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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446860/uvb-promotes-the-initiation-of-uveitic-inflammatory-injury-in-vivo-and-is-attenuated-by-uv-blocking-protection
#1
Yi-Ching Shao, Jyh-Cheng Liou, Chan-Yen Kuo, Yun-Shan Tsai, En-Chieh Lin, Ching-Ju Hsieh, Si-Ping Lin, Bo-Yie Chen
PURPOSE: Uveitic inflammatory injury can cause irreversible visual loss; however, no single animal model recapitulates all the characteristics of human uveitis. Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is one of the risk factors for uveitis, but the role of UVR in the pathogenesis of uveitic injury is unclear. The aim of this study was to elucidate whether UVB promotes the initiation of, and subsequently contributes to, uveitic inflammatory injury. METHODS: Mice were assigned to either a blank control group or one of three UVB treatment groups: no protection, protection with Nelfilcon A contact lens (Food and Drug Administration [FDA] class II, about 46...
2017: Molecular Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446221/effectiveness-of-three-commonly-used-transition-phase-diets-in-the-inpatient-management-of-children-with-severe-acute-malnutrition-a-pilot-randomized-controlled-trial-in-malawi
#2
Christian J Versloot, Wieger Voskuijl, Sara J van Vliet, Meta van den Heuvel, Jane C Carter, Ajib Phiri, Marko Kerac, Geert Tom Heikens, Patrick F van Rheenen, Robert H J Bandsma
BACKGROUND: The case fatality rate of severely malnourished children during inpatient treatment is high and mortality is often associated with diarrhea. As intestinal carbohydrate absorption is impaired in severe acute malnutrition (SAM), differences in dietary formulations during nutritional rehabilitation could lead to the development of osmotic diarrhea and subsequently hypovolemia and death. We compared three dietary strategies commonly used during the transition of severely malnourished children to higher caloric feeds, i...
April 26, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444605/recent-trends-of-modern-bacterial-insecticides-for-pest-control-practice-in-integrated-crop-management-system
#3
REVIEW
Pritam Chattopadhyay, Goutam Banerjee, Sayantan Mukherjee
Food security and safety are the major concern in ever expanding human population on the planet earth. Each and every year insect pests cause a serious damage in agricultural field that cost billions of dollars annually to farmers. The loss in term of productivity and high cost of chemical pesticides enhance the production cost. Irrespective use of chemical pesticides (such as Benzene hexachloride, Endosulfan, Aldicarb, and Fenobucarb) in agricultural field raised several types of environmental issues. Furthermore, continuous use of chemical pesticides creates a selective pressure which helps in emerging of resistance pest...
May 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442452/homestyles-a-web-based-childhood-obesity-prevention-program-for-families-with-preschool-children-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#4
Carol Byrd-Bredbenner, Jennifer Martin-Biggers, Mallory Koenings, Virginia Quick, Nobuko Hongu, John Worobey
BACKGROUND: The home environment is where young children spend most of their time, and is critically important to supporting behaviors that promote health and prevent obesity. However, the home environment and lifestyle patterns remain understudied, and few interventions have investigated parent-led makeovers designed to create home environments that are supportive of optimal child health and healthy child weights. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the HomeStyles randomized controlled trial (RCT) is to determine whether the Web-based HomeStyles intervention enables and motivates parents to shape the weight-related aspects of their home environments and lifestyle behavioral practices (diet, exercise, and sleep) to be more supportive of their preschool children's optimal health and weight...
