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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987927/blood-brain-barrier-dysfunction-and-recovery-after-ischemic-stroke
#1
REVIEW
Xiaoyan Jiang, Anuska V Andjelkovic, Ling Zhu, Tuo Yang, Michael V L Bennett, Jun Chen, Richard F Keep, Yejie Shi
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) plays a vital role in regulating the trafficking of fluid, solutes and cells at the blood-brain interface and maintaining the homeostatic microenvironment of the CNS. Under pathological conditions, such as ischemic stroke, the BBB can be disrupted, followed by the extravasation of blood components into the brain and compromise of normal neuronal function. This article reviews recent advances in our knowledge of the mechanisms underlying BBB dysfunction and recovery after ischemic stroke...
October 5, 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987284/lentivirus-carrying-the-neurod1-gene-promotes-the-conversion-from-glial-cells-into-neurons-in-a-spinal-cord-injury-model
#2
Wenhao Chen, Baoquan Zhang, Shuxia Xu, Ren Lin, Wei Wang
In this study, we aimed to reprogram reactive glial cells into neural stem cells and neurons in vivo, by up-regulating NeuroD1. 60 rats were randomly divided into three groups with equal numbers. All rats received a spinal cord injury. Group A received only normal saline injection. Group B received unloaded lentivirus injection. Group C received NeuroD1 recombinant lentivirus injection. The BBB scores of the animals were documented at 3, 7, 14, 21days after SCI. 5 random rats of each group were removed at those timings after SCI and sacrificed...
October 5, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966235/ginsenoside-rg1-promotes-the-migration-of-olfactory-ensheathing-cells-via-the-pi3k-akt-pathway-to-repair-rat-spinal-cord-injury
#3
Yin-Yao Tang, Wei-Xiao Guo, Zheng-Feng Lu, Mao-Hua Cheng, Yi-Xin Shen, Ying-Zi Zhang
The aim of this study was to determine the effects of ginsenoside Rg1 on the migration of olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) in vitro, and its influence on the therapeutic efficacy of OECs transplanted in vivo for the treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI). Primary cultured and purified OECs (prepared from rats) were treated with ginsenoside Rg1. The wound healing test indicated that ginsenoside Rg1 promoted the migration of OECs. Real-time RT-PCR demonstrated that ginsenoside Rg1 upregulated the expression of migration-related factors of OECs, including matrix metalloproteinases-2 (MMP-2), MMP-9, and neural cell adhesion molecule 1 (NCAM1)...
2017: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938612/magnetic-resonance-imaging-tracking-and-assessing-repair-function-of-the-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-transplantation-in-a-rat-model-of-spinal-cord-injury
#4
Hongwu Zhang, Liqin Wang, Shihong Wen, Qingfeng Xiang, Xianhong Xiang, Caixia Xu, Yong Wan, Jingnan Wang, Bin Li, Yiqian Wan, Zhiyun Yang, David Y B Deng
The transplantation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) to repair spinal cord injury (SCI) has become a promising therapy. However, there is still a lack of visual evidence directly implicating the transplanted cells as the source of the improvement of spinal cord function. In this study, BMSCs were labeled with NF-200 promoter and lipase-activated gadolinium-containing nanoparticles (Gd-DTPA-FA). Double labeled BMSCs were implanted into spinal cord transaction injury in rat models in situ, the function recovery was evaluated on 1st, 7th, 14th, 28 th days by MRI, Diffusion Tensor Imaing, CT imaging and post-processing, and histological observations...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901688/poly-glycerol-sebacate-combined-with-chondroitinase-abc-promotes-spinal-cord-repair-in-rats
#5
Qi Pan, Yan Guo, Fanyong Kong
