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Jie Liu, Nikos Mattheos, Cheng Su, Chuanxi Deng, Nanyu Luo, Zekun Wang, Hua Tang
OBJECTIVE: This study was intended to investigate the effects of Icariin on the healing of tooth extraction sites under systemic administration of Zoledronic and Dexamethasone. METHOD: Thirty female rats underwent bilateral ovariectomy and were randomly assigned to 5 groups: SS group received weekly injection of saline while ZD, ZD+LICA, ZD+MICA and ZD+HICA groups received Zoledronic with Dexamethasone for 8 weeks. One week later, mandibular first molars were extracted in all groups...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine
F Agliardi, M R Dobbs, S Zanchetta, S Vinciguerra
The micro-mechanisms of brittle failure affect the bulk mechanical behaviour and permeability of crustal rocks. In low-porosity crystalline rocks, these mechanisms are related to mineralogy and fabric anisotropy, while confining pressure, temperature and strain rates regulate the transition from brittle to ductile behaviour. However, the effects of folded anisotropic fabrics, widespread in orogenic settings, on the mechanical behaviour of crustal rocks are largely unknown. Here we explore the deformation and failure behaviour of a representative folded gneiss, by combining the results of triaxial deformation experiments carried out while monitoring microseismicity with microstructural and damage proxies analyses...
November 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
Daniel Martin-Jimenez, Ricardo Garcia
Force microscope provides atomically resolved images of surfaces immersed in a liquid. The presence of different chemical species in the interface (cations, anions, water, neutral atoms) complicates the adscription of the observed features to a given species. We develop a 3D atomic force microscopy method to identify the cations adsorbed on a mica surface from a potassium chloride solution. The method is based on measuring the peak value of the attractive force within the Stern layer. The maximum of the attractive force shows site-specific variations...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Roberto Simone, Rubika Balendra, Thomas G Moens, Elisavet Preza, Katherine M Wilson, Amanda Heslegrave, Nathan S Woodling, Teresa Niccoli, Javier Gilbert-Jaramillo, Samir Abdelkarim, Emma L Clayton, Mica Clarke, Marie-Therese Konrad, Andrew J Nicoll, Jamie S Mitchell, Andrea Calvo, Adriano Chio, Henry Houlden, James M Polke, Mohamed A Ismail, Chad E Stephens, Tam Vo, Abdelbasset A Farahat, W David Wilson, David W Boykin, Henrik Zetterberg, Linda Partridge, Selina Wray, Gary Parkinson, Stephen Neidle, Rickie Patani, Pietro Fratta, Adrian M Isaacs
Intronic GGGGCC repeat expansions in C9orf72 are the most common known cause of frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), which are characterised by degeneration of cortical and motor neurons, respectively. Repeat expansions have been proposed to cause disease by both the repeat RNA forming foci that sequester RNA-binding proteins and through toxic dipeptide repeat proteins generated by repeat-associated non-ATG translation. GGGGCC repeat RNA folds into a G-quadruplex secondary structure, and we investigated whether targeting this structure is a potential therapeutic strategy...
November 7, 2017: EMBO Molecular Medicine
Tomoharu Miyashita, Kenji Miki, Takashi Kamigaki, Isamu Makino, Hidehiro Tajima, Shinichi Nakanuma, Hironori Hayashi, Hiroyuki Takamura, Sachio Fushida, Ali K Ahmed, John W Harmon, Tetsuo Ohta
To improve natural killer group 2 member D (NKG2D)-dependent cytotoxicity, the inhibition of cleavage and release of major histocompatibility complex class 1-related chain (MIC) molecules from the tumor surface are required. Valproic acid (VPA), a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, is able to induce cell-surface MICA/B on tumor cells. In the present study, the ability of VPA and gemcitabine (GEM) to upregulate MICA/B in pancreatic cancer cells was investigated, resulting in the inhibition of cleavage and release of MIC molecules from the tumor surface...
November 2017: Oncology Letters
Kai Sotthewes, Pantelis Bampoulis, Harold J W Zandvliet, Detlef Lohse, Bene Poelsema
The classic regelation experiment of Thomson in the 1850s deals with cutting an ice cube, followed by refreezing. The cutting was attributed to pressure-induced melting but has been challenged continuously, and only lately consensus emerged by understanding that compression shortens the O:H nonbond and lengthens the H-O bond simultaneously. This H-O elongation leads to energy loss and lowers the melting point. The hot debate survived well over 150 years, mainly due to a poorly defined heat exchange with the environment in the experiment...
