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tryptophan hydroxylase

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991991/effects-of-ghrelin-on-nocturnal-melatonin-secretion-in-sheep-an-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-approach
#1
K Kirsz, M Szczesna, E Molik, D A Zieba
Recent studies confirmed that pineal melatonin (MEL) secretion is regulated by ghrelin (GHRL) in seasonally reproductive sheep. The first in vivo experiment investigated whether the effect of GHRL on nocturnal secretion of MEL in sheep is mediated by type 2 serotonin receptors. Sheep ( = 16) were intravenously injected with GHRL (2.5 μg/kg of BW) and meta-Chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP; a mixed agonist of 5-HT2B/5-HT2C receptors; 1 mg/kg BW), either combined or individually, during the short-day (SDS) and long-day (LDS) seasons...
September 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972592/genetically-driven-brain-serotonin-deficiency-facilitates-panic-like-escape-behavior-in-mice
#2
J Waider, S Popp, M D Lange, R Kern, J F Kolter, J Kobler, N C Donner, K R Lowe, J H Malzbender, C J Brazell, M R Arnold, B Aboagye, A Schmitt-Böhrer, C A Lowry, H C Pape, K P Lesch
Multiple lines of evidence implicate brain serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) system dysfunction in the pathophysiology of stressor-related and anxiety disorders. Here we investigate the influence of constitutively deficient 5-HT synthesis on stressor-related anxiety-like behaviors using Tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (Tph2) mutant mice. Functional assessment of c-Fos after associated foot shock, electrophysiological recordings of GABAergic synaptic transmission, differential expression of the Slc6a4 gene in serotonergic neurons were combined with locomotor and anxiety-like measurements in different contextual settings...
October 3, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968985/stress-inhibits-tryptophan-hydroxylase-expression-in-a-rat-model-of-depression
#3
Yi Chen, Haixia Xu, Mingyue Zhu, Kun Liu, Bo Lin, Ruxian Luo, Chuanbai Chen, Mengsen Li
Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) dysfunction is associated with the pathophysiology of depression. Tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH), the rate-limiting enzyme in 5-HT biosynthesis, is believed to have essential role in many mental disorders, including depression. In the present study, we generated a rat model of depression by exposing the animals to stress, and the rats were then treated with paroxetine. The results indicated that the concentration of 5-HT in the brain and liver tissues were significantly lower in the rat model of depression than in healthy or treated rats...
September 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948742/-effects-of-baldrinal-of-valeriana-jatamansi-on-expression-of-crf-tph1-mrna-and-5-ht-in-rats-with-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#4
Si-Yu Tao, Cong-Rui Xiao, Jing Wang, Shu-Jing Zhang, Yu-Shan Gao, Fang-Yuan Mu, Yi-Cheng Wang, Xing-Li Yan
This study aimed to investigate the effects of baldrinal of Valeriana jatamansi on the expression of corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) and tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1) mRNA and levels of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in colon of rats with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and to explain its therapeutic mechanism on IBS through 5-HT pathway. Fifty-four male SD rats were randomly divided into 6 groups: blank group, model group, baldrinal high, medium and low dose groups, and pinaverium bromide group, n=9 in each group...
January 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939428/cd36-is-a-candidate-lipid-sensor-involved-in-the-sensory-detection-of-fatty-acid-in-zebrafish
#5
Haiyang Liu, Yanping Xu, Ying Wang, Shenjie Zhong, Min Wang, Pengyan Lin, Hongyan Li, Zhenhui Liu
Recently more and more evidences raise the possibility for the taste system in the role of the perception of lipids in mammals, and the fatty acid receptor CD36 has been proved to be as an important candidate receptor of fat taste. Fish has different taste modality with mammals. No information was known about the function of cd36 in fish taste till now. Here, using in situ hybridization and immunofluorescence technologies, we showed that fish cd36/Cd36 localized in taste buds. Real-time PCR technology demonstrated that, in zebrafish cd36 (zcd36)-transfected cells, linoleic acid (LA) increased the expression level of tryptophan hydroxylase-1 (TPH-1), which encodes the enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of monoamine neurotransmitter of 5-HT...