This study was to investigate the feasibility of PGS combined with ChABC for repairing the transection of spinal cords (TSC) in rats. A thoracic 10 (T10) TSC model of rats was employed. The effects of PGS with ChABC on the morphology and histological structure of the spinal cords, Basso, Beattie, Bresnahan (BBB) scores, and the expression of GAP-43 and NF-200 were comparatively studied. The BBB scores indicated that all rats with TSC were paralyzed immediately after surgery and then recovered hind limb movement gradually, but did not fully recover until the end of week 12...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744122/penetration-of-blood-brain-barrier-and-antitumor-activity-and-nerve-repair-in-glioma-by-doxorubicin-loaded-monosialoganglioside-micelles-system
#6
Dan Zou, Wei Wang, Daoxi Lei, Ying Yin, Peng Ren, Jinju Chen, Tieying Yin, Bochu Wang, Guixue Wang, Yazhou Wang
For the treatment of glioma and other central nervous system diseases, one of the biggest challenges is that most therapeutic drugs cannot be delivered to the brain tumor tissue due to the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The goal of this study was to construct a nanodelivery vehicle system with capabilities to overcome the BBB for central nervous system administration. Doxorubicin as a model drug encapsulated in ganglioside GM1 micelles was able to achieve up to 9.33% loading efficiency and 97.05% encapsulation efficiency by orthogonal experimental design...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740568/methane-suppresses-microglial-activation-related-to-oxidative-inflammatory-and-apoptotic-injury-during-spinal-cord-injury-in-rats
#7
WeiHeng Wang, Xiaodong Huang, Jian Li, Aijun Sun, Jiangming Yu, Ning Xie, YanHai Xi, Xiaojian Ye
OBJECTIVE: We investigated the hypothesis that methane-rich saline (MS) can be used to repair spinal cord injury (SCI) in a rat model through suppressing microglial activation related to oxidative, inflammatory, and apoptotic injury. METHODS: MS was injected intraperitoneally in rats after SCI. Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining, oxidative stress, inflammatory parameters, and cell apoptosis were detected 72 h after SCI to determine the optimal dose. Then, we investigated the protective mechanisms and the long-term effects of MS on SCI...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738875/effects-of-fty720-on-brain-neurogenic-niches-in-vitro-and-after-kainic-acid-induced-injury
#8
Raffaela Cipriani, Juan Carlos Chara, Alfredo Rodríguez-Antigüedad, Carlos Matute
BACKGROUND: FTY720 (fingolimod, Gilenya™) is an oral, blood-brain barrier (BBB)-passing drug approved as immunomodulatory treatment for relapsing-remitting form of the multiple sclerosis (MS). In addition, FTY720 exerts several effects in the central nervous system (CNS), ranging from neuroprotection to reduction of neuroinflammation. However, the neurogenic and oligodendrogenic potential of FTY720 has been poorly investigated. In this study, we assessed the effect of FTY720 on the production of new neurons and oligodendrocytes from neural stem/precursor cells both in vitro and in vivo...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710563/an-observational-study-examining-the-effects-of-a-surgically-induced-inflammatory-response-on-the-distribution-of-morphine-and-its-metabolites-into-cerebrospinal-fluid
#9
Yan Wang, Kerry B Goralski, Derek J Roberts, Kathryn Landry, Mark E Issa, Lekha Sleno, Lisa C Julien, Jeremy Wood, Richard I Hall
PURPOSE: Morphine is administered intravenously for pain management in the perioperative period. The effect of the inflammatory response to surgery on morphine distribution across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in humans was investigated. We hypothesized that a graded surgically induced, systemic inflammatory response alters cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of morphine, morphine-3-glucuronide (M3G), and morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G) through a temporary reduction in BBB drug efflux transporter function...
