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Disaccharidase

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792023/fern-9-11-ene-2%C3%AE-3%C3%AE-diol-action-on-insulin-secretion-in-hyperglycemic-conditions
#1
Allisson Jhonatan Gomes Castro, Luisa Helena Cazarolli, Gabrielle Da Luz, Delsi Altenhofen, Hemily Batista Da Silva, Francieli Kanumfre Carvalho, Moacir Geraldo Pizzolatti, Fátima Rmb Silva
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect and the mechanism of action of fernenediol as insulin secretagogue. Wistar rats were treated with 0.1; 1 and 10 mg/kg fernenediol and then induced hyperglycemia by oral glucose. The glycaemia, insulin, LDH, calcium and hepatic glycogen were analyzed. Considering the intestine and pancreas as targets for the triterpene action, the duodenum was used to verify the influence of fernenediol on intestinal glycosidases. Additionally, pancreatic islets were used for studies of 14 C-deoxyglucose uptake and influx of 45 Ca2+ in hyperglycemic medium with/without fernenediol in the presence/absence of an inhibitor/activator of KATP channels, glibenclamide, diazoxide, nifedipine, calcium chelator (BAPTA- AM) and H-89 and ST the inhibitors of the PKA and PKC enzymes...
May 24, 2018: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762380/clinical-characteristics-of-disaccharidase-deficiencies-among-children-undergoing-upper-endoscopy
#2
Stanley A Cohen, Hannah Oloyede, Benjamin D Gold, Aminu Mohammed, Heather E Elser
OBJECTIVES: The epidemiology and clinical significance of disaccharidase deficiencies have not been thoroughly characterized. Recent work suggests at least genetic sucrase-isomaltase deficiency is more prevalent than previously believed. Because lactase deficiency (LD) is well described, the present study focuses on the clinical characteristics of children with disaccharidase deficiencies determined by esophagogastroduodenoscopy. METHODS: Endoscopic records were reviewed from patients undergoing esophagogastroduodenoscopies with biopsies assayed for disaccharidase activity performed by 13 pediatric gastroenterologists during 5 years (2010-2014)...
June 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762379/demographic-and-clinical-correlates-of-mucosal-disaccharidase-deficiencies-in-children-with-functional-dyspepsia
#3
Bruno P Chumpitazi, Claudia C Robayo-Torres, Cynthia M Tsai, Antone R Opekun, Susan S Baker, Buford L Nichols, Mark A Gilger
BACKGROUND: A subset of children with functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs), which includes functional dyspepsia, may have duodenal disaccharidase deficiencies. OBJECTIVES: To determine the frequency, demographics, and clinical characteristics associated with duodenal disaccharidase deficiencies in children with functional dyspepsia. METHODS: Children ages 4 to 18 years undergoing esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) evaluation for dyspepsia were enrolled in either a retrospective (study 1) or prospective (study 2) evaluation...
June 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762372/metabolic-impacts-of-maltase-deficiencies
#4
Buford L Nichols, Susan S Baker, Roberto Quezada-Calvillo
The mucosal maltase enzymes are characterized by an activity that produces glucose from linear glucose polymers, assayed with the disaccharide maltose. The related enzyme isomaltase produces glucose from branched glucose polymers, assayed with palatinose. Maltase and isomaltase activities are part of the 4 disaccharidases assayed from clinical duodenal biopsy homogenates. The reported maltase activities are more difficult to interpret than lactase or sucrase activities because both the sucrase-isomaltase and maltase-glucoamylase proteins have overlapping maltase activities...
June 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762371/posttranslational-processing-and-function-of-mucosal-maltases
#5
Mahdi Amiri, Hassan Y Naim
The final step of carbohydrate digestion in the intestine is performed by 2 major α-glucosidases of the intestinal mucosa, sucrase-isomaltase (SI) and maltase-glucoamylase. Both of these enzymes are type II membrane glycoproteins, which share a significant level of homology in gene and protein structures and yet have differences in the posttranslational processing, substrate specificity and functional capacity. Insufficient activity of these disaccharidases particularly SI as a result of genetic mutations or secondary intestinal pathologies is associated with carbohydrate maldigestion and gastrointestinal intolerances...