September 20, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933662/deficiency-of-serotonin-in-raphe-neurons-and-altered-behavioral-responses-in-tryptophan-hydroxylase-2-knockout-medaka-oryzias-latipes
#6
Satoshi Ansai, Hiroshi Hosokawa, Shingo Maegawa, Kiyoshi Naruse, Youhei Washio, Kenji Sato, Masato Kinoshita
Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) is a bioactive monoamine that acts as a neurotransmitter in the central and peripheral nervous system of animals. Teleost fish species have serotonergic neurons in the raphe nuclei of the brainstem; however, the role of 5-HT in the raphe neurons in teleost fish remains largely unknown. Here, we established a medaka (Oryzias latipes) strain with targeted disruption of tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (tph2) gene that is involved in the 5-HT synthesis in the raphe nuclei. Immunohistochemistry and mass spectrometry analysis revealed that the homozygous mutants (tph2(Δ13/Δ13)) lacked the ability to synthesize 5-HT in the raphe neurons...
September 21, 2017: Zebrafish
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931312/antidepressive-effects-of-environmental-enrichment-in-chronic-stress-induced-depression-in-rats
#7
Ho-Hyun Seong, Jong-Min Park, Youn-Jung Kim
Depression is caused by a variety of factors, especially stressful life events. Chronic stress-induced depression has detrimental effects on hippocampal integrity. Environmental enrichment (EE) is a beneficial intervention for improving anxiety, fear, and stress. We aimed to investigate the antidepressive effects of EE in a depressive rat model (DEP) that was subjected to chronic stress. The control group ( n = 10) was kept under normal conditions, while depressive rats ( n = 8 per group) were randomized into DEP, DEP + EE, and DEP + fluoxetine (Flx) groups...
January 1, 2017: Biological Research for Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887185/role-of-monoaminergic-systems-and-ambient-temperature-in-bath-salts-constituent-3-4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone-mdpv-elicited-hyperthermia-and-locomotor-stimulation-in-mice
#8
REVIEW
Brenda M Gannon, Adrian Williamson, Kenner C Rice, William E Fantegrossi
3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) is a common constituent of illicit bath salts products, and in vitro studies implicate monoamine transporters as mediators of its pharmacological effects. Locomotor and thermoregulatory effects of MDPV depend on ambient temperature, so the current studies aimed to gauge the involvement of dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE), and serotonin (5-HT) in MDPV-induced locomotor stimulation and hyperthermia in the mouse at different ambient temperatures. Mice were pretreated with the selective 5-HT-reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine (3 mg/kg), the NE-reuptake inhibitor desipramine (3 mg/kg), the DA-reuptake inhibitor bupropion (10 mg/kg), or saline, followed by 10 mg/kg MDPV while thermoregulation and locomotor activity were monitored via radiotelemetry...
September 5, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866660/generation-of-tryptophan-hydroxylase-2-gene-knockout-pigs-by-crispr-cas9-mediated-gene-targeting
#9
Ze Li, Hai-Yuan Yang, Ying Wang, Man-Ling Zhang, Xiao-Rui Liu, Qiang Xiong, Li-Ning Zhang, Yong Jin, Li-Sha Mou, Yan Liu, Rong-Feng Li, Yi Rao, Yi-Fan Dai
Unbalanced brain serotonin (5-HT) levels have implications in various behavioral abnormalities and neuropsychiatric disorders. The biosynthesis of neuronal 5-HT is regulated by the rate-limiting enzyme, tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (TPH2). In the present study, the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated (Cas) system was used to target theTph2 gene in Bama mini pig fetal fibroblasts. It was found that CRISPR/Cas9 targeting efficiency could be as high as 61.5%, and the biallelic mutation efficiency reached at 38...
