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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045797/public-health-detailing-to-increase-routine-hiv-screening-in-baltimore-maryland-satisfaction-feasibility-and-effectiveness
#1
Amelia Greiner Safi, Jamie Perin, Andrea Mantsios, Christina Schumacher, C Patrick Chaulk, Jacky M Jennings
The objective of this study was to evaluate the satisfaction with, and the feasibility and effectiveness of, a public health detailing project focused on increasing routine human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) screening of people aged 13-64 by primary care providers working in areas of Baltimore City, Maryland, with high rates of HIV transmission (defined as a mean geometric viral load of ≥1500 copies/mL per census tract). In public health detailing, trained public health professionals (ie, detailers) visit medical practice sites to meet with providers and site staff members, with the intention of influencing changes in clinical practice policy and/or behavior...
January 1, 2017: Public Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045787/mechanistic-origin-of-the-combined-effect-of-surfaces-and-mechanical-agitation-on-amyloid-formation
#2
Fulvio Grigolato, Claudio Colombo, Raffaele Ferrari, Lenka Rezabkova, Paolo Arosio
Interactions between proteins and surfaces in combination with hydrodynamic flow and mechanical agitation can often trigger the conversion of soluble peptides and proteins into aggregates, including amyloid fibrils. Despite the extensive literature on the empirical effects of surfaces and mechanical forces on the formation of amyloids, the molecular details of the mechanisms underlying this behavior are still elusive. This limitation is, in part, due to the complex reaction network underlying the formation of amyloids, where several microscopic reactions of nucleation and growth can occur both at the interfaces and in bulk...
October 18, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045469/incident-experience-predicts-freezing-like-responses-in-firefighters
#3
Verena Ly, Linsey Roijendijk, Hans Hazebroek, Clemon Tonnaer, Muriel A Hagenaars
Freezing is a defensive response to acute stress that is associated with coping and alterations in attentional processing. However, it remains unclear whether individuals in high risk professions, who are skilled at making rapid decisions in emergency situations, show altered threat-induced freezing. Here we investigated the effect of incident experience in a high risk profession on freezing. Additionally, we explored whether any effect of incident experience on freezing would be different for profession-related and -unrelated threat...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044937/selective-inhibition-of-m5-muscarinic-acetylcholine-receptors-attenuates-cocaine-self-administration-in-rats
#4
Barak W Gunter, Robert W Gould, Michael Bubser, Kevin M McGowan, Craig W Lindsley, Carrie K Jones
Cocaine use disorder (CUD) remains a debilitating health problem in the United States for which there are no Food and Drug Administration-approved treatment options. Accumulating anatomical and electrophysiological evidence indicates that the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) subtype 5 (M5 ) plays a critical role in the regulation of the mesolimbic dopaminergic reward circuitry, a major site of action for cocaine and other psychostimulants. In addition, M5 knockout mice exhibit reduced cocaine self-administration behaviors with no differences in sugar pellet-maintained responding relative to wild-type mice...
October 18, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044165/in-vivo-neuromechanics-decoding-causal-motor-neuron-behavior-with-resulting-musculoskeletal-function
#5
Massimo Sartori, Utku Ş Yavuz, Dario Farina
Human motor function emerges from the interaction between the neuromuscular and the musculoskeletal systems. Despite the knowledge of the mechanisms underlying neural and mechanical functions, there is no relevant understanding of the neuro-mechanical interplay in the neuro-musculo-skeletal system. This currently represents the major challenge to the understanding of human movement. We address this challenge by proposing a paradigm for investigating spinal motor neuron contribution to skeletal joint mechanical function in the intact human in vivo...