April 25, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440959/qualitative-research-in-teen-experiences-living-with-food-induced-anaphylaxis-a-meta-aggregation
#5
REVIEW
Sara F Johnson, Roberta L Woodgate
AIM: To describe the central experiences of teens living with Food-Induced Anaphylaxis as a first step in responding to health care needs in this population. BACKGROUND: As prevalence of allergy increases and commonly-outgrown allergies persist longer, chronic management for teens becomes increasingly important. This review seeks to understand how teens experience living with Food-Induced Anaphylaxis. DESIGN: Meta-aggregation for qualitative systematic review, to create synthesis for clinical improvement; guided by Joanna Briggs Institute methods and their Qualitative Assessment and Review Instrument...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Advanced Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440928/microplastics-as-contaminants-in-commercially-important-seafood-species
#6
David Santillo, Kathryn Miller, Paul Johnston
The ingestion of microplastic fragments, spheres, and fibers by marine mollusks, crustaceans, and fish, including a number of commercially important species, appears to be a widespread and pervasive phenomenon. Evidence is also growing for direct impacts of microplastic ingestion on physiology, reproductive success and survival of exposed marine organisms, and transfer through food webs, although the ecological implications are not yet known. Concerns also remain over the capacity for microplastics to act as vectors for harmful chemical pollutants, including plastic additives and persistent organic pollutants, although their contribution must be evaluated alongside other known sources...
May 2017: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438596/can-preoperative-intramuscular-single-dose-dexamethasone-improve-patient-centered-outcomes-following-third-molar-surgery
#7
Mahmoud Al-Dajani
PURPOSE: Because of increased attention focused on administering dexamethasone to treat third molar surgical complications, this study investigated the efficacy of single-dose dexamethasone in managing postoperative complications after impacted third molar surgery. Pain intensity and analgesic intake, patients' discomfort, limitation of oral function, and limitation of daily activities were assessed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This triple-blinded split-mouth randomized controlled clinical trial included patients 18 to 30 years old who underwent randomized bilateral extractions of impacted mandibular third molars during 2 consecutive sessions...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437767/building-integrated-agriculture-a-first-assessment-of-aerobiological-air-quality-in-rooftop-greenhouses-i-rtgs
#8
Mireia Ercilla-Montserrat, Rebeca Izquierdo, Jordina Belmonte, Juan Ignacio Montero, Pere Muñoz, Concepción De Linares, Joan Rieradevall
Building-integrated rooftop greenhouse (i-RTG) agriculture has intensified in recent years, due to the growing interest in the development of new agricultural spaces and in the promotion of food self-sufficiency in urban areas. This paper provides a first assessment of the indoor dynamics of bioaerosols in an i-RTG, with the aim of evaluating biological air quality in a tomato greenhouse near Barcelona. It evaluates the greenhouse workers' exposure to airborne pollen and fungal spores in order to prevent allergy problems associated with occupational tasks...
April 21, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436760/diabetes-management-by-probiotics-current-knowledge-and-future-pespective
#9
Aziz Homayouni-Rad, Ahmad-Reza Soroush, Leila Khalili, Leila Norouzi-Panahi, Zahra Kasaie, Hanieh-Sadat Ejtahed
Diabetes mellitus, a multifactorial disorder, is related to the intestinal microbiota via numerous molecular mechanisms. The vast increase in the prevalence of diabetes and its associated complications requires a natural and safe solution. There is a growing evidence of gut microbiota effi ciency in improving insulin resistance, impaired insulin secretion, and metabolic complications in diabetic patients. Probiotics are defi ned as live microorganisms that, when ingested in adequate amounts, exert health benefi ts to the host...
April 24, 2017: International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research. Journal International de Vitaminologie et de Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435841/evading-plant-immunity-feedback-control-of-the-t3ss-in-pseudomonas-syringae
#10
COMMENT
Christopher Waite, Jörg Schumacher, Milija Jovanovic, Mark Bennett, Martin Buck
Microbes are responsible for over 10% of the global yield losses in staple crops such as wheat, rice, and maize. Understanding the decision-making strategies that enable bacterial plant pathogens to evade the host immune system and cause disease is essential for managing their ever growing threat to food security. Many utilise the needle-like type III secretion system (T3SS) to suppress plant immunity, by injecting effector proteins that inhibit eukaryotic signalling pathways into the host cell cytoplasm. Plants can in turn evolve resistance to specific pathogens via recognition and blocking of the T3SS effectors, so leading to an ongoing co-evolutionary 'arms race' between pathogen and host pairs...
