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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921243/comparison-of-rnai-ngr-and-nep1-40-in-acting-on-axonal-regeneration-after-spinal-cord-injury-in-rat-models
#1
Jing Xu, Jian He, Huang He, Renjun Peng, Jian Xi
This study was intended to compare the therapeutic efficacies of NEP1-40 and SiNgR199 on treating spinal cord injury (SCI). Nogo-A, growth associated protein 43 (GAP-43), microtubule associated protein 2 (MAP-2), and amyloid βA4 precursor protein (APP) expressions were determined using western blot and quantitative PCR. Neurite outgrowth detected the growth of neurites, and BDA anterograde tracing was used to label the regenerated axonal. Rats' behavior was assessed with Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan locomotor rating scale (BBB)...
December 5, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903223/releasing-of-herpes-simplex-virus-carrying-ngf-in-subarachnoid-space-promotes-the-functional-repair-in-spinal-cord-injured-rats
#2
Zhi-Wei Chen, Hang-Ping Wang, Feng-Mei Yuan, Xiao Zhang, Xiu-Juan Dong, Rui-Shen Xie, Chao Tian, Bing-Shen Li, Zhen-Wu Sun, Long-Hui Zhou, Jian Liu, Tinghua Wang
BACKGROUND: Spinal cord injury is a serious disease which can lead to bad consequence in patients. Gene therapies as an effective strategy, has been developed for the treatment of disease. OBJECTIVE: Here, we explored the effect of NGF release carried by HSV-1 in the injured spinal cord. METHODS: Transgenic recombinant containing NGF was constructed by using clone technology. NGF was firstly constructed into plasimid, then enveloped by HSV-1 vector...
November 20, 2016: Current Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897111/aggressive-antioxidant-reductive-stress-impairs-brain-endothelial-cell-angiogenesis-and-blood-brain-barrier-function
#3
Shireen Mentor, David Fisher
Oxidative stress in the brain microvasculature is a common characteristic in models of cerebrovascular disease. Considering the effects of reactive oxygen species activity in vascular-derived insults, it is naturally prudent to hypothesize those interventions inhibiting reactive oxygen species activity, such as antioxidant supplementation, may be beneficial for cerebrovascular disease. Hyper doses of antioxidant supplements, and foods with high antioxidant concentrations, are commonly used as an ongoing remedial and 'over-the-counter' treatments for most seasonal ailments...
November 29, 2016: Current Neurovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863083/promotion-of-neurological-recovery-in-rat-spinal-cord-injury-by-mesenchymal-stem-cells-loaded-on-nerve-guided-collagen-scaffold-through-increasing-alternatively-activated-macrophage-polarization
#4
Zhan Peng, Wei Gao, Bing Yue, Jie Jiang, Yong Gu, Jianwu Dai, Liang Chen, Qin Shi
Mesenchymal stem cells(MSCs)characterized by multi-differentiation potent and immunoregulatory have been used in the treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI), but the direct transplantation may limit its effectiveness due to quick diffusion. In addition, the role of macrophages in healing is being increasingly recognized because of the ability to polarize into pro- and anti-inflammatory phenotypes. In the present study, we developed the nerve-guide collagen scaffold (CS) and rat MSCs