September 26, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845184/the-anti-inflammatory-effect-of-guchangzhixie-pill-by-reducing-colonic-ec-cell-hyperplasia-and-serotonin-availability-in-an-ulcerative-colitis-rat-model
#10
Yong Yang, Xianwei Zhu, Yifei Qin, Guihai Chen, Jing Zhou, Lu Li, Jianjun Guan, Li Ma, Yanyan Xue, Chenhui Li
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is one of the major types of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Abnormal colonic enterochromaffin (EC) cell hyperplasia and serotonin availability have been described in UC. Guchangzhixie-pill (GCZX-pill), a Chinese herbal formula composed of six herbs, is modified based on a traditional formula (Jiechangyan-pill) for inflammatory and ulcerative gastrointestinal disorders. This study aims to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect and the underlying mechanisms of GCZX-pill on trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid- (TNBS-) induced UC in rats...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808887/chronic-silymarin-quercetin-and-naringenin-treatments-increase-monoamines-synthesis-and-hippocampal-sirt1-levels-improving-cognition-in-aged-rats
#11
F Sarubbo, M R Ramis, C Kienzer, S Aparicio, S Esteban, A Miralles, D Moranta
Polyphenols have beneficial neurological effects delaying cognitive and motor decline in aging due to their antioxidant, antiinflammatory and neuroprotective properties. These effects could be related to SIRT1 activation (implicated in synaptic plasticity, memory and inflammation) and monoaminergic synthesis modulation. In this work, we studied in old male rats, the in vivo effects of long-term administration of different polyphenols (silymarin, quercetin and naringenin; 20 mg/kg/day i.p, 4 weeks) (Sprague-Dawley, 18 months) on cognition and motor coordination...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794173/glucose-potentiates-%C3%AE-cell-function-by-inducing-tph1-expression-in-rat-islets
#12
Yuqing Zhang, Ruyuan Deng, Xue Yang, Wan Xu, Yun Liu, Fengying Li, Juan Zhang, Hongju Tang, Xueying Ji, Yufang Bi, Xiao Wang, Libin Zhou, Guang Ning
Impaired pancreatic β-cell function is the primary defect in type 2 diabetes. Glucose is an important regulator of β-cell growth and function; however, the mechanisms that are involved in the chronic adaptation of β-cells to hyperglycemia remain largely unknown. In the present study, global gene expression patterns revealed that tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (Tph1) was the most profound of genes that are up-regulated in rat islets exposed to high glucose. Calcium and cAMP signals synergistically mediated glucose-stimulated Tph1 transcription in β-cells by activating cAMP-responsive element-binding protein and promoting its binding with a Tph1 promoter...
August 9, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775068/active-sleep-unmasks-apnea-and-delayed-arousal-in-infant-rat-pups-lacking-central-serotonin
#13
Jacob O Young, Aron M Geurts, Matthew Robert Hodges, Kevin J Cummings
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS), occurring during sleep periods, is highly associated with abnormalities within serotonin (5-HT) neurons, including reduced 5-HT. There is evidence that future SIDS cases experience more apnea and have abnormal arousal from sleep. In rodents, a loss of 5-HT neurons is associated with apnea in early life and, in adulthood, delayed arousal. As the activity of 5-HT neurons changes with vigilance state, we hypothesized that the degree of apnea and delayed arousal displayed by rat pups specifically lacking central 5-HT varies with state...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774871/enteric-serotonin-and-oxytocin-endogenous-regulation-of-severity-in-a-murine-model-of-necrotizing-enterocolitis
#14
Kara Gross Margolis, Jennifer Vittorio, Maria Talavera, Karen Gluck, Zhishan Li, Alina Iuga, Korey Stevanovic, Virginia Saurman, Narek Israelyan, Martha G Welch, Michael D Gershon
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), a gastrointestinal inflammatory disease of unknown etiology, causes a great deal of morbidity and mortality in premature infants. The liver as well as the gut may be affected in NEC. We tested the hypothesis that signaling molecules, which are endogenous to the bowel, regulate the severity of experimental NEC in mice. Specifically, we postulated that mucosal serotonin (5-HT), which is proinflammatory, would increase the severity of NEC and that oxytocin (OT), which is present in enteric neurons and is anti-inflammatory, would oppose NEC...
August 3, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751217/human-placenta-expresses-both-peripheral-and-neuronal-isoform-of-tryptophan-hydroxylase
#15
Laetitia Laurent, Kathy Deroy, Joey St-Pierre, Francine Côté, J Thomas Sanderson, Cathy Vaillancourt
The role of placental serotonin has been an active topic of research notably because of its crucial role in brain development. However, which cell types synthesize serotonin in human placenta remains unknown. Moreover, it is not known if the two tryptophan hydroxylase isoforms (TPH1 and TPH2), the rate-limiting enzymes in serotonin biosynthesis, are expressed in placenta. Human placentas were obtained in first trimester or at term, and trophoblast cells were isolated and purified using a magnetic cell sorter and placed in primary culture...