July 14, 2017: Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Journal Canadien D'anesthésie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683586/vitronectin-regulates-the-fibrinolytic-system-during-the-repair-of-cerebral-cortex-in-stab-wounded-mice
#10
Kei Hashimoto, Natsumi Ikeda, Mari Nakashima, Hiroko Ikeshima-Kataoka, Yasunori Miyamoto
Vitronectin (VN), one of the serum proteins, is known to be involved in the regulation of blood coagulation, fibrinolysis, and cell migration. It has been proposed that the regulation of fibrinolysis by VN promotes the blood-brain barrier (BBB) recovery from brain injuries such as traumatic injury and subarachnoid hemorrhage. The effects of VN on fibrinolysis in the injured brain remain unclear, however. We examined the effects of VN on the fibrinolytic system in the stab-wounded cerebral cortex of VN-knockout (KO) mice...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670310/sepsis-associated-encephalopathy-the-blood-brain-barrier-and-the-sphingolipid-rheostat
#11
REVIEW
Stephen J Kuperberg, Raj Wadgaonkar
Sepsis is not only a significant cause of mortality worldwide but has particularly devastating effects on the central nervous system of survivors. It is therefore crucial to understand the molecular structure, physiology, and events involved in the pathogenesis of sepsis-associated encephalopathy, so that potential therapeutic advances can be achieved. A key determinant to the development of this type of encephalopathy is morphological and functional modification of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), whose function is to protect the CNS from pathogens and toxic threats...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614713/acute-lesioning-and-rapid-repair-of-hypothalamic-neurons-outside-the-blood-brain-barrier
#12
Ernie Yulyaningsih, Ivan A Rudenko, Martin Valdearcos, Emma Dahlén, Eirini Vagena, Alvin Chan, Arturo Alvarez-Buylla, Christian Vaisse, Suneil K Koliwad, Allison W Xu
Neurons expressing agouti-related protein (AgRP) are essential for feeding. The majority of these neurons are located outside the blood-brain barrier (BBB), allowing them to directly sense circulating metabolic factors. Here, we show that, in adult mice, AgRP neurons outside the BBB (AgRP(OBBB)) were rapidly ablated by peripheral administration of monosodium glutamate (MSG), whereas AgRP neurons inside the BBB and most proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons were spared. MSG treatment induced proliferation of tanycytes, the putative hypothalamic neural progenitor cells, but the newly proliferated tanycytes did not become neurons...
June 13, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588362/folic-acid-modulates-matrix-metalloproteinase-2-expression-alleviates-neuropathic-pain-and-improves-functional-recovery-in-spinal-cord-injured-rats
#13
Gurwattan S Miranpuri, Sivan Vadakkadath Meethal, Emmanuel Sampene, Abhishek Chopra, Seah Buttar, Carrie Nacht, Neydis Moreno, Kush Patel, Lisa Liu, Anupama Singh, Chandra K Singh, Nithya Hariharan, Bermans Iskandar, Daniel K Resnick
BACKGROUND: The molecular underpinnings of spinal cord injury (SCI) associated with neuropathic pain (NP) are unknown. Recent studies have demonstrated that matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) such as MMP2 play a critical role in inducing NP following SCI. Promoter methylation of MMPs is known to suppress their transcription and reduce NP. In this context, it has been shown in rodents that folic acid (FA), an FDA approved dietary supplement and key methyl donor in the central nervous system (CNS), increases axonal regeneration and repair of injured CNS in part via methylation...
May 2017: Annals of Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524176/lentivirus-mediated-microrna-124-gene-modified-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cell-transplantation-promotes-the-repair-of-spinal-cord-injury-in-rats
#14
Jia-Lin Song, Wei Zheng, Wei Chen, Yun Qian, Yuan-Ming Ouyang, Cun-Yi Fan
Our study aims to explore the effects of lentivirus-mediated microRNA-124 (miR-124) gene-modified bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (BMSC) transplantation on the repair of spinal cord injury (SCI) in rats. BMSCs were isolated from the bone marrow of rats. The target gene miR-124 was identified using a luciferase-reporter gene assay. Seventy-two rats were selected for construction of the SCI model, and the rats were randomly divided into the blank group, sham group, SCI group, negative control (NC) group, overexpressed miR-124 group and si-PDXK group...
May 19, 2017: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494742/potential-gene-therapy-towards-treating-neurodegenerative-disea-ses-employing-polymeric-nanosystems
#15
Prachi Bangde, Sonal Atale, Anomitra Dey, Ashish Pandit, Prajakta Dandekar, Ratnesh Jain
BACKGROUND: Recent integrated approaches involving nanotechnology and gene therapy have accelerated development of efficient drug delivery to the central nervous system (CNS). Neurodegenerative disorders are closely associated with genetic inheritance and mutation. MATERIALS: Nanotechnology has allowed effective engineering of various such polymeric structures. Moreover, availability of a wide array of polymeric materials has enabled fabrication of biocompatible and biodegradable delivery vehicles...