June 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762367/the-history-of-maltose-active-disaccharidases
#6
Michael J Lentze
The history of maltose-active disaccharidases is closely related to the history of the sugar and starch industry. It began in the 19th century, when a shortage of cane sugar occurred in continental Europe, because Napoleon Bonaparte decreed that no goods could be imported from England to the countries he occupied. Other sugar sources had to be found, and it led to the identification of sugar beets as alternative source of sugar by Marggraf in 1774, to the detection of starch hydrolysis by diluted sulfuric acid by Kirchhoff in 1812, and to the starch digestion enzyme, α-amylase, by Payen in 1833...
June 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715699/effect-of-gestational-and-lactational-exposure-to-dehp-dinp-and-dep-on-intestinal-morphology-disaccharidases-and-alkaline-phosphatase-in-rats-during-postnatal-development
#7
K Setti Ahmed, O Kharoubi, A E K Aoues, M Bouchekara, B Khaladi, M Taleb
INTRODUCTION:  The diesters of 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid (phthalic acid), commonly known as phthalates, are used primarily as plasticizers of polyvinyl chloride and as additives in consumer and personal care products. OBJECTIVE:  This study was designed to evaluate the impact of in utero and postnatal exposure to diisononyl phthalate (DINP), diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), and diethyl phthalate (DEP) on gut maturation in a Wistar rat model. MATERIALS AND METHODS:  Pregnant females were gavaged from day 8 of gestation through postnatal day (pd) 30 with 0 (vehicle control), DEHP (380 mg/kg/d), DINP (380 mg/kg/d), or DEP (800 mg/kg/d) dissolved in corn oil...
May 1, 2018: American Journal of Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660529/bmsuc1-is-essential-for-glycometabolism-modulation-in-the-silkworm-bombyx-mori
#8
Quan Gan, Xinwei Zhang, Daobo Zhang, Liang Shi, Yue Zhou, Tongtong Sun, Song Jiang, Junshan Gao, Yan Meng
Sucrose is the most commonly transported sugar in plants and is easily assimilated by insects to fulfill the requirement of physiological metabolism. BmSuc1 is a novel animal β-fructofuranosidase (β-FFase, EC 3.2.1.26)-encoding gene that was firstly cloned and identified in silkworm, Bombyx mori. BmSUC1 was presumed to play an important role in the silkworm-mulberry enzymatic adaptation system by effectively hydrolyzing sucrose absorbed from mulberry leaves. However, this has not been proved with direct evidence thus far...
June 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29508680/medium-chain-tag-improve-intestinal-integrity-by-suppressing-toll-like-receptor-4-nucleotide-binding-oligomerisation-domain-proteins-and-necroptosis-signalling-in-weanling-piglets-challenged-with-lipopolysaccharide
#9
Xiao Xu, Shaokui Chen, Haibo Wang, Zhixiao Tu, Shuhui Wang, Xiuying Wang, Huiling Zhu, Chunwei Wang, Jiadong Zhu, Yulan Liu
This study was conducted to evaluate whether medium-chain TAG (MCT) could alleviate Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced intestinal injury by regulating intestinal epithelial inflammatory response, as well as necroptosis. A total of twenty-four weanling piglets were randomly allotted to one of four treatments in a 2×2 factorial arrangement including diet type (5 % maize oil v. 4 % MCT+1 % maize oil) and immune stress (saline v. E. coli LPS). The piglets were fed diets containing maize oil or MCT for 21 d...
May 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29491758/variable-use-of-disaccharidase-assays-when-evaluating-abdominal-pain
#10
Stanley A Cohen, Hannah Oloyede
Background and Aims: Patients with a disaccharidase deficiency typically present with abdominal discomfort and often with diarrhea. However, disaccharidase deficiency is often overlooked as a cause of these complaints. Therefore, we sought to determine the prevalence of lactase and sucrase deficiencies in a pediatric population undergoing diagnostic esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) and to describe disaccharidase testing practices among pediatric gastroenterologists. Methods: Endoscopic records from patients undergoing diagnostic EGD and disaccharidase analysis (DA) were retrospectively reviewed...