October 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043790/emissive-synthetic-cofactors-an-isomorphic-isofunctional-and-re-sponsive-nad-analogue
#6
Alexander R Rovira, Andrea Fin, Yitzhak Tor
The synthesis, photophysics, and biochemical utility of a new fluorescent NAD(+) analogue based on an isothiazolo[4,3-d]pyrimidine core (N(tz)AD(+)) are described. Enzymatic reactions, photophysically monitored in real time, show N(tz)AD(+) and N(tz)ADH to be substrates for yeast alcohol dehydrogenase and lactate dehydrogenase, respectively, with reaction rates comparable to that of the native cofactors. As the emissive N(tz)AD(+) is converted to the corresponding N(tz)ADH, a drop in fluorescence occurs, displaying complementary photophysical behavior to that of the native NAD(+)/NADH...
October 18, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043783/marine-mammal-microbiota-yields-novel-antibiotic-with-potent-activity-against-clostridium-difficile
#7
Jessica L Ochoa, Laura M Sanchez, Byoung-Mo Koo, Jennifer S Doherty, Manohary Rajendram, Kerwyn Casey Huang, Carol A Gross, Roger G Linington
The recent explosion of research on the microbiota has highlighted the important interplay between commensal microorganisms and the health of their cognate hosts. Metabolites isolated from commensal bacteria have been demonstrated to possess a range of antimicrobial activities, and it is widely believed that some of these metabolites modulate host behavior, affecting predisposition to disease and pathogen invasion. Our access to the local marine mammal stranding network and previous successes in mining the fish microbiota poised us to test the hypothesis that the marine mammal microbiota is a novel source of commensal bacteria-produced bioactive metabolites...
October 18, 2017: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043389/biomagnification-of-mercury-in-fish-from-two-gold-mining-impacted-tropical-marshes-in-northern-colombia
#8
José Luis Marrugo-Negrete, Javier Alonso Ruiz-Guzmán, Ana Carolina Ruiz-Fernández
Total mercury concentrations (T-Hg) and stable isotope ratios (δ(15)N and δ(13)C) were analyzed in the muscle of fish, collected at two marshes impacted by gold mining in Northern Colombia, to evaluate the seasonal and spatial behavior of these variables and mercury biomagnification based on their relationship with δ(15)N ratios in the fish. There was not significant (p > 0.05) seasonal differences (dry and rainy season) in δ(15)N and δ(13)C values in none marsh, suggesting that these fish species keep a similar feed pattern within each marsh along the year...
October 17, 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043015/-show-me-which-parasites-you-carry-and-i-will-tell-you-what-you-eat-or-how-to-infer-the-trophic-behavior-of-hematophagous-arthropods-feeding-on-wildlife
#9
Boris Makanga, Carlo Costantini, Nil Rahola, Patrick Yangari, Virginie Rougeron, Diego Ayala, Franck Prugnolle, Christophe Paupy
Most emerging infectious diseases are zoonoses originating from wildlife among which vector-borne diseases constitute a major risk for global human health. Understanding the transmission routes of mosquito-borne pathogens in wildlife crucially depends on recording mosquito blood-feeding patterns. During an extensive longitudinal survey to study sylvatic anophelines in two wildlife reserves in Gabon, we collected 2,415 mosquitoes of which only 0.3% were blood-fed. The molecular analysis of the blood meals contained in guts indicated that all the engorged mosquitoes fed on wild ungulates...
October 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042987/upregulation-of-yes-associated-protein-and-transcriptional-co-activator-with-pdz-binding-motif-influences-the-behavior-of-lovo-human-colon-adenocarcinoma-cells
#10
Yu Li, Lan Li, Min Zhu, Limin Ye, Qian Yang
The present study aimed to investigate the role of Yes-associated protein (YAP) and transcriptional co-activator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ) in the LOVO human colon adenocarcinoma cell line and explore the underlying mechanisms. First, the expression levels of YAP and TAZ were detected in LOVO cells using reverse-transcription quantitative PCR, and the results suggested that YAP and TAZ were faintly expressed in LOVO cells. To investigate the exact role of YAP and TAZ in LOVO cells, stable YAP- and/or TAZ-overexpressing LOVO cell lines were established using YAP and/or TAZ expression plasmids...
