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tryptophan hydroxylase

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808887/chronic-silymarin-quercetin-and-naringenin-treatments-increase-monoamines-synthesis-and-hippocampal-sirt1-levels-improving-cognition-in-aged-rats
#1
F Sarubbo, M R Ramis, C Kienzer, S Aparicio, S Esteban, A Miralles, D Moranta
Polyphenols have beneficial neurological effects delaying cognitive and motor decline in aging due to their antioxidant, antiinflammatory and neuroprotective properties. These effects could be related to SIRT1 activation (implicated in synaptic plasticity, memory and inflammation) and monoaminergic synthesis modulation. In this work, we studied in old male rats, the in vivo effects of long-term administration of different polyphenols (silymarin, quercetin and naringenin; 20 mg/kg/day i.p, 4 weeks) (Sprague-Dawley, 18 months) on cognition and motor coordination...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794173/glucose-potentiates-%C3%AE-cell-function-by-inducing-tph1-expression-in-rat-islets
#2
Yuqing Zhang, Ruyuan Deng, Xue Yang, Wan Xu, Yun Liu, Fengying Li, Juan Zhang, Hongju Tang, Xueying Ji, Yufang Bi, Xiao Wang, Libin Zhou, Guang Ning
Impaired pancreatic β-cell function is the primary defect in type 2 diabetes. Glucose is an important regulator of β-cell growth and function; however, the mechanisms that are involved in the chronic adaptation of β-cells to hyperglycemia remain largely unknown. In the present study, global gene expression patterns revealed that tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (Tph1) was the most profound of genes that are up-regulated in rat islets exposed to high glucose. Calcium and cAMP signals synergistically mediated glucose-stimulated Tph1 transcription in β-cells by activating cAMP-responsive element-binding protein and promoting its binding with a Tph1 promoter...
August 9, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775068/active-sleep-unmasks-apnea-and-delayed-arousal-in-infant-rat-pups-lacking-central-serotonin
#3
Jacob O Young, Aron M Geurts, Matthew Robert Hodges, Kevin J Cummings
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS), occurring during sleep periods, is highly associated with abnormalities within serotonin (5-HT) neurons, including reduced 5-HT. There is evidence that future SIDS cases experience more apnea and have abnormal arousal from sleep. In rodents, a loss of 5-HT neurons is associated with apnea in early life and, in adulthood, delayed arousal. As the activity of 5-HT neurons changes with vigilance state, we hypothesized that the degree of apnea and delayed arousal displayed by rat pups specifically lacking central 5-HT varies with state...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774871/enteric-serotonin-and-oxytocin-endogenous-regulation-of-severity-in-a-murine-model-of-necrotizing-enterocolitis
#4
Kara Gross Margolis, Jennifer Vittorio, Maria Talavera, Karen Gluck, Zhishan Li, Alina Iuga, Korey Stevanovic, Virginia Saurman, Narek Israelyan, Martha G Welch, Michael D Gershon
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), a gastrointestinal inflammatory disease of unknown etiology, causes a great deal of morbidity and mortality in premature infants. The liver as well as the gut may be affected in NEC. We tested the hypothesis that signaling molecules, which are endogenous to the bowel, regulate the severity of experimental NEC in mice. Specifically, we postulated that mucosal serotonin (5-HT), which is proinflammatory, would increase the severity of NEC and that oxytocin (OT), which is present in enteric neurons and is anti-inflammatory, would oppose NEC...
August 3, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751217/human-placenta-expresses-both-peripheral-and-neuronal-isoform-of-tryptophan-hydroxylase
#5
Laetitia Laurent, Kathy Deroy, Joey St-Pierre, Francine Côté, J Thomas Sanderson, Cathy Vaillancourt
The role of placental serotonin has been an active topic of research notably because of its crucial role in brain development. However, which cell types synthesize serotonin in human placenta remains unknown. Moreover, it is not known if the two tryptophan hydroxylase isoforms (TPH1 and TPH2), the rate-limiting enzymes in serotonin biosynthesis, are expressed in placenta. Human placentas were obtained in first trimester or at term, and trophoblast cells were isolated and purified using a magnetic cell sorter and placed in primary culture...
