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Ashlee Tietje, Xi Yang, Xianzhong Yu, Yanzhang Wei
Natural killer (NK) cells have the potential to be effective killers of tumor cells. They are governed by inhibitory and activating receptors such as NKG2D, whose ligands are normally upregulated in cells that are stressed, like cancer cells. Advanced cancer cells, however, have ways to reduce the expression of these ligands, leaving them less detectable by NK cells. Along with these receptors, NK cells also require activating cytokines, such as IL-12. A previous study in our laboratory showed that a fusion protein of the extracellular domain of mouse UL-16 binding protein-like transcript 1 (MULT1E) and mouse interleukin 12 (IL-12) can effectively activate mouse NK cells by in vitro assays and in vivo in animal tumor models...
January 16, 2017: Oncology Reports
Daniele Moro, Giovanni Valdrè, Ernesto Mesto, Fernando Scordari, Maria Lacalamita, Giancarlo Della Ventura, Fabio Bellatreccia, Salvatore Scirè, Emanuela Schingaro
This study presents a cross-correlated surface and near surface investigation of two phlogopite polytypes from Kasenyi kamafugitic rocks (SW Uganda) by means of advanced Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), confocal microscopy and Raman micro-spectroscopy. AFM revealed comparable nanomorphology and electrostatic surface potential for the two mica polytypes. A widespread presence of nano-protrusions located on the mica flake surface was also observed, with an aspect ratio (maximum height/maximum width) from 0.01 to 0...
January 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
Udara Bimendra Gunatilake, Jayasundera Bandara
For the effective oil/water separation, a novel superhydrophilic (underwater superoleophobic) filter is fabricated with the naturally and hydrothermally treated mica particles. To fabricate a double layered filter, hydrothermally treated mica particles were initially electrodeposited on a stainless steel mesh and a natural mica particles were sprayed on the first hydrothermally deposited mica layer. The double layered mica coated membrane showed superamphiphilic and superhydrophilic/superoleophobic (contact angle >159°) characteristics in air and underwater respectively...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
Aleksander Chojecki
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 11, 2017: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
Sangeetha Raman, Lukas Malms, Thomas Utzig, Buddha Ratna Shrestha, Philipp Stock, Shankar Krishnan, Markus Valtiner
Barnacles exhibit superior underwater adhesion simply through sequencing of the 21 proteinogenic amino acids, without post processing or using special amino acids. Here, we measure and discuss the molecular interaction of two distinct and recurring short peptide sequences (Bp1 and Bp2) inspired from the surface binding 19kDa protein from the barnacle attachment interface. Using self-assembled monolayer (SAMs) of known physical and chemical properties on molecularly smooth gold substrates in 5mM NaCl at pH 7...
December 26, 2016: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Juan José González-Costa, Manuel Joaquín Reigosa, José María Matías, Emma Fernández-Covelo
This study determines the influence of the different soil components and of the cation-exchange capacity on the adsorption and retention of different heavy metals: cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, lead and zinc. In order to do so, regression models were created through decision trees and the importance of soil components was assessed. Used variables were: humified organic matter, specific cation-exchange capacity, percentages of sand and silt, proportions of Mn, Fe and Al oxides and hematite, and the proportion of quartz, plagioclase and mica, and the proportions of the different clays: kaolinite, vermiculite, gibbsite and chlorite...
2017: PloS One
Dorota Konarzewska, Joanna Juhaniewicz, Alişan Güzeloğlu, Sławomir Sęk
We have characterized planar lipid films composed of phosphatidylethanolamines (PE) and phosphatidylglycerols (PG) from E. coli bacteria. The nature of the interactions and miscibility of PE and PG components within mixed lipid films was evaluated based on surface pressure measurements and Brewster angle microscopy imaging at the air-water interface. We have found that PE and PG components show tendency to form separated domains at surface pressures relevant for biological membranes. Further, we have directly compared mechanisms of formation of supported lipid bilayers either on mica or Au(111) by spreading of small unilamellar vesicles...