October 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042895/no-association-between-the-polymorphism-rs6943555-in-the-auts2-gene-and-personality-traits-in-japanese-university-students
#11
Shin Narita, Kazutaka Ikeda, Daisuke Nishizawa, Eiji Yoshihara, Maki Numajiri, Yuuya Onozawa, Nobuyo Ohtani, Kazuhiko Iwahashi
OBJECTIVE: The autism susceptibility candidate 2 (AUTS2) gene has been implicated in multiple neurological disorders. Several recent studies have revealed that the polymorphism rs6943555 in the AUTS2 gene is broadly associated with human mental function and behavior. Therefore, in the present study we investigated whether the polymorphism rs6943555 is associated with human personality traits in Japanese university students. In addition, our previous study reported that the AUTS2 rs6943555-rs9886351 haplotype is associated with alcohol dependence...
September 2017: Psychiatry Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042551/integrating-evolutionary-and-regulatory-information-with-a-multispecies-approach-implicates-genes-and-pathways-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#12
Hyun Ji Noh, Ruqi Tang, Jason Flannick, Colm O'Dushlaine, Ross Swofford, Daniel Howrigan, Diane P Genereux, Jeremy Johnson, Gerard van Grootheest, Edna Grünblatt, Erik Andersson, Diana R Djurfeldt, Paresh D Patel, Michele Koltookian, Christina M Hultman, Michele T Pato, Carlos N Pato, Steven A Rasmussen, Michael A Jenike, Gregory L Hanna, S Evelyn Stewart, James A Knowles, Stephan Ruhrmann, Hans-Jörgen Grabe, Michael Wagner, Christian Rück, Carol A Mathews, Susanne Walitza, Daniëlle C Cath, Guoping Feng, Elinor K Karlsson, Kerstin Lindblad-Toh
Obsessive-compulsive disorder is a severe psychiatric disorder linked to abnormalities in glutamate signaling and the cortico-striatal circuit. We sequenced coding and regulatory elements for 608 genes potentially involved in obsessive-compulsive disorder in human, dog, and mouse. Using a new method that prioritizes likely functional variants, we compared 592 cases to 560 controls and found four strongly associated genes, validated in a larger cohort. NRXN1 and HTR2A are enriched for coding variants altering postsynaptic protein-binding domains...
October 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042261/biology-of-the-introduced-species-triatoma-lecticularia-hemiptera-reduviidae-to-northwestern-mexico-under-laboratory-conditions
#13
Yunuen Grant-Guillén, Benjamín Nogueda-Torres, Jordi Gascón-Sánchez, Gumercindo Goicochea-Del Rosal, José Alejandro Martínez-Ibarra
The first record of Triatoma lecticularia out of its reported distribution area together with the brief description of the said area is provided in this paper. In addition, some biological parameters related to hatching of eggs, life cycle and feeding and defecation behaviors for each instar of one population of T. lecticularia from its previously reported distribution area (PR) and for each instar of that introduced recently found population (IS) of this species were evaluated and compared. Twenty-eight specimens were collected from IS, mostly (64...
October 14, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042216/mapping-human-brain-lesions-and-their-functional-consequences
#14
REVIEW
Hans-Otto Karnath, Christoph Sperber, Christopher Rorden
Neuroscience has a long history of inferring brain function by examining the relationship between brain injury and subsequent behavioral impairments. The primary advantage of this method over correlative methods is that it can tell us if a certain brain region is necessary for a given cognitive function. In addition, lesion-based analyses provide unique insights into clinical deficits. In the last decade, statistical voxel-based lesion behavior mapping (VLBM) emerged as a powerful method for understanding the architecture of the human brain...
