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tryptophan hydroxylase

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295297/comparative-analysis-of-monoaminergic-cerebrospinal-fluid-contacting-cells-in-osteichthyes-bony-vertebrates
#1
Anna L Xavier, Romain Fontaine, Solal Bloch, Pierre Affaticati, Arnim Jenett, Michaël Demarque, Philippe Vernier, Kei Yamamoto
Cerebrospinal fluid-contacting (CSF-c) cells containing monoamines such as dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) occur in the periventricular zones of the hypothalamic region of most vertebrates except for placental mammals. Here we compare the organization of the CSF-c cells in chicken, Xenopus, and zebrafish, by analyzing the expression of synthetic enzymes of DA and 5-HT, respectively tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH), and draw an evolutionary scenario for this cell population. Due to the lack of TH immunoreactivity in this region, the hypothalamic CSF-c cells have been thought to take up DA from the ventricle instead of synthesizing it...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286019/methotrexate-causes-acute-hyperplasia-of-enterochromaffin-cells-containing-substance-p-in-the-intestinal-mucosa-of-rats
#2
Takuji Machida, Yuho Takano, Kenji Iizuka, Maiko Machida, Masahiko Hirafuji
This study aimed to investigate the acute and chronic effect of methotrexate on the intestinal substance P metabolism after a single administration to rats. Methotrexate caused a significant increase in the number of substance P-containing cells in the ileal mucosa both at 24 and 96 h. Most of enterochromaffin cells expressing l-tryptophan hydroxylase contained substance P. The expression of Tac1 mRNA was increased by methotrexate at 24 h, but not at 96 h. Thus, methotrexate causes acute hyperplasia of enterochromaffin cells in the intestinal mucosa of rats with a transient increase in the production of substance P...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257788/antidepressant-like-effects-of-ginsenoside-rg5-in-mice-involving-of-hippocampus-bdnf-signaling-pathway
#3
Dawei Xu, Chengniu Wang, Wei Zhao, Shengfeng Gao, Zhiming Cui
Ginsenoside Rg5 is one of the major bioactive ingredients of Panax ginseng with little toxicity and has been shown to have pharmacological effects on the central nervous system. In this study, we investigated the antidepressant effects of Rg5 in mice models of depression. The effects of Rg5 were first assessed in the forced swimming test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST), and then investigated in the chronic social defeat stress (CSDS) model of depression. The changes in hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling pathway after CSDS and Rg5 treatment were also examined...
March 1, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257757/toxoplasma-growth-in-vitro-is-dependent-on-exogenous-tyrosine-and-is-independent-of-aah2-even-in-tyrosine-limiting-conditions
#4
Nicole D Marino, John C Boothroyd
Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite capable of infecting virtually all nucleated cell types in almost all warm-blooded animals. Interestingly, Toxoplasma has a relatively full repertoire of amino acid biosynthetic machinery, perhaps reflecting its broad host range and, consequently, its need to adapt to a wide array of amino acid resources. Although Toxoplasma has been shown to be auxotrophic for tryptophan and arginine, it has not previously been determined if Toxoplasma is also auxotrophic for tyrosine...
February 28, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251760/the-nutrient-sensing-repertoires-of-mouse-enterochromaffin-cells-differ-between-duodenum-and-colon
#5
A M Martin, A L Lumsden, R L Young, C F Jessup, N J Spencer, D J Keating
BACKGROUND: Enterochromaffin (EC) cells within the gastrointestinal (GI) tract provide almost all body serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]). Peripheral 5-HT, released from EC cells lining the gut wall, serves diverse physiological roles. These include modulating GI motility, bone formation, hepatic gluconeogenesis, thermogenesis, insulin resistance, and regulation of fat mass. Enterochromaffin cells are nutrient sensors, but which nutrients they are responsive to and how this changes in different parts of the GI tract are poorly understood...