January 7, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Mica C Smith, Wen Chao, Manoj Kumar, Joseph S Francisco, Kaito Takahashi, Jim Jr-Min Lin
The reaction of the simplest Criegee intermediate CH2OO with hydrogen sulfide was measured with transient UV absorption spectroscopy in a temperature-controlled flow reactor, and bimolecular rate coefficients were obtained from 278 to 318 K and from 100 to 500 Torr. The average rate coefficient at 298 K and 100 Torr was (1.7±0.2)×10(-13) cm(3) s(-1). The reaction was found to be independent of pressure and exhibited a weak negative temperature dependence. Ab initio quantum chemistry calculations of the temperature-dependent reaction rate coefficient at the QCISD(T)/CBS level are in reasonable agreement with the experiment...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Sukhnandan Kaur, Surinder Singh, Lakhwant Singh
Thin cleaved samples (~18µm) of natural muscovite mica were irradiated with 80MeV oxygen ion beam at fluence ranging from 1×10(12) to 5×10(13)ion/cm(2). The alterations in dielectric, structural, chemical and thermoluminescence properties of irradiated as well as pristine samples have been investigated. Dielectric constant decreases while other dielectric parameters such as dielectric loss, tanδ, ac conductivity, real and imaginary parts of electric modulus increase with increase of ion fluence. Williamson Hall investigation has been utilized to ascertain crystallite size and micro strain of pristine and irradiated samples...
December 29, 2016: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
S F Wang, W Wang, W K Fong, Y Yu, C Surya
In this paper we report the growth of high quality SnS thin films with good crystallinity deposited on two-dimensional (2D) mica substrates. It is believed that the 2D nature of SnS, with strong intra-layer covalent bonds and weak inter-layer van der Waals interactions, is responsible for its relative insensitivity to lattice mismatch. We also investigated the reduction of Sn vacancies in the material using Sn-compensation technique during the material growth process. The experimental results clearly demonstrated substantial enhancements in the electrical and structural properties for films deposited using Sn-compensation technique...
January 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
Wei-Chen Huang, Nicholas J Easom, Xin-Zi Tang, Upkar S Gill, Harsimran Singh, Francis Robertson, Chiwen Chang, John Trowsdale, Brian R Davidson, William M Rosenberg, Giuseppe Fusai, Antoine Toubert, Patrick T Kennedy, Dimitra Peppa, Mala K Maini
NK cells, which are highly enriched in the liver, are potent regulators of antiviral T cells and immunopathology in persistent viral infection. We investigated the role of the NKG2D axis in T cell/NK cell interactions in hepatitis B. Activated and hepatitis B virus (HBV)-specific T cells, particularly the CD4 fraction, expressed NKG2D ligands (NKG2DL), which were not found on T cells from healthy controls (p < 0.001). NKG2DL-expressing T cells were strikingly enriched within HBV-infected livers compared with the periphery or to healthy livers (p < 0...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Antje Isernhagen, Dörthe Malzahn, Heike Bickeböller, Ralf Dressel
The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I chain-related A (MICA) is the most polymorphic non-classical MHC class I gene in humans. It encodes a ligand for NKG2D (NK group 2, member D), an activating natural killer (NK) receptor that is expressed mainly on NK cells and CD8(+) T cells. The single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs1051792 causing a valine (Val) to methionine (Met) exchange at position 129 of the MICA protein is of specific interest. It separates MICA into isoforms that bind NKG2D with high (Met) and low affinities (Val)...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
Christian Godon, Jean-Marie Teulon, Michael Odorico, Christian Basset, Matthieu Meillan, Luc Vellutini, Shu-Wen W Chen, Jean-Luc Pellequer
A recurrent interrogation when imaging soft biomolecules using atomic force microscopy (AFM) is the putative deformation of molecules leading to a bias in recording true topographical surfaces. Deformation of biomolecules comes from three sources: sample instability, adsorption to the imaging substrate, and crushing under tip pressure. To disentangle these causes, we measured the maximum height of a well-known biomolecule, the tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), under eight different experimental conditions positing that the maximum height value is a specific indicator of sample deformations...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Structural Biology
Zitian Chen, Peiyu Liao, Fangli Zhang, Mengcheng Jiang, Yusen Zhu, Yanyi Huang
Stable water-in-oil emulsion is essential to digital PCR and many other bioanalytical reactions that employ droplets as microreactors. We developed a novel technology to produce monodisperse emulsion droplets with high efficiency and high throughput using a bench-top centrifuge. Upon centrifugal spinning, the continuous aqueous phase is dispersed into monodisperse droplet jets in air through a micro-channel array (MiCA) and then submerged into oil as a stable emulsion. We performed dPCR reactions with a high dynamic range through the MiCA approach, and demonstrated that this cost-effective method not only eliminates the usage of complex microfluidic devices and control systems, but also greatly suppresses the loss of materials and cross-contamination...