September 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728370/endotoxin-induced-inflammation-disturbs-melatonin-secretion-in-ewe
#6
Andrzej Przemysław Herman, Karolina Wojtulewicz, Joanna Bochenek, Agata Krawczyńska, Hanna Antushevich, Bartosz Pawlina, Marlena Zielińska-Góska, Anna Herman, Katarzyna Romanowicz, Dorota Tomaszewska-Zaremba
The study was designed to determine the effect of intravenous administration of bacterial endotoxin - lipopolysaccharide (LPS) - on the nocturnal secretion of melatonin and on the expression of enzymes of the melatonin biosynthetic pathway in the pineal gland of ewes, taking into account two different photoperiodic conditions: short night (SN; n = 12) and long night (LN; n = 12). Endotoxin administration lowered (P < 0.05) levels of circulating melatonin in animals from LN photoperiod only during the first hour after treatment, while in ewes from SN photoperiod only in the third hour after the injection...
June 27, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719094/discovery-and-characterization-of-a-novel-tryptophan-hydroxylase-1-inhibitor-as-a-prodrug
#7
Hailong Shi, Yaya Cui, Yifei Qin
Serotonin (5-HT) is an important neurotransmitter and paracrine signaling molecule in the gastrointestinal tract. Two distinct tryptophan hydroxylases (TPH), TPH1 and TPH2 are the rate-limiting enzymes in the 5-HT biosynthesis process. TPH1 expression is mainly limited in the enterochromaffin cells and distributed in peripheries such as the skin and gut, while TPH2 is the predominant isoform in the CNS. In this study, mol002291 was screened as a drug-like compound from the TCM database for the inhibitor of TPH...
July 18, 2017: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716530/genetic-association-analysis-of-serotonin-and-signal-transduction-pathways-in-suicide-attempters-from-an-italian-sample-of-psychiatric-patients
#8
Maurizio Pompili, Giovanna Gentile, Catia Scassellati, Cristian Bonvicini, Marco Innamorati, Denise Erbuto, Franco Montebovi, Giuseppe Ducci, Alberto Forte, Eleonora De Pisa, Stefano Ferracuti, Gianluca Serafini, Vincenzo De Luca, Mario Amore, Maurizio Simmaco, Paolo Girardi
Genetic factors have been reported to contribute to the liability of suicide. We aimed to investigate functional polymorphisms in eight genes (serotonin transporter, SLC6A4; receptors, 5HTR1A, 1B, 5HTR2A; Tryptophan Hydroxylase, TPH1, TPH2; Monoamine Oxidase, MAOA and G Protein Subunit Beta 3, GNB3) to investigate their predictive value for suicide. The possible confounding effects of gender and phenotypic patients dissection were also valued. A sample of 111 consecutive psychiatric inpatients was recruited and assessed using specific psychometric instruments...
July 14, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712263/effects-of-colostrum-serum-on-the-serotonergic-system-in-the-dorsal-raphe-nuclei-of-exercised-rats
#9
Tae-Woon Kim, Chang-Ju Kim, Jinhee Seo
PURPOSE: The central fatigue hypothesis suggests that exhaustion, or the maximum level of exercise, induces excessive stress and increases serotonin concentrations in the brain, which in turn decreases central nervous system (CNS) function and induces fatigue. Our aim was to determine the effects of colostrum serum on the serotonergic system in the dorsal raphe nuclei during exhaustive exercise. METHODS: Animals were randomly divided into five groups: control, exercise, exercise and treatment with 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg of colostrum serum...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Exercise Nutrition & Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706142/stress-inhibits-tryptophan-hydroxylase-expression-in-a-rat-model-of-depression
#10
Yi Chen, Haixia Xu, Mingyue Zhu, Kun Liu, Bo Lin, Ruxian Luo, Chuanbai Chen, Mengsen Li
Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) dysfunction is associated with the pathophysiology of depression. Tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH), the rate-limiting enzyme in 5-HT biosynthesis, is believed to have essential role in many mental disorders, including depression. In the present study, we generated a rat model of depression by exposing the animals to stress, and the rats were then treated with paroxetine. The results indicated that the concentration of 5-HT in the brain and liver tissues were significantly lower in the rat model of depression than in healthy or treated rats...