March 2, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239998/effects-of-colostrum-serum-on-the-serotonergic-system-in-the-dorsal-raphe-nuclei-of-exercised-rats
#6
Jin-Hee Seo, Tae-Woon Kim, Chang-Ju Kim
Purpose: The central fatigue hypothesis suggests that exhaustion, or the maximum level of exercise, induces excessive stress and increases serotonin concentrations in the brain, which in turn decreases central nervous system (CNS) function and induces fatigue. Our aim was to determine the effects of colostrum serum on the serotonergic system in the dorsal raphe nuclei during exhaustive exercise. Methods: Animals were randomly divided into five groups: control, exercise, exercise and treatment with 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg of colostrum serum...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Exercise Nutrition & Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198154/daily-and-seasonal-expression-profile-of-serum-melatonin-and-its-biosynthesizing-enzyme-genes-tph1-aanat1-aanat2-and-hiomt-in-pineal-organ-and-retina-a-study-under-natural-environmental-conditions-in-a-tropical-carp-catla-catla
#7
Chongtham Rajiv, Haobijam Sanjita Devi, Gopinath Mondal, Sijagurumayum Dharmajyoti Devi, Zeeshan Ahmad Khan, Thangal Yumnamcha, Rupjyoti Bharali, Asamanja Chattoraj
The tropical carp Catla catla is gaining importance for the studies of the impact of environmental changes on aquatic animals due to its surface dwelling habitat. To date, no information is available on the transcriptional profile of melatonin biosynthesizing enzyme genes in any tropical carp under either natural or artificial photothermal conditions in pineal and retina. The present study is an attempt to demonstrate the temporal pattern of expression of melatonin biosynthesizing enzyme genes, tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (tph1), arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (aanat1 and aanat2), and hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (hiomt) collectively and simultaneously in pineal organ and retina in tropical fish, C...
December 2016: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological Genetics and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197177/two-step-production-of-monoamines-in-monoenzymatic-cells-in-the-spinal-cord-a-different-control-strategy-of-neurotransmitter-supply
#8
REVIEW
Mengliang Zhang
Monoamine neurotransmitters play an important role in the modulation of sensory, motor and autonomic functions in the spinal cord. Although traditionally it is believed that in mammalian spinal cord, monoamine neurotransmitters mainly originate from the brain, accumulating evidence indicates that especially when the spinal cord is injured, they can also be produced in the spinal cord. In this review, I will present evidence for a possible pathway for two-step synthesis of dopamine and serotonin in the spinal cord...
December 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193370/-characterisation-of-three-polymorphisms-of-the-tryptophan-hydroxylase-2-gene-in-a-sample-of-colombian-population-with-major-depressive-disorder
#9
Adriana Martínez-Idárraga, Irene Riveros-Barrera, Ricardo Sánchez, Luis Eduardo Jaramillo, José Manuel Calvo-Gómez, Juan José Yunis-Londoño
OBJECTIVE: Identify whether rs11179000, rs136494 and rs4570625 polymorphisms of the tryptophan hydroxylase 2 gene, are associated with a major depressive disorder in a sample of the Colombian population. METHODS: Case-control study was conducted in which a comparison was made between subjects diagnosed with major depressive disorder at some point in adulthood or active symptoms at the time of evaluation, and subjects with no psychiatric disease. Subjects were studied in the Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine and the Institute of Genetics at the National University of Colombia...
January 2017: Revista Colombiana de Psiquiatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176268/no-genetic-association-between-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd-and-parkinson-s-disease-in-nine-adhd-candidate-snps
#10
Julia M Geissler, Marcel Romanos, Manfred Gerlach, Daniela Berg, Claudia Schulte
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) involve pathological changes in brain structures such as the basal ganglia, which are essential for the control of motor and cognitive behavior and impulsivity. The cause of ADHD and PD remains unknown, but there is increasing evidence that both seem to result from a complicated interplay of genetic and environmental factors affecting numerous cellular processes and brain regions. To explore the possibility of common genetic pathways within the respective pathophysiologies, nine ADHD candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in seven genes were tested for association with PD in 5333 cases and 12,019 healthy controls: one variant, respectively, in the genes coding for synaptosomal-associated protein 25 k (SNAP25), the dopamine (DA) transporter (SLC6A3; DAT1), DA receptor D4 (DRD4), serotonin receptor 1B (HTR1B), tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2), the norepinephrine transporter SLC6A2 and three SNPs in cadherin 13 (CDH13)...