November 10, 2017: ACS Nano
María Del Mar Orta, Julia Martín, Santiago Medina-Carrasco, Juan Luis Santos, Irene Aparicio, Esteban Alonso
The aim of this work was to assess for the first time the use of two high-charge swelling micas (Na-Mica-4 and C18-Mica-4) for the removal of four linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) from aqueous samples. To this end, Na-Mica-4 was synthesized and organically functionalized with cations of octadecylamine to obtain C18-Mica-4. Na-Mica-4 and C18-Mica-4 were characterized by X-Ray diffraction, Zeta potential, specific surface area and thermogravimetric analysis before and after the adsorption experiments. LAS removal studies were carried out in water samples spiked with a LAS mixture (10 mg L(-1))...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
Daniel Kerekes, Daniel W Visscher, Tanya L Hoskin, Derek C Radisky, Rushin D Brahmbhatt, Alvaro Pena, Marlene H Frost, Muhammad Arshad, Melody Stallings-Mann, Stacey J Winham, Linda Murphy, Lori Denison, Jodi M Carter, Keith L Knutson, Amy C Degnim
PURPOSE: While the role of natural killer (NK) cells in breast cancer therapy has been investigated, little information is known about NK cell function and presence in nonmalignant and premalignant breast tissue. Here, we investigate and quantify NK cell marker CD56 and activating ligand MICA in breast tissue with benign breast disease. METHODS: Serial tissue sections from 88 subjects, 44 with benign breast disease (BBD) who remained cancer-free, and 44 with BBD who later developed cancer, were stained with H&E, anti-MICA, and anti-CD56...
November 1, 2017: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
Mirali Pandya, Tiffani Lin, Leo Li, Michael J Allen, Tianquan Jin, Xianghong Luan, Thomas G H Diekwisch
The extracellular tooth enamel matrix is a unique, protein-rich environment that provides the structural basis for the growth of long and parallel oriented enamel crystals. Here we have conducted a series of in vivo and in vitro studies to characterize the changes in matrix shape and organization that take place during the transition from ameloblast intravesicular matrices to extracellular subunit compartments and pericrystalline sheath proteins, and correlated these changes with stages of amelogenin matrix protein posttranslational processing...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
Tatiana N Sharapova, Olga K Ivanova, Vladimir S Prasolov, Elena A Romanova, Lidia P Sashchenko, Denis V Yashin
The innate immunity protein Tag7 (PGRP-S, PGLYRP1) is involved in antimicrobial and antitumor defense. As shown in our previous studies, Tag7 specifically interacts with the major heat shock protein Hsp70 to form a stable Tag7-Hsp70 complex with cytotoxic activity against tumor cells. A stable complex of Tag7 with the calcium-binding protein Mts1 (S100A4) stimulates migration of lymphocytes. Moreover, Tag7 can activate cytotoxic lymphocytes that recognize and kill HLA-negative tumor cells. Here, we have shown that Tag 7 treatment of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) results in activation of different cytotoxic lymphocyte populations-natural killer (NK) cells and CD8(+) NKG2D(+) T lymphocytes-that kill Moloney murine leukemia virus (MMLV) infected SC-1 cells using different mechanisms of cell death induction...
October 30, 2017: IUBMB Life
P A Sokolov, S A Bondarev, M V Belousov, G A Zhouravleva, N A Kasyanenko
Prion and some other incurable human neurodegenerative diseases are associated with misfolding of specific proteins, followed by the formation of amyloids. Despite the widespread usage of the transmission electron and of the atomic force microscopy for studing such amyloids, many related methodological issues still have not been studied until now. Here, we consider one of the first amyloids found in Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast, i.e. Sup35NMp, to study the adsorption of monomeric protein and its fibrils on the surface of mica, silica, gold and on formvar film...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Structural Biology
Ping Yu, Quan Zhu, Chunjing Chen, Xiaoling Fu, Yu Li, Limin Liu, Qizhi Luo, Fuyan Wang, Yong Wang
BACKGROUND: Major histocompatibility complex class I chain-related gene (MIC) polymorphisms have been associated with many autoimmune diseases. To explore the correlation between MIC polymorphisms and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), we compared the sequence of the MIC gene in Han Chinese patients with SLE from Hainan Island, China, with healthy individuals. METHODS: In this study, the MIC polymorphisms in 296 subjects (159 patients with SLE and 137 healthy volunteers) of Han ethnicity from Hainan Island were characterized...
