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Jun Chen, Yoshitaka Toyomasu, Yujiro Hayashi, David R Linden, Joseph H Szurszewski, Heidi Nelson, Gianrico Farrugia, Purna C Kashyap, Nicholas Chia, Tamas Ordog
BACKGROUND: Nutritional interventions often fail to prevent growth failure in childhood and adolescent malnutrition and the mechanisms remain unclear. Recent studies revealed altered microbiota in malnourished children and anorexia nervosa. To facilitate mechanistic studies under physiologically relevant conditions, we established a mouse model of growth failure following chronic dietary restriction and examined microbiota in relation to age, diet, body weight, and anabolic treatment...
October 3, 2016: Genome Medicine
Liza Margareth Medeiros de Carvalho Sousa, Gabriela Pacheco Mendes, Danila Barreiro Campos, Pietro Sampaio Baruselli, Paula de Carvalho Papa
We hypothesized that stimulatory and superovulatory treatments, using equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG), modulate the expression of genes related to insulin, cellular modelling and angiogenesis signaling pathways in the bovine corpus luteum (CL). Therefore, we investigated: 1-the effect of these treatments on circulating insulin and somatomedin C concentrations and on gene and protein expression of INSR, IGF1 and IGFR1, as well as other insulin signaling molecules; 2-the effects of eCG on gene and protein expression of INSR, IGF1, GLUT4 and NFKB1A in bovine luteal cells; and 3-the effect of stimulatory and superovulatory treatments on gene and protein expression of ANG, ANGPT1, NOS2, ADM, PRSS2, MMP9 and PLAU...
2016: PloS One
Yang Song, Zhenwu Du, Qiwei Yang, Ming Ren, Yujie Sui, Qingyu Wang, Ao Wang, Haiyue Zhao, Jincheng Wang, Guizhen Zhang
The critical roles of IGFBP3 in regulating the osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells strongly indicate its potential effects on the pathogenesis of osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH). In this study, we investigated the association of IGFBP3 gene polymorphism and its protein expression with the development of ONFH to further explore its molecular pathogenesis. Ligase detection reactions and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used to detect the polymorphisms of rs2453839[C/T] and rs3110697[A/G] and the serum protein expression of IGFBP3 gene in 182 cases and 179 controls, respectively...
October 5, 2016: DNA and Cell Biology
Arjun Saha, Susan Buntz, Paula Scotland, Li Xu, Pamela Noeldner, Sachit Patel, Amy Wollish, Aruni Gunaratne, Tracy Gentry, Jesse Troy, Glenn K Matsushima, Joanne Kurtzberg, Andrew E Balber
Microglia and monocytes play important roles in regulating brain remyelination. We developed DUOC-01, a cell therapy product intended for treatment of demyelinating diseases, from banked human umbilical cord blood (CB) mononuclear cells. Immunodepletion and selection studies demonstrated that DUOC-01 cells are derived from CB CD14(+) monocytes. We compared the ability of freshly isolated CB CD14(+) monocytes and DUOC-01 cells to accelerate remyelination of the brains of NOD/SCID/IL2Rγ(null) mice following cuprizone feeding-mediated demyelination...
August 18, 2016: JCI Insight
Simona Falletta, Stefano Partelli, Corrado Rubini, Dominik Nann, Andrea Doria, Ilaria Marinoni, Vanessa Polenta, Carmelina Di Pasquale, Ettore C Degli Uberti, Aurel Perren, Massimo Falconi, Maria Chiara Zatelli
Medical therapy of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (P-NET) may take advantage of Everolimus treatment. However the extent of therapeutic response cannot be predicted. The present study was aimed to identify possible predictive markers of response to Everolimus in P-NET. We found that Everolimus reduced cell viability and induced apoptosis in primary cultures of 6 P-NET (P-NET-R), where the proliferative and antiapoptotic effects of IGF1 were blocked by Everolimus. On the contrary, 14 P-NET primary cultures (P-NET-NR) were resistant to Everolimus and IGF1, suggesting an involvement of PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway in the mechanism of resistance...
October 3, 2016: Endocrine-related Cancer
Anna Osiecka-Iwan, Stanislaw Moskalewski, Anna Hyc
INTRODUCTION: We have previously observed that rat synovial membranes incubated in medium containing cartilage interstitial fluid (CIF) responded by changes in the expression of hyaluronan synthases (HAS1 and HAS2), collagen type I, versican, aggrecan, lubricin, matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 3 (MMP2 and MMP3), tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMP1, 2 and 3), transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin (IL) 1β and IL-6. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of particular cytokines found in CIF on the gene expression of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins in synovial membrane cells...