March 17, 2017: Microbial Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431803/reutilization-of-discarded-biomass-for-preparing-functional-polymer-materials
#11
REVIEW
Jianfeng Wang, Wenzhen Qian, Yufeng He, Yubing Xiong, Pengfei Song, Rong-Min Wang
Biomass is abundant and recyclable on the earth, which has been assigned numerous roles to human beings. However, over the past decades, accompanying with the rapid expansion of man-made materials, such as alloy, plastic, synthetic rubber and fiber, a great number of natural materials had been neglected and abandoned, such as straw, which cause a waste of resource and environmental pollution. In this review, based on introducing sources of discarded biomass, the main composition and polymer chains in discarded biomass materials, the traditional treatment and novel approach for reutilization of discarded biomass were summarized...
April 18, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430159/efficacy-of-low-molecular-weight-fucoidan-as-a-supplemental-therapy-in-metastatic-colorectal-cancer-patients-a-double-blind-randomized-controlled-trial
#12
Hsiang-Lin Tsai, Chi-Jung Tai, Ching-Wen Huang, Fang-Rong Chang, Jaw-Yuan Wang
BACKGROUND: Low-molecular-weight fucoidan (LMF) is widely used as a food supplement for cancer patients. However, all of the studies are in vitro or were conducted using mice. Therefore, powerful clinical evidence for LMF use is relatively weak. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of LMF as a supplemental therapy to chemo-target agents in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients. METHODS: We conducted a prospective, randomized, double-blind, controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy of LMF as a supplemental therapy to chemotarget agents in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC)...
April 21, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426090/oleuropein-down-regulated-il-1%C3%AE-induced-inflammation-and-oxidative-stress-in-human-synovial-fibroblast-cell-line-sw982
#13
Maria Luisa Castejón, Maria Ángeles Rosillo, Tatiana Montoya, Alejandro González-Benjumea, Jose Maria Fernández-Bolaños, Catalina Alarcón-de-la-Lastra
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic and systemic inflammatory autoimmune disease mainly characterized by aggressive hyperproliferation of synovial fibroblasts (SFs). It is accompained by a massive infiltration of inflammatory immune cells inducing progressive matrix degradation, destruction of cartilage and bone erosion through the production of inflammatory mediators. Oleuropein is the most prevalent phenolic component in olive leaves, seed, pulp and peel of unripe olives and is responsible for the characteristic bitter taste of unprocessed olives...
April 20, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421338/tailoring-pharmacotherapy-to-specific-eating-behaviours-in-obesity-can-recommendations-for-personalised-therapy-be-made-from-the-current-data
#14
Carl A Roberts, Paul Christiansen, Jason C G Halford
Pharmacotherapy provides an adjunct to behaviour modification in the management of obesity. There are a number of new drug therapies purportedly targeting appetite; liraglutide, and bupropion/naltrexone, which are European Medicines Agency and US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved, and lorcaserin and phentermine/topiramate, which have FDA approval only. Each of the six drugs, used singly or in combination, has distinct pharmacological, and presumably distinct behavioural, mechanisms of action, thus the potential to provide defined therapeutic options to personalise the management of obesity...