December 22, 2016: Lab on a Chip
Jie Chen, Yongping Fu, Leith Samad, Lianna Dang, Yuzhou Zhao, Shaohua Shen, Liejin Guo, Song Jin
With the intense interest in inorganic cesium lead halide perovskites and their nanostructures for optoelectronic applications, high-quality crystalline nanomaterials with controllable morphologies and growth directions are desirable. Here, we report a vapor-phase epitaxial growth of horizontal single-crystal CsPbX3 (X = Cl, Br, I) nanowires (NWs) and microwires (MWs) with controlled crystallographic orientations on the (001) plane of phlogopite and muscovite mica. Moreover, single NWs, Y-shaped branches, interconnected NW or MW networks with 6-fold symmetry, and, eventually, highly dense epitaxial network of CsPbBr3 with nearly continuous coverage were controllably obtained by varying the growth time...
December 27, 2016: Nano Letters
Chung-Feng Huang, Cing-Yi Huang, Ming-Lun Yeh, Shu-Chi Wang, Kuan-Yu Chen, Yu-Min Ko, Ching-Chih Lin, Yi-Shan Tsai, Pei-Chien Tsai, Zu-Yau Lin, Shinn-Cherng Chen, Chia-Yen Dai, Jee-Fu Huang, Wan-Long Chuang, Ming-Lung Yu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The genome-wide association study has shown that MHC class I chain-related A (MICA) genetic variants were associated with hepatitis C virus (HCC) related hepatocellular carcinoma. The impact of the genetic variants and its serum levels on post-treatment cohort is elusive. METHODS: MICA rs2596542 genotype and serum MICA (sMICA) levels were evaluated in 705 patients receiving antiviral therapy. RESULTS: Fifty-eight (8·2%) patients developed HCC, with a median follow-up period of 48·2months (range: 6-129months)...
February 2017: EBioMedicine
James M Campbell, Fiona C Meldrum, Hugo K Christenson
Heterogeneous nucleation is vital to a wide range of areas as diverse as ice nucleation on atmospheric aerosols and the fabrication of high-performance thin films. There is excellent evidence that surface topography is a key factor in directing crystallization in real systems; however, the mechanisms by which nanoscale pits and pores promote nucleation remain unclear. Here, we use natural cleavage defects on Muscovite mica to investigate the activity of topographical features in the nucleation from vapor of ice and various organic crystals...
December 19, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Mirela Nedelescu, Daniela Baconi, Aurora Neagoe, Virgil Iordache, Miriana Stan, Paula Constantinescu, Anne-Marie Ciobanu, Alexander I Vardavas, Marco Vinceti, Aristidis M Tsatsakis
We investigated two Romanian industrial regions- Copşa Mică and Zlatna, to assess the current situation of soil pollution and bioaccumulation of Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn in different vegetable species and possible risks to consumers. Both total and mobile forms of the metals were determined in soil samples, and metal content in the edible parts of root vegetable samples was also assessed. The concentrations of Pb and Zn in soil were higher in Copşa Mică than in Zlatna (566mg/kg vs 271mg/kg for Pb and 1143mg/kg vs 368mg/kg for Zn)·The metal mobility in soil from Copsa Mica decreases in the order Zn>Cu>Cd>Pb (1...
December 16, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Wan-Ing Lin, Mohammad Fardin Gholami, Paul Beyer, Nikolai Severin, Feng Shao, Renato Zenobi, Jürgen P Rabe
Graphene and flat gold have both been argued to enhance Raman scattering of molecular adsorbates through a chemical mechanism. Here we show that these two effects can add to each other. For Cu-phthalocyanine in between graphene and Au(111) on mica a Raman enhancement up to 68-fold has been observed.
December 19, 2016: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Medhat Askar, Ronald Sobecks, Tao Wang, Mike Haagenson, Navneet Majhail, Abeer Madbouly, Dawn Thomas, Aiwen Zhang, Katharina Fleischhauer, Katharine Hsu, Michael Verneris, Stephanie J Lee, Stephen R Spellman, Marcelo Fernández-Viña
Single-center studies have previously reported associations of MHC Class I Chain-Related Gene A (MICA) polymorphisms and donor-recipient MICA mismatching with graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after unrelated donor hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). In this study, we investigated the association of MICA polymorphism (MICA-129, MM versus MV versus VV) and MICA mismatches after HCT with 10/10 HLA-matched (n = 552) or 9/10 (n = 161) unrelated donors. Included were adult patients with a first unrelated bone marrow or peripheral blood HCT for acute lymphoblastic leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia, or myelodysplastic syndrome that were reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research between 1999 and 2011...
December 14, 2016: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
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