October 3, 2016: Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica
Kevin J Ashton, Melissa E Reichelt, S Jamal Mustafa, Bunyen Teng, Catherine Ledent, Lea M D Delbridge, Polly A Hofmann, R Ray Morrison, John P Headrick
Influences of adenosine 2A receptor (A2AR) activity on the cardiac transcriptome and genesis of endotoxemic myocarditis are unclear. We applied transcriptomic profiling (39 K Affymetrix arrays) to identify A2AR-sensitive molecules, revealed by receptor knockout (KO), in healthy and endotoxemic hearts. Baseline cardiac function was unaltered and only 37 A2AR-sensitive genes modified by A2AR KO (≥1.2-fold change, <5 % FDR); the five most induced are Mtr, Ppbp, Chac1, Ctsk and Cnpy2 and the five most repressed are Hp, Yipf4, Acta1, Cidec and Map3k2...
September 30, 2016: Purinergic Signalling
Jennifer Roche, Christelle Ramé, Maxime Reverchon, Namya Mellouk, Marion Cornuau, Fabrice Guerif, Pascal Froment, Joëlle Dupont
Apelin (APLN) is a recently discovered adipokine involved in the regulation of various metabolic functions. Its receptor, APLNR, is expressed in reproductive tissues, however, its role in human ovarian cells is unknown. In this study we identified APLN and APLNR in human ovarian follicles and analyzed their expression in granulosa cells and follicular fluid obtained from obese and non-obese patients, with or without polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). We also investigated the effect of APLN on steroidogenesis in cultured human luteinized granulosa cells (hGCs) from non-obese patients without PCOS...
September 28, 2016: Biology of Reproduction
Maria Matar, Laila Al-Shaar, Joyce Maalouf, Mona Nabulsi, Asma Arabi, Mahmoud Choucair, Hani Tamim, Ghada El-Hajj Fuleihan
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the changes in calciotropic hormones during puberty and their relationship to bone mass during this critical period for skeletal accretion. OBJECTIVES: Investigate changes in calciotropic hormones, IGF1, body composition and their associations with bone metabolism in adolescents. METHODS: Post-hoc analyses from data on 335 healthy school children, ages 10-17 years, with hypovitaminosis D, who participated in a vitamin D randomized controlled trial...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Zhiguo Li, Dianjun Wei, Chao Yang, Honggang Sun, Tao Lu, Defeng Kuang
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are emerging as important modulators in the biological processes and tumorigenesis. However, whether lncRNAs are involved in endometrial endometrioid adenocarcinoma (EEC) remains unclear. In the present study, we explored the expression pattern, clinical significance and biological function of nuclear enriched abundant transcript 1 (NEAT1) in EEC. The expression levels of NEAT1 were elevated in EEC tissues and cell lines, and higher expression levels of NEAT1 were positively correlated with FIGO stage and lymph node metastasis...
September 21, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
C Kalbe, D Lösel, J Block, L Lefaucheur, K-P Brüssow, O Bellmann, R Pfuhl, B Puppe, W Otten, C C Metges, C Rehfeldt
The aim of our study was to characterize the immediate phenotypic and adaptive regulatory responses of fetuses to different in utero conditions reflecting inadequate maternal protein supply during gestation. The gilts fed high- (250% above control) or low- (50% under control) protein diets isoenergetically adjusted at the expense of carbohydrates from the day of insemination until the fetuses were collected at day 64 or 94 of gestation. We analyzed body composition, histomorphology, biochemistry, and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of fetal skeletal muscle...
August 16, 2016: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
Yasushi Adachi, Masanori Nojima, Mitsuru Mori, Yasutaka Matsunaga, Noriyuki Akutsu, Shigeru Sasaki, Takao Endo, Youichi Kurozawa, Kenji Wakai, Akiko Tamakoshi
Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1) is a potent mitogen. IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP3) binds and inhibits IGF1. High circulating IGF1 levels and low IGFBP3 levels are associated with increased risk of several cancers. We examined relationships between serum levels of these factors and hepatoma risk in a case-control study nested in a prospective cohort study (the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study (JACC Study)). A baseline survey was conducted from 1988 to 1990, and 39,242 subjects donated blood samples. Participants diagnosed with hepatoma by 1997 were considered cases for nested case-control studies...
September 23, 2016: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
Yungai Xiang, Yuxia Song, Yan Li, Dongmei Zhao, Liying Ma, Li Tan
BACKGROUND Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a common metabolic disorder in premenopausal woman, characterized by hyperandrogenism, oligoanovulation, and insulin resistance. microRNAs play pivotal roles in regulating key factors of PCOS. However, relevant research remains limited. This study aimed to reveal the role and potential mechanism of miR-483 in PCOS. MATERIAL AND METHODS PCOS patients (n=20) were recruited for detecting miR-483 expression in lesion and normal ovary cortex. Human granulosa-like tumor cell line KGN was used to alter miR-483 expression by cell transfection...
September 23, 2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Young-Tae Heo, Woo-Tae Ha, Ran Lee, Won-Young Lee, Ha-Youn Jung, Kyu-Chan Hwang, Hyuk Song
Glucose is essential fuel in energy metabolism and synthesis pathways of all mammalian cells. In lactating animals, glucose is the major precursor for lactose and is a substrate for the synthesis of milk proteins and fat in mammary secretory (alveolar) epithelial cells. However, clear utilization of glucose in mammary cell during lactogenesis is still unknown due to lack of in vitro analyzing model. Therefore, objective of this study is to test reliability of mammary alveolar (MAC-T) cell as in vitro study model for glucose metabolism and lactating system...