June 28, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694565/5-ht-drives-mortality-in-sepsis-induced-by-cecal-ligation-and-puncture-in-mice
#11
Jingyao Zhang, Jianbin Bi, Sushun Liu, Qing Pang, Ruiyao Zhang, Shun Wang, Chang Liu
Sepsis is defined as a life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated host response to infection with a high mortality. 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is an important regulatory factor in inflammation. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of 5-HT on cecal ligation and puncture- (CLP-) induced sepsis in the mouse model. CLP was performed on C57B/6 wild-type (WT) mice and tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1) knockout (KO) mice. The results showed that the 5-HT-sufficient group mice had a significantly lower survival rate than the 5-HT-deficient group in CLP-induced sepsis and septic shock...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659716/aspects-of-tryptophan-and-nicotinamide-adenine-dinucleotide-in-immunity-a-new-twist-in-an-old-tale
#12
REVIEW
Hector Rodriguez Cetina Biefer, Anju Vasudevan, Abdallah Elkhal
Increasing evidence underscores the interesting ability of tryptophan to regulate immune responses. However, the exact mechanisms of tryptophan's immune regulation remain to be determined. Tryptophan catabolism via the kynurenine pathway is known to play an important role in tryptophan's involvement in immune responses. Interestingly, quinolinic acid, which is a neurotoxic catabolite of the kynurenine pathway, is the major pathway for the de novo synthesis of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+). Recent studies have shown that NAD+, a natural coenzyme found in all living cells, regulates immune responses and creates homeostasis via a novel signaling pathway...
2017: International Journal of Tryptophan Research: IJTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648567/eicosapentaenoic-and-docosahexaenoic-acids-have-different-effects-on-peripheral-phospholipase-a2-gene-expressions-in-acute-depressed-patients
#13
Kuan-Pin Su, Hui-Ting Yang, Jane Pei-Chen Chang, Yin-Hua Shih, Ta-Wei Guu, Satyanarayanan Senthil Kumaran, Piotr Gałecki, Anna Walczewska, Carmine M Pariante
INTRODUCTION: Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been proven critical in the development and management of major depressive disorder (MDD) by a number of epidemiological, clinical and preclinical studies, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this therapeutic action are yet to be understood. Although eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) seems to be the active component of omega-3 PUFAs' antidepressant effects, the biological research about the difference of specific genetic regulations between EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the two main components of omega-3 PUFAs, is still lacking in human subjects...
June 23, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600997/genistein-alleviates-anxiety-like-behaviors-in-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-model-through-enhancing-serotonergic-transmission-in-the-amygdala
#14
Zhong-Min Wu, Gui-Lian Ni, Ai-Min Shao, Rong Cui
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a chronic psychiatric disorder, characterized by intense fear, and increased arousal and avoidance of traumatic events. The current available treatments for PTSD have limited therapeutic value. Genistein, a natural isoflavone, modulates a variety of cell functions. In this study, we tested anti-anxiety activity and underlying mechanisms of genistein in a PTSD rat model. The rats were trained to associate a tone with foot shock delivery on day 0, then fear conditioning was performed on day 7, 14 and 21...
September 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593056/management-options-for-advanced-low-or-intermediate-grade-gastroenteropancreatic-neuroendocrine-tumors-review-of-recent-literature
#15
REVIEW
Vladimir Neychev, Electron Kebebew
Our understanding of the biology, genetics, and natural history of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) of the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas has improved considerably in the last several decades and the spectrum of available therapeutic options is rapidly expanding. The management of patients with metastatic low or intermediate grade NETs has been revolutionized by the development of new treatment strategies such as molecular targeting therapies with everolimus and sunitinib, somatostatin analogs, tryptophan hydroxylase inhibitors, and peptide receptor radionuclide therapy that can be used alone or as a multimodal approach with or without surgery...
2017: International Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590957/genetic-moderation-of-cocaine-subjective-effects-by-variation-in-the-tph1-tph2-and-slc6a4-serotonin-genes
#16
Michelle A Patriquin, Sara C Hamon, Mark J Harding, Ellen M Nielsen, Thomas F Newton, Richard De La Garza, David A Nielsen
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated variants of tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH)1, TPH2, and SLC6A4 in the moderation of the subjective effects of cocaine. METHODS: Non-treatment-seeking cocaine-dependent individuals (N=66) were intravenously administered saline and cocaine (40 mg) in a randomized order. Participants self-reported subjective effects of cocaine using a visual analog scale starting before administration of saline or cocaine (-15 min) to up to 20 min after infusion...