2017: Current Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462801/platelet-rich-plasma-effective-treatment-for-repairing-of-spinal-cord-injury-in-rat
#16
Reza Salarinia, Hamid Reza Sadeghnia, Daryoush Hamidi Alamdari, Seyed Javad Hoseini, Asghar Mafinezhad, Mahmoud Hoseini
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of PRP on the repair of spinal cord injury in rat model. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Rats were randomly divided into three groups with six rats in each group. Then, spinal cord injury was performed under general anesthesia using "weight dropping" method. Control group included rats receiving normal saline, group two received PRP 1 week after injury; group three received PRP 24 h after injury. The motor function was assessed weekly using the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) locomotor rating scale...
April 24, 2017: Acta Orthopaedica et Traumatologica Turcica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428179/adamts13-controls-vascular-remodeling-by-modifying-vwf-reactivity-during-stroke-recovery
#17
Haochen Xu, Yongliang Cao, Xing Yang, Ping Cai, Lijing Kang, Ximin Zhu, Haiyu Luo, Lu Lu, Lixiang Wei, Xiaofei Bai, Yuanbo Zhu, Bing-Qiao Zhao, Wenying Fan
Angiogenic response is essential for ischemic brain repair. The von Willebrand factor (VWF)-cleaving protease disintegrin and metalloprotease with thrombospondin type I motif, member 13 (ADAMTS13) is required for endothelial tube formation in vitro, but there is currently no in vivo evidence supporting a function of ADAMTS13 in angiogenesis. Here we show that mice deficient in ADAMTS13 exhibited reduced neovascularization, brain capillary perfusion, pericyte and smooth muscle cell coverage on microvessels, expression of the tight junction and basement membrane proteins, and accelerated blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown and extravascular deposits of serum proteins in the peri-infarct cortex at 14 days after stroke...
July 6, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422748/therapeutic-inhibition-of-soluble-brain-tnf-promotes-remyelination-by-increasing-myelin-phagocytosis-by-microglia
#18
Maria Karamita, Christopher Barnum, Wiebke Möbius, Malú G Tansey, David E Szymkowski, Hans Lassmann, Lesley Probert
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory CNS demyelinating disease in which remyelination largely fails. Transmembrane TNF (tmTNF) and TNF receptor 2 are important for remyelination in experimental MS models, but it is unknown whether soluble TNF (solTNF), a major proinflammatory factor, is involved in regeneration processes. Here, we investigated the specific contribution of solTNF to demyelination and remyelination in the cuprizone model. Treatment with XPro1595, a selective inhibitor of solTNF that crosses the intact blood-brain barrier (BBB), in cuprizone-fed mice did not prevent toxin-induced oligodendrocyte loss and demyelination, but it permitted profound early remyelination due to improved phagocytosis of myelin debris by CNS macrophages and prevented disease-associated decline in motor performance...
April 20, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398301/expression-of-autophagy-in-different-stages-of-neurogenic-bladder-after-spinal-cord-injury-in-rats
#19
F-S Zeng, L Zhang, B-J Cui, L-G Huang, Q Zhang, M Sun, B-L Liu, F Meng, Q Li, D-Q Wang, Q-S Sun
STUDY DESIGN: Experimental study. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the expression of autophagy in different stages of the neurogenic bladder after spinal cord injury (SCI) in rats. SETTING: Second Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan, China. METHODS: A total of 36 Wistar rats were divided into the SCI and control groups. In total, six animals were killed and sampled from each group at 1, 4 and 14 days after surgery of T10-T11 level...
September 2017: Spinal Cord
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182332/challenging-the-great-vascular-wall-can-we-envision-a-simple-yet-comprehensive-therapy-for-stroke
#20
Marta Machado-Pereira, Tiago Santos, Lino Ferreira, Liliana Bernardino, Raquel Ferreira
Stroke is a leading cause of death in adult life, closely behind ischemic heart disease, and causes a significant and abiding socioeconomic burden. However, current therapies are not able to ensure full neurologic and/or sequelae-free recovery to all stroke survivors. We believe treatment efficacy and patient rehabilitation could be enhanced significantly by targeting blood-brain barrier (BBB) deregulation and inflammation-induced barrier loss occurring after stroke. In this pathological context, bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) enter the bloodstream towards the lesion site but their insufficient numbers and impaired angiogenic ability compromise neurovascular regeneration...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
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