles that of human neonates and infants. Hence, a neonatal piglet model was used to study the multi-faceted effect of dietary GOS in early life. Naturally farrowed piglets were separated from the mother sow 24-48 h postpartum and received a milk replacer with or without the addition of GOS for 3 or 26 d, whereafter several indicators of intestinal colonisation and maturation were measured...
February 28, 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
Yu Zhang, Jian-Nan Ma, Chun-Li Ma, Zhi Qi, Chao-Mei Ma
The present study was designed to investigate the bioactive constituents of Xanthoceras sorbifolia in terms of amounts and their antioxidant, DNA scission protection, and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities. Simultaneous quantification of 10 X. sorbifolia constituents was carried out by a newly established ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole mass spectrometry method (UHPLC-MS). The antioxidant activities were evaluated by measuring DPPH radical scavenging and DNA scission protective activities...
November 2015: Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
Jiaolong Li, Yongqing Hou, Dan Yi, Jun Zhang, Lei Wang, Hongyi Qiu, Binying Ding, Joshua Gong
This study was carried out to investigate the effects of tributyrin (TB) on the growth performance, pro-inflammatory cytokines, intestinal morphology, energy status, disaccharidase activity, and antioxidative capacity of broilers challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). A total of 160 one-day-old Cobb broilers were allocated to 1 of 4 treatments, with 4 replicated pens per treatment and 10 birds per pen. The experiment consisted of a 2×2 factorial arrangements of treatments with TB supplementation (0 or 500 mg/kg) and LPS challenge (0 or 500 μg/kg body weight [BW])...
December 2015: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Ichrak Dridi, Wafa Ben-Cherif, Zohra Haouas, Karim Aouam, Mossadok Ben-Attia, Alain Reinberg, Naceur A Boughattas
This study investigates whether the intestinal toxicity of the immunosuppressive agent "mycophenolate mofetil (MMF)" varied according to the circadian dosing-time in rats. MMF (300 mg/kg) was acutely administered by i.p. route in rats at four different circadian stages (1, 7, 13 and 19 hours after light onset, HALO). The results obtained showed that MMF-induced intestinal toxicity depends on circadian dosing-time in rats. A severe toxicity in the duodenum and jejunum was observed when the drug was administered at 7 HALO compared to controls and to other circadian times...
2015: Chronobiology International
Tsuneyuki Oku, Kenichi Tanabe, Shigeki Morita, Norihisa Hamaguchi, Fumio Shimura, Sadako Nakamura
Resistant glucan (RG) and hydrogenated resistant glucan (HRG) are newly developed non-digestible carbohydrate materials that decrease lifestyle-related diseases. The bioavailability of RG and HRG was investigated by in vitro experiments using human and rat small intestinal enzymes and by in vivo experiments using rats in the present study. Oligosaccharides, which are minor components of RG and HRG, were hydrolysed slightly by small intestinal enzymes of humans and rats, and the hydrolysing activity was slightly higher in rats than in humans...
November 28, 2015: British Journal of Nutrition
Atsuo Tahara, Toshiyuki Takasu, Masanori Yokono, Masakazu Imamura, Eiji Kurosaki
The sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) is responsible for most glucose reabsorption in the kidney and has been proposed as a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. In the present study, the combinatory effects of SGLT2 selective inhibitor ipragliflozin and various antidiabetic drugs in high-fat diet and streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced type 2 diabetic mice were investigated. Ipragliflozin dose-dependently increased urinary glucose excretion and improved glucose tolerance. In addition, each antidiabetic drug (mitiglinide, glibenclamide, sitagliptin, insulin, metformin, voglibose, or rosiglitazone) also significantly improved glucose tolerance without affecting urinary glucose excretion...
February 2016: Archives of Pharmacal Research
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