October 14, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042182/are-endocrine-disrupting-compounds-environmental-risk-factors-for-autism-spectrum-disorder
#15
REVIEW
Amer Moosa, Henry Shu, Tewarit Sarachana, Valerie W Hu
Recent research on the etiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has shifted in part from a singular focus on genetic causes to the involvement of environmental factors and their gene interactions. This shift in focus is a result of the rapidly increasing prevalence of ASD coupled with the incomplete penetrance of this disorder in monozygotic twins. One such area of environmentally focused research is the association of exposures to endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) with elevated risk for ASD. EDCs are exogenous chemicals that can alter endogenous hormone activity and homeostasis, thus potentially disrupting the action of sex and other natural hormones at all stages of human development...
October 14, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042156/head-turning-asymmetry-a-novel-lateralization-in-rats-predicts-susceptibility-to-behavioral-despair
#16
Efe Soyman, Guzin Duygu Yilmaz, Resit Canbeyli
Behavioral markers of laterality reflecting underlying neurobiological asymmetries between the cerebral hemispheres are related to differential susceptibility to mood disorders. In the present study, we investigated the strength and consistency of a novel behavioral lateralization, head-turning asymmetry, and its relation to behavioral despair in adult female Wistar rats. Head-turning biases were determined in a test where water-deprived rats had to turn their head to right or left to gain access to a water dispenser...
October 14, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042118/the-early-development-of-the-normative-mind
#17
EDITORIAL
Markus Paulus, Marco F H Schmidt
Normativity is pervasive in everyday human social interactions and perhaps even constitutive of human forms of group and societal living. During the past decade, there has been increased interest in the ontogeny of normativity and the role that norms play in early social reasoning and behavior. Given the ubiquity of normativity, it is vital to investigate the development of children's normative understanding and behavior in a variety of different contexts, ranging from prosocial behavior to rational action or from linguistic competencies to cultural norms and values...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041906/from-provocation-to-aggression-the-neural-network
#18
Jonathan Repple, Christina M Pawliczek, Bianca Voss, Steven Siegel, Frank Schneider, Nils Kohn, Ute Habel
BACKGROUND: In-vivo observations of neural processes during human aggressive behavior are difficult to obtain, limiting the number of studies in this area. To address this gap, the present study implemented a social reactive aggression paradigm in 29 healthy men, employing non-violent provocation in a two-player game to elicit aggressive behavior in fMRI settings. RESULTS: Participants responded more aggressively after high provocation reflected in taking more money from their opponents...
October 17, 2017: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040948/a-prospective-cohort-study-of-community-functioning-among-psychiatric-outpatients
#19
Alan H L Chan, Samuel Y S Wong, Wai-Tong Chien
The present study analyzed the community functioning among Chinese people with common mental disorders and their relationships with different factors under the framework of Model of Human Occupation. The research team followed up a stratified random sample of 238 patients in three public psychiatric specialist outpatient clinics in Hong Kong in one year. The patients completed assessments at baseline and 12-month follow-up in four areas of community functioning (i.e., self-care, independent living skills, social skills, and work skills), self-esteem, self-efficacy, physical functioning, behavioral regulation, mental states, family expressed emotion, and perceived social stigma...
October 10, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040941/influence-of-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungi-on-antimony-phyto-uptake-and-compartmentation-in-vegetables-cultivated-in-urban-gardens
#20
Antoine Pierart, Camille Dumat, Arthur QuyManh Maes, Nathalie Sejalon-Delmas
1. CONTEXT: Urban areas are often contaminated with various forms of persistent metal (loid) and emerging contaminants such as antimony (Sb). Thus, in the context of urban agriculture where sustainable practices such as biofertilizers application (arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, AMF) could improve nutrient transfer from the soil to the vegetables, the effect of AMF on metal (loid) mobility and human bioaccessibility is still poorly known. 2. METHODS: The role of AMF in Sb uptake by lettuce and carrot grown in artificial substrate spiked with different Sb chemical species was investigated...
October 10, 2017: Chemosphere
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