October 2017: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
Julia E Bartenstein, Xiaoyan Liu, Kathrin Lange, Per M Claesson, Wuge H Briscoe
Polymersomes are hollow spheres self-assembled from amphiphilic block copolymers of certain molecular architecture. Whilst they have been widely studied for biomedical applications, relatively few studies have reported their interfacial properties. In particular, lubrication by polymersomes has not been previously reported. Here, interfacial properties of polymersomes self-assembled from poly(butadiene)-poly(ethylene oxide) (PBD-PEO; molecular weight 10,400 g mol(-1)) have been studied at both hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Hendri-Charl Eksteen, Piet J Becker, Gian Lippi
BACKGROUND: Stigma towards the mentally ill is a well-known phenomenon and it is not restricted to certain communities or countries. Stigma, be it self-stigma or public stigma, has a major influence in mental health care. AIM: The aim of this study was to determine whether stigmatizing attitudes towards the mentally ill differ according to the level of knowledge about psychiatric illnesses and whether the level of exposure towards the mentally ill plays a role in stigmatizing attitudes...
October 1, 2017: International Journal of Social Psychiatry
Graham R Stirling, A Marcelle Stirling, David E Walter
Protogamasellus mica was extracted from a sugarcane field in Australia and cultured on bacterial-feeding nematodes. Studies with various nematodes in laboratory arenas showed that one mite and its progeny reduced nematode numbers by between 26 and 50 nematodes/day. A bacterivore (Mesorhabditis sp.), a fungivore (Aphelenchus avenae), and two plant parasites (root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne javanica and root-lesion nematode, Pratylenchus zeae) were all reduced at much the same rate despite the fact that the nematodes are quite different in size and motility and belong to different trophic groups...
September 2017: Journal of Nematology
Aneta Michna
Recent studies on macroion adsorption at solid/liquid interfaces evaluated by electrokinetic and optical methods are reviewed. In the first section a description of electrokinetic phenomena at a solid surface is briefly outlined. Various methods for determining both static and dynamic properties of the electrical double layer, such as the appropriate location of the slip plane, are presented. Theoretical approaches are discussed concerning quantitative interpretation of streaming potential/current measurements of homogeneous macroscopic interfaces...
September 29, 2017: Advances in Colloid and Interface Science
Jun Arai, Kaku Goto, Anthony Stephanou, Yasushi Tanoue, Sayaka Ito, Ryosuke Muroyama, Yasuo Matsubara, Ryo Nakagawa, Sayuri Morimoto, Yoshimi Kaise, Lay Ahyoung Lim, Hitoshi Yoshida, Naoya Kato
BACKGROUND AND AIM: The multi-kinase inhibitor regorafenib (REG) was recently demonstrated to be effective in patients with sorafenib (SOR)-resistant hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Interestingly, SOR is known to enhance the accumulation of membrane-bound MHC class I polypeptide-related sequence A (mMICA) in HCC cells, and to block production of soluble MICA (sMICA), an immunological decoy. In addition, MICA is associated with HCC in patients with chronic hepatitis C. We have now compared the impact of REG and SOR on MICA in HCC cells, as well as the immunotherapeutic implications thereof...
October 21, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Alice Meroni, Federico Lazzaro, Marco Muzi-Falconi, Alessandro Podestà
We describe a method to extract quantitative information on DNA structural and configurational properties from high-resolution topographic maps recorded by atomic force microscopy (AFM). DNA molecules are deposited on mica surfaces from an aqueous solution, carefully dehydrated, and imaged in air in Tapping Mode. Upon extraction of the spatial coordinates of the DNA backbones from AFM images, several parameters characterizing DNA structure and configuration can be calculated. Here, we explain how to obtain the distribution of contour lengths, end-to-end distances, and gyration radii...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Zachary J Donhauser, Jared T Saunders, Dennis S D'Urso, Teresa A Garrett
Tau is a microtubule-associated protein found in neuronal axons that has several well-known functions, such as promoting microtubule polymerization, stabilizing microtubules against depolymerization, and spatially organizing microtubules in axons. Two contrasting models have been previously described to explain tau's ability to organize the spacing between microtubules: complementary dimerization of the projection domains of taus on adjacent microtubules or tau's projection domain acting as a polyelectrolyte brush...
October 24, 2017: Biochemistry
Concetta De Quattro, Erica Mica, Mario Enrico Pè, Edoardo Bertolini
Recent advances in high throughput sequencing technology have revealed a pervasive and complex transcriptional activity of all eukaryotic genomes and have allowed the identification and characterization of several classes of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) with key roles in various biological processes. Among ncRNAs, long ncRNAs (lncRNAs) are transcripts typically longer than 200 nucleotides whose members tend to be expressed at low levels, show a lack of phylogenetic conservation and exhibit tissue-specific, cell-specific, or stress-responsive expression profiles...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
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