September 19, 2016: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Gang Li, Qing-Shan Li, Wen-Bin Li, Jian Wei, Wen-Kai Chang, Zhi Chen, Hu-Yun Qiao, Ying-Wei Jia, Jiang-Hua Tian, Bing-Sheng Liang
Denervation often results in skeletal muscle atrophy. Different mechanisms seem to be involved in the determination between denervated slow and fast skeletal muscle atrophy. At the epigenetic level, miRNAs are thought to be highly involved in the pathophysiological progress of denervated muscles. We used miRNA microarrays to determine miRNA expression profiles from a typical slow muscle (soleus muscle) and a typical fast muscle (tibialis anterior muscle) at an early denervation stage in a rat model. Results showed that miR-206, miR-195, miR-23a, and miR-30e might be key factors in the transformation process from slow to fast muscle in denervated slow muscles...
August 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
Mou Gao, Qin Dong, Hui Yao, Yan Zhang, Yang Yang, Yuanyuan Dang, Hongtian Zhang, Zhijun Yang, Minhui Xu, Ruxiang Xu
We previously reported that induced neural stem cells (iNSCs) directly reprogrammed from mouse embryonic fibroblasts can expand and differentiate into neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. Whether iNSCs have immunoregulatory properties in addition to facilitating cell replacement remains uncertain. In this study, we aimed to characterize the immunomodulatory effects of iNSCs on the activation states of microglia and to elucidate the mechanisms underlying these effects. Using a mouse model of closed head injury (CHI), we observed that iNSC grafts decreased the levels of ED1(+)/Iba1(+) and TNF-α(+)/Iba1(+) microglia but increased the levels of IGF1(+)/Iba1(+) microglia in the injured cortex...
September 17, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Colinda C J M Simons, Leo J Schouten, Roger W Godschalk, Manon van Engeland, Piet A van den Brandt, Frederik J van Schooten, Matty P Weijenberg
The energy restriction (ER)-colorectal cancer (CRC) association is inconsistent in literature. To strengthen the biological plausibility of the ER-CRC association, we investigated whether genetic variation in the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) pathway, a putative underlying mechanism, modulated this association in the Netherlands Cohort Study. Participants completed a questionnaire (n = 120,852) and provided toenail clippings for DNA (∼75%) at baseline. Individuals living in a Western city during the Hunger Winter (1944-45) or Western rural versus non-Western area were exposed to (severe) ER at young age...
September 20, 2016: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Ronald W Matheny, Christopher T Carrigan, Mary N Abdalla, Alyssa V Geddis, Luis A Leandry, Carlos A Aguilar, Stuart S Hobbs, Maria L Urso
OBJECTIVE: Skeletal muscle regeneration is a complex process involving the coordinated input from multiple stimuli. Of these processes, actions of the insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathways are vital; however, whether IGF-I or PI3K expression is modified during regeneration relative to initial damage intensity is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine whether mRNA expression of IGF-I/PI3K pathway components was differentially regulated during muscle regeneration in mice in response to traumatic injury induced by freezing of two different durations...
September 14, 2016: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
Liqin Yu, Yali Jia, Guanyong Su, Yongkai Sun, Robert J Letcher, John P Giesy, Hongxia Yu, Zhihua Han, Chunsheng Liu
Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCIPP) is a re-emerging environmental contaminant that has been frequently detected at sub-ppb (<μg/L) concentrations in natural waters. The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of TDCIPP on growth in initial generation (F0) zebrafish after chronic exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations, and to examine possible parental transfer of TDCIPP and transgenerational effects on growth of first generation (F1) larvae. When zebrafish (1-month old) were exposed to 580 or 7500 ng TDCIPP/L for 240 days, bioconcentration resulted in significantly less growth as measured by body length, body mass, brain-somatic index (BSI) and hepatic-somatic index (HSI) in F0 females but not F0 males...
September 16, 2016: Environmental Pollution
José Esparza-López, Pier A Ramos-Elías, Andrea Castro-Sánchez, Leticia Rocha-Zavaleta, Elizabeth Escobar-Arriaga, Alejandro Zentella-Dehesa, Eucario León-Rodríguez, Heriberto Medina-Franco, María de Jesus Ibarra-Sánchez
BACKGROUND: It has become evident that intra-tumor heterogeneity of breast cancer impact on several biological processes such as proliferation, migration, cell death and also might contribute to chemotherapy resistance. The expression of Receptor Tyrosine Kinases (RTKs) has not been analyzed in the context of intra-tumor heterogeneity in a primary breast cancer cell culture. Several subpopulations were isolated from the MBCDF (M serial-breast cancer ductal F line) primary breast cancer cells and were successfully maintained in culture and divided in two groups according to their morphology and RTKs expression pattern, and correlated with biological processes like proliferation, migration, anchorage-independent cell growth, and resistance to cytotoxic chemotherapy drugs and tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs)...
2016: BMC Cancer
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