February 7, 2017: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166866/genetic-control-of-encoding-strategy-in-a-food-sensing-neural-circuit
#11
Giovanni Diana, Dhaval S Patel, Eugeni V Entchev, Mei Zhan, Hang Lu, QueeLim Ch'ng
Neuroendocrine circuits encode environmental information via changes in gene expression and other biochemical activities to regulate physiological responses. Previously, we showed that daf-7 TGFβ and tph-1 tryptophan hydroxylase expression in specific neurons encode food abundance to modulate lifespan in Caenorhabditis elegans, and uncovered cross- and self-regulation among these genes (Entchev et al., 2015). Here, we now extend these findings by showing that these interactions between daf-7 and tph-1 regulate redundancy and synergy among neurons in food encoding through coordinated control of circuit-level signal and noise properties...
February 7, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145470/genetic-polymorphisms-and-their-association-with-brain-and-behavioural-measures-in-heterogeneous-stock-mice
#12
Magdalena Janecka, Sarah J Marzi, Michael J Parsons, Lin Liu, Jose L Paya-Cano, Rebecca G Smith, Cathy Fernandes, Leonard C Schalkwyk
Although the search for quantitative trait loci for behaviour remains a considerable challenge, the complicated genetic architecture of quantitative traits is beginning to be understood. The current project utilised heterogeneous stock (HS) male mice (n = 580) to investigate the genetic basis for brain weights, activity, anxiety and cognitive phenotypes. We identified 126 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes involved in regulation of neurotransmitter systems, nerve growth/death and gene expression, and subsequently investigated their associations with changes in behaviour and/or brain weights in our sample...
February 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132689/biallelic-mutations-in-dnajc12-cause-hyperphenylalaninemia-dystonia-and-intellectual-disability
#13
Yair Anikster, Tobias B Haack, Thierry Vilboux, Ben Pode-Shakked, Beat Thöny, Nan Shen, Virginia Guarani, Thomas Meissner, Ertan Mayatepek, Friedrich K Trefz, Dina Marek-Yagel, Aurora Martinez, Edward L Huttlin, Joao A Paulo, Riccardo Berutti, Jean-François Benoist, Apolline Imbard, Imen Dorboz, Gali Heimer, Yuval Landau, Limor Ziv-Strasser, May Christine V Malicdan, Corinne Gemperle-Britschgi, Kirsten Cremer, Hartmut Engels, David Meili, Irene Keller, Rémy Bruggmann, Tim M Strom, Thomas Meitinger, James C Mullikin, Gerard Schwartz, Bruria Ben-Zeev, William A Gahl, J Wade Harper, Nenad Blau, Georg F Hoffmann, Holger Prokisch, Thomas Opladen, Manuel Schiff
Phenylketonuria (PKU, phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency), an inborn error of metabolism, can be detected through newborn screening for hyperphenylalaninemia (HPA). Most individuals with HPA harbor mutations in the gene encoding phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH), and a small proportion (2%) exhibit tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) deficiency with additional neurotransmitter (dopamine and serotonin) deficiency. Here we report six individuals from four unrelated families with HPA who exhibited progressive neurodevelopmental delay, dystonia, and a unique profile of neurotransmitter deficiencies without mutations in PAH or BH4 metabolism disorder-related genes...
February 2, 2017: American Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087339/differential-behavioral-sensitivity-to-carbon-dioxide-co2-inhalation-in-rats
#14
Andrew Winter, Rebecca Ahlbrand, Devanshi Naik, Renu Sah
Inhalation of carbon dioxide (CO2) is frequently employed as a biological challenge to evoke intense fear and anxiety. In individuals with panic disorder, CO2 reliably evokes panic attacks. Sensitivity to CO2 is highly heterogeneous among individuals, and although a genetic component is implicated, underlying mechanisms are not clear. Preclinical models that can simulate differential responsivity to CO2 are therefore relevant. In the current study we investigated CO2-evoked behavioral responses in four different rat strains: Sprague-Dawley (SD), Wistar (W), Long Evans (LE) and Wistar-Kyoto, (WK) rats...