September 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728370/endotoxin-induced-inflammation-disturbs-melatonin-secretion-in-ewe
#16
Andrzej Przemysław Herman, Karolina Wojtulewicz, Joanna Bochenek, Agata Krawczyńska, Hanna Antushevich, Bartosz Pawlina, Marlena Zielińska-Góska, Anna Herman, Katarzyna Romanowicz, Dorota Tomaszewska-Zaremba
The study was designed to determine the effect of intravenous administration of bacterial endotoxin - lipopolysaccharide (LPS) - on the nocturnal secretion of melatonin and on the expression of enzymes of the melatonin biosynthetic pathway in the pineal gland of ewes, taking into account two different photoperiodic conditions: short night (SN; n = 12) and long night (LN; n = 12). Endotoxin administration lowered (P < 0.05) levels of circulating melatonin in animals from LN photoperiod only during the first hour after treatment, while in ewes from SN photoperiod only in the third hour after the injection...
June 27, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719094/discovery-and-characterization-of-a-novel-tryptophan-hydroxylase-1-inhibitor-as-a-prodrug
#17
Hailong Shi, Yaya Cui, Yifei Qin
Serotonin (5-HT) is an important neurotransmitter and paracrine signaling molecule in the gastrointestinal tract. Two distinct tryptophan hydroxylases (TPH), TPH1 and TPH2 are the rate-limiting enzymes in the 5-HT biosynthesis process. TPH1 expression is mainly limited in the enterochromaffin cells and distributed in peripheries such as the skin and gut, while TPH2 is the predominant isoform in the CNS. In this study, mol002291 was screened as a drug-like compound from the TCM database for the inhibitor of TPH...
July 18, 2017: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716530/genetic-association-analysis-of-serotonin-and-signal-transduction-pathways-in-suicide-attempters-from-an-italian-sample-of-psychiatric-patients
#18
Maurizio Pompili, Giovanna Gentile, Catia Scassellati, Cristian Bonvicini, Marco Innamorati, Denise Erbuto, Franco Montebovi, Giuseppe Ducci, Alberto Forte, Eleonora De Pisa, Stefano Ferracuti, Gianluca Serafini, Vincenzo De Luca, Mario Amore, Maurizio Simmaco, Paolo Girardi
Genetic factors have been reported to contribute to the liability of suicide. We aimed to investigate functional polymorphisms in eight genes (serotonin transporter, SLC6A4; receptors, 5HTR1A, 1B, 5HTR2A; Tryptophan Hydroxylase, TPH1, TPH2; Monoamine Oxidase, MAOA and G Protein Subunit Beta 3, GNB3) to investigate their predictive value for suicide. The possible confounding effects of gender and phenotypic patients dissection were also valued. A sample of 111 consecutive psychiatric inpatients was recruited and assessed using specific psychometric instruments...
July 14, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712263/effects-of-colostrum-serum-on-the-serotonergic-system-in-the-dorsal-raphe-nuclei-of-exercised-rats
#19
Tae-Woon Kim, Chang-Ju Kim, Jinhee Seo
PURPOSE: The central fatigue hypothesis suggests that exhaustion, or the maximum level of exercise, induces excessive stress and increases serotonin concentrations in the brain, which in turn decreases central nervous system (CNS) function and induces fatigue. Our aim was to determine the effects of colostrum serum on the serotonergic system in the dorsal raphe nuclei during exhaustive exercise. METHODS: Animals were randomly divided into five groups: control, exercise, exercise and treatment with 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg of colostrum serum...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Exercise Nutrition & Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706142/stress-inhibits-tryptophan-hydroxylase-expression-in-a-rat-model-of-depression
#20
Yi Chen, Haixia Xu, Mingyue Zhu, Kun Liu, Bo Lin, Ruxian Luo, Chuanbai Chen, Mengsen Li
Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) dysfunction is associated with the pathophysiology of depression. Tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH), the rate-limiting enzyme in 5-HT biosynthesis, is believed to have essential role in many mental disorders, including depression. In the present study, we generated a rat model of depression by exposing the animals to stress, and the rats were then treated with paroxetine. The results indicated that the concentration of 5-HT in the brain and liver tissues were significantly lower in the rat model of depression than in healthy or treated rats...
June 28, 2017: Oncotarget
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