June 6, 2017: Psychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579486/no-effect-of-c1473g-polymorphism-in-the-tryptophan-hydroxylase-2-gene-on-the-response-of-the-brain-serotonin-system-to-chronic-fluoxetine-treatment-in-mice
#17
Ekaterina Y Bazhenova, Nadezhda A Sinyakova, Elizabeth A Kulikova, Irina A Kazarinova, Daria V Bazovkina, Raul R Gainetdinov, Alexander V Kulikov
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are antidepressants that block serotonin transporter (SERT) and increase serotonin (5-HT) level in the synaptic cleft. The interaction between SERT and the key enzyme of 5-HT synthesis in the brain, tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2), is essential to maintain the brain 5-HT level. The G allele of C1473G polymorphism in Tph2 gene decreases enzyme activity by half in mouse brain. Here we studied effect of C1473G polymorphism on the reaction of brain 5-HT system to chronic fluoxetine treatment (120mg/l in drinking water, for 3 weeks) in adult males of the congenic B6-1473C and B6-1473G mouse lines with high and low enzyme activity, respectively...
July 13, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560440/the-protective-effects-of-pcpa-against-monocrotaline-induced-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-are-mediated-through-the-downregulation-of-nfat-1-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb
#18
Yang Bai, Zhong-Xia Li, Huai-Liang Wang, Guo-Chao Lian, Yun Wang
Inflammation and remodeling play a role in the pathogenesis of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and nuclear factor of activated T cells-1 (NFAT-1) participate in inflammation and remodeling in a number of diseases. As a tryptophan hydroxylase inhibitor, 4-chloro-DL-phenylalanine (PCPA) had been reported to exert anti-inflammatory and remodeling effects. Therefore, we hypothesized that PCPA may attenuate monocrotaline (MCT)-induced PAH through the NFAT-1 and NF-κB signaling pathways...
July 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540407/a-new-mutation-site-in-the-aire-gene-causes-autoimmune-polyendocrine-syndrome-type-1
#19
Wufei Zhu, Zhen Hu, Xiangyu Liao, Xing Chen, Wenrong Huang, Yu Zhong, Zhaoyang Zeng
Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 (APS-1, OMIM 2403000) is a rare autosomal recessive disease that is caused by autoimmune regulator (AIRE). The main symptoms of APS-1 are chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, autoimmune adrenocortical insufficiency (Addison's disease) and hypoparathyroidism. We collected APS-1 cases and analysed them. The AIRE genes of the patient and his family members were sequenced to identify whether the APS-1 patient had an AIRE mutation. We discovered a mutation site (c.206A>C) that had never before been reported in the AIRE gene located in exon 2 of the AIRE gene...
May 24, 2017: Immunogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534121/organic-anion-transporters-oat1-and-oat3-are-crucial-biopterin-transporters-involved-in-bodily-distribution-of-tetrahydrobiopterin-and-exclusion-of-its-excess
#20
Akiko Ohashi, Kaori Mamada, Tomonori Harada, Masako Naito, Tomihisa Takahashi, Shin Aizawa, Hiroyuki Hasegawa
Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is a common coenzyme of phenylalanine-, tyrosine-, and tryptophan hydroxylases, alkylglycerol monooxygenase, and NO synthases (NOS). Synthetic BH4 is used medicinally for BH4-responsive phenylketonuria and inherited BH4 deficiency. BH4 supplementation has also drawn attention as a therapy for various NOS-related cardio-vascular diseases, but its use has met with limited success in decreasing BH2, the oxidized form of BH4. An increase in the BH2/BH4 ratio leads to NOS dysfunction. Previous studies revealed that BH4 supplementation caused a rapid urinary loss of BH4 accompanied by an increase in the blood BH2/BH4 ratio and an involvement of probenecid-sensitive but unknown transporters was strongly suggested in these processes...
May 22, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
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