January 2018: Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130561/mechanism-of-action-of-camphoryl-benzene-sulfonamide-derivative-on-glucose-uptake-in-adipose-tissue
#11
Marisa J S Frederico, Allisson J G Castro, Veronica A M Pinto, Cristiane D F Ramos, Fabíola B F Monteiro, Alessandra Mascarello, Ricardo J Nunes, Fátima R M B Silva
The aim of the present study was to investigate the mechanism of action of a sulfonamide derivative on glucose uptake in adipose tissue, as well as to characterize the effects of this compound on intestinal disaccharidases and advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) formation. Camphoryl-benzene sulfonamide (CS) was able to stimulate glucose uptake in isolated adipocytes, adipose tissue, and in soleus muscle. The stimulatory effect of the compound (10 μM) on glucose uptake on adipose tissue was blocked by diazoxide, wortmannin, U73122, colchicine, and N-ethylmaleimide...
June 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122539/a-new-polyacetylene-glucoside-from-vernonia-scorpioides-and-its-potential-antihyperglycemic-effect
#12
Luiz A E Pollo, Marisa J Frederico, Adailton J Bortoluzzi, Fátima R M B Silva, Maique W Biavatti
Natural polyacetylene compounds have been found mainly in seven botanical families and remain underexplored and understudied, despite its inherent chemical and biological reactivity, due to the presence of conjugated triple bonds. Some polyacetylene glucosides have been found to stimulate glucose uptake in C5BL/ks-db/db obese diabetic mice, and since polyacetylene glucosides previously found in Vernonia scorpioides showed little to none cytotoxicity, in this study the antihyperglycemic potential of a new V...
January 5, 2018: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027951/effects-of-maternal-low-energy-diet-during-gestation-on-intestinal-morphology-disaccharidase-activity-and-immune-response-to-lipopolysaccharide-challenge-in-pig-offspring
#13
Yuling Chen, Daolin Mou, Liang Hu, Jie Zhen, Lianqiang Che, Zhengfeng Fang, Shengyu Xu, Yan Lin, Bin Feng, Jian Li, De Wu
Maternal nutrition during gestation is involved in the offspring's intestinal development and immunity. The aim of this study was to (1) determine the effects of maternal energy on intestinal digestion and absorption function in offspring, using pigs as a model; and (2) to evaluate the potential effect and mechanisms of maternal energy in modulating immune responses of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenged piglets. After mating, thirty-six nine-parity sows (Landrace × Yorkshire), body weight (BW) (initial body weight 233...
October 13, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994704/characterization-of-mucosal-disaccharidases-from-human-intestine
#14
Mahdi Amiri, Hassan Y Naim
In this study, we used a brush border membrane (BBM) preparation from human small intestine to analyze the proportion and the activity of major intestinal disaccharidases, including sucrase-isomaltase (SI), maltase-glucoamylase (MGAM) and lactase-phlorizin hydrolase (LPH). SI, MGAM and LPH respectively constituted 8.2%, 2.7% and 1.4% of total BBM protein. The activity of SI and LPH decreased threefold after purification from the brush border membrane, which highlights the effect of membrane microdomains on the functional capacity of these enzymes...
October 10, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820081/effects-of-1-5-anhydroglucitol-on-postprandial-blood-glucose-and-insulin-levels-and-hydrogen-excretion-in-rats-and-healthy-humans
#15
Sadako Nakamura, Kenichi Tanabe, Kazuhiro Yoshinaga, Fumio Shimura, Tsuneyuki Oku
The inhibition by 1,5-anhydro-d-glucitol (1,5-AG) was determined on disaccharidases of rats and humans. Then, the metabolism and fate of 1,5-AG was investigated in rats and humans. Although 1,5-AG inhibited about 50 % of sucrase activity in rat small intestine, the inhibition was less than half of d-sorbose. 1,5-AG strongly inhibited trehalase and lactase, whereas d-sorbose inhibited them very weakly. 1,5-AG noncompetitively inhibited sucrase. The inhibition of 1,5-AG on sucrase and maltase was similar between humans and rats...