April 19, 2017: Acta Diabetologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421101/hyperspectral-technologies-for-assessing-seed-germination-and-trifloxysulfuron-methyl-response-in-amaranthus-palmeri-palmer-amaranth
#15
Maor Matzrafi, Ittai Herrmann, Christian Nansen, Tom Kliper, Yotam Zait, Timea Ignat, Dana Siso, Baruch Rubin, Arnon Karnieli, Hanan Eizenberg
Weed infestations in agricultural systems constitute a serious challenge to agricultural sustainability and food security worldwide. Amaranthus palmeri S. Watson (Palmer amaranth) is one of the most noxious weeds causing significant yield reductions in various crops. The ability to estimate seed viability and herbicide susceptibility is a key factor in the development of a long-term management strategy, particularly since the misuse of herbicides is driving the evolution of herbicide response in various weed species...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419657/a-new-approach-to-clinical-research-integrating-clinical-care-quality-reporting-and-research-using-a-wound-care-network-based-learning-healthcare-system
#16
Thomas E Serena, Caroline E Fife, Kristen A Eckert, Raphael A Yaakov, Marissa J Carter
The disparity between ideal evidence from randomized controlled trials and real-world evidence in medical research has prompted the United States Food and Drug Administration to consider the use of real-world data to better understand safety and effectiveness of new devices for a broader patient population and to prioritize real-world data in regulatory decision making. As the healthcare system transitions from volume- to value-based care, there is a growing need to harness the power of real-world data to change the paradigm for wound care clinical research and enable more generalizable clinical trials...
April 17, 2017: Wound Repair and Regeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406389/the-informational-turn-in-food-politics-the-us-fda-s-nutrition-label-as-information-infrastructure
#17
Xaq Frohlich
This article traces the history of the US FDA regulation of nutrition labeling, identifying an 'informational turn' in the evolving politics of food, diet and health in America. Before nutrition labeling was introduced, regulators actively sought to segregate food markets from drug markets by largely prohibiting health information on food labels, believing such information would 'confuse' the ordinary food consumer. Nutrition labeling's emergence, first in the 1970s as consumer empowerment and then later in the 1990s as a solution to information overload, reflected the belief that it was better to manage markets indirectly through consumer information than directly through command-and-control regulatory architecture...
April 2017: Social Studies of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405668/functional-food-supplements-to-ameliorate-the-secondary-complications-in-high-fructose-fed-diabetic-rats
#18
S S Gite, S A Yadav, S S Nilegaonkar, V V Agte
Functional foods are the most natural and safest source of health ingredients, providing health benefits beyond basic nutrition, and hence can be used as supplements for the prevention of secondary complications in diabetes. Persistent diabetes may cause glycation of various tissue proteins such as of those in lens, kidney, blood, and brain, which may further lead to the development of pathological conditions such as cataract and cardiovascular diseases. This study on adult rats was designed to assess if the functional food supplements A and B (proprietary blends of antioxidant rich plant materials) can reduce secondary complications such as cataract, dyslipidemia, and oxidative stress under severe diabetic conditions...
April 13, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403036/commercial-probiotic-products-a-call-for-improved-quality-control-a-position-paper-by-the-espghan-working-group-for-probiotics-and-prebiotics
#19
Sanja Kolaček, Iva Hojsak, Roberto Berni Canani, Alfredo Guarino, Flavia Indrio, Rok Orel, Bruno Pot, Raanan Shamir, Hania Szajewska, Yvan Vandenplas, Johannes van Goudoever, Zvi Weizman
: Probiotics have been proposed for a number of indications ranging from the hypothetical long term immunomodulatory effects to proven benefits in the management of different clinical conditions.An increasing number of commercial products containing probiotics are available. In those products, irrespective if it is food, food supplement, medical food or drug, the probiotic microorganisms have to be present in a sufficient number by the end of the shelf-life, to pass through the gastrointestinal tract resisting acid and bile, to colonize the gut, and to retain functional properties required to obtain the suggested beneficial effect...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402220/implementation-of-quality-by-design-towards-processing-of-food-products
#20
Anurag S Rathore, Gautam Kapoor
Quality by design (QbD) is a systematic approach that begins with predefined objectives and emphasizes product and process understanding and process control. It is an approach based on principles of sound science and quality risk management. As the food processing industry continues to embrace the idea of in-line, on-line and/or at-line sensors and real time characterization for process monitoring and control, the existing gaps with regards to our ability to monitor multiple parameters/variables associated with the manufacturing process will be alleviated over time...
April 12, 2017: Preparative Biochemistry & Biotechnology
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