March 27, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086815/antibiotics-induced-depletion-of-mice-microbiota-induces-changes-in-host-serotonin-biosynthesis-and-intestinal-motility
#15
Xiaolong Ge, Chao Ding, Wei Zhao, Lizhi Xu, Hongliang Tian, Jianfeng Gong, Minsheng Zhu, Jieshou Li, Ning Li
BACKGROUND: The gastrointestinal motility is affected by gut microbiota and the relationship between them has become a hot topic. However, mechanisms of microbiota in regulating motility have not been well defined. We thus investigated the effect of microbiota depletion by antibiotics on gastrointestinal motility, colonic serotonin levels, and bile acids metabolism. METHODS: After 4 weeks with antibiotics treatments, gastrointestinal and colon transit, defecation frequency, water content, and other fecal parameters were measured and analyzed in both wild-type and antibiotics-treated mice, respectively...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069454/c1473g-polymorphism-in-mouse-tryptophan-hydroxylase-2-gene-in-the-regulation-of-the-reaction-to-emotional-stress
#16
Ekaterina Y Bazhenova, Daria V Bazovkina, Elizabeth A Kulikova, Dariya V Fursenko, Nikita V Khotskin, Daria V Lichman, Alexander V Kulikov
Neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) is involved in the regulation of stress response. Tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (TPH2) is the key enzyme of serotonin (5-HT) synthesis in the brain. C1473G polymorphism in Tph2 gene is the main factor defining the enzyme activity in the brain of laboratory mice. The effect of interaction between C1473G polymorphism and 30min restriction stress on the behavior in the open field test, c-Fos gene expression and 5-HT metabolism in the brain in adult male of B6-1473C and B6-1473G congenic mouse lines with high and low TPH2 activity was investigated...
January 6, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054193/personality-as-an-intermediate-phenotype-for-genetic-dissection-of-alcohol-use-disorder
#17
REVIEW
Lars Oreland, Gianvito Lagravinese, Simone Toffoletto, Kent W Nilsson, Jaanus Harro, C Robert Cloninger, Erika Comasco
Genetic and environmental interactive influences on predisposition to develop alcohol use disorder (AUD) account for the high heterogeneity among AUD patients and make research on the risk and resiliency factors complicated. Several attempts have been made to identify the genetic basis of AUD; however, only few genetic polymorphisms have consistently been associated with AUD. Intermediate phenotypes are expected to be in-between proxies of basic neuronal biological processes and nosological symptoms of AUD...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041831/optimization-of-spirocyclic-proline-tryptophan-hydroxylase-1-inhibitors
#18
Daniel R Goldberg, Stéphane De Lombaert, Robert Aiello, Patricia Bourassa, Nicole Barucci, Qing Zhang, Vishwas Paralkar, Adam J Stein, Melissa Holt, Jim Valentine, William Zavadoski
As a follow-up to the discovery of our spirocyclic proline-based TPH1 inhibitor lead, we describe the optimization of this scaffold. Through a combination of X-ray co-crystal structure guided design and an in vivo screen, new substitutions in the lipophilic region of the inhibitors were identified. This effort led to new TPH1 inhibitors with in vivo efficacy when dosed as their corresponding ethyl ester prodrugs. In particular, 15b (KAR5585), the prodrug of the potent TPH1 inhibitor 15a (KAR5417), showed robust reduction of intestinal serotonin (5-HT) levels in mice...
December 23, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031476/5-hydroxytryptamine-synthesized-in-the-aorta-gonad-mesonephros-regulates-hematopoietic-stem-and-progenitor-cell-survival
#19
Junhua Lv, Lu Wang, Ya Gao, Yu-Qiang Ding, Feng Liu
The in vitro or ex vivo production of transplantable hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) holds great promise for the treatment of hematological diseases in the clinic. However, HSCs have not been produced from either embryonic or induced pluripotent stem cells. In this study, we report that 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; also called serotonin) can enhance the generation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) in vitro and is essential for the survival of HSPCs in vivo during embryogenesis. In tryptophan hydroxylase 2-deficient embryos, a decrease in 5-HT synthesized in the aorta-gonad-mesonephros leads to apoptosis of nascent HSPCs...
February 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029782/a-tph2-gfp-reporter-stem-cell-line-to-model-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-serotonergic-neuron-development-and-function
#20
Giulia Pacini, Attilio Marino, Sara Migliarini, Elisa Brilli, Barbara Pelosi, Giacomo Maddaloni, Marta Pratelli, Mario Pellegrino, Aldo Ferrari, Massimo Pasqualetti
Modeling biological systems in vitro has contributed to clarification of complex mechanisms in simplified and controlled experimental conditions. Mouse embryonic stem (mES) cells can be successfully differentiated toward specific neuronal cell fates, thus representing an attractive tool to dissect, in vitro, mechanisms that underlie complex neuronal features. In this study, we generated and characterized a reporter mES cell line, called Tph2(GFP), in which the vital reporter GFP replaces the tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (Tph2) gene...
January 19, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
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