July 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737708/functional-comparison-for-lipid-metabolism-and-intestinal-and-fecal-microflora-enzyme-activities-between-low-molecular-weight-chitosan-and-chitosan-oligosaccharide-in-high-fat-diet-fed-rats
#16
Chen-Yuan Chiu, Shih-An Feng, Shing-Hwa Liu, Meng-Tsan Chiang
The present study investigated and compared the regulatory effects on the lipid-related metabolism and intestinal disaccharidase/fecal bacterial enzyme activities between low molecular weight chitosan and chitosan oligosaccharide in high-fat-diet-fed rats. Diet supplementation of low molecular weight chitosan showed greater efficiency than chitosan oligosaccharide in suppressing the increased weights in body and in liver and adipose tissues of high-fat-diet-fed rats. Supplementation of low molecular weight chitosan also showed a greater improvement than chitosan oligosaccharide in imbalance of plasma, hepatic, and fecal lipid profiles, and intestinal disaccharidase activities in high-fat-diet-fed rats...
July 24, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631312/the-flow-and-fate-of-digestive-enzymes-in-the-field-cricket-gryllus-bimaculatus
#17
Joseph Woodring
The flow of enzymes, the ratio of bound to unbound enzymes, and their inactivation in the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus was studied. The digestive enzymes are forced forward into the crop by caecal contraction and then they are mixed with freshly chewed food and saliva, forming a crop-chyme. This chyme is blended by crop peristalsis, and periodic opening of the preproventricular valve (PPV) allows posterior movement into the proventriculus and further into the midgut. The contraction of the crop is modulated by Grybi-AST and Grybi-SK peptides, which are partially secreted by the caecal endocrine cells...
July 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618651/modulatory-effects-of-caralluma-fimbriata-extract-against-high-fat-diet-induced-abnormalities-in-carbohydrate-metabolism-in-wistar-rats
#18
Sudhakara Gujjala, Mallaiah Putakala, Srinivasulu Nukala, Manjunatha Bangeppagari, Ramaswamy Rajendran, Saralakumari Desireddy
The present study was aimed to evaluate the modulatory effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Caralluma fimbriata (CFE) by assaying the activities of key enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism and changes in glycogen content (liver and muscle) in high-fat (HF) diet-induced diabetic rats. In vitro glucose uptake studies were carried out in both psoas muscle and adipose tissue. The inhibitory effect of the extract on α-amylase was determined in in vitro studies. Male Wistar rats of body weight around 180g were divided into five groups (n=8), two of these groups were fed with standard pellet diet and the other three groups were fed with HF- (60%) diet...
August 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514399/-disaccharidase-deficiency-and-functional-bowel-diseases
#19
A I Parfenov, O V Akhmadullina, E A Sabelnikova, N I Belostotsky, M V Kirova, S G Khomeriki, S V Bykova
AIM: To elucidate the role of intestinal carbohydrases (glucoamylase, maltase, sucrose, and lactase) in the etiology and pathogenesis of functional bowel diseases (FBD). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: 74 patients (36 men and 38 women) aged 18 to 50 years with FBD were examined. According to Rome IV criteria (2016), there was diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in 21 patients, functional diarrhea (FD) in 33, constipation-predominant IBS in 6, functional constipation (FC) in 4, and mixed IBS in 10...
2017: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512643/diagnostic-and-research-aspects-of-small-intestinal-disaccharidases-in-coeliac-disease
#20
REVIEW
Tanja Šuligoj, Paul J Ciclitira, Borut Božič
Disaccharidases (DS) are brush border enzymes embedded in the microvillous membrane of small intestinal enterocytes. In untreated coeliac disease (CD), a general decrease of DS activities is seen. This manuscript reviews different aspects of DS activities in CD: their utility in the diagnosis and their application to in vitro toxicity testing. The latter has never been established in CD research. However, with the recent advances in small intestinal organoid techniques, DS might be employed as a biomarker for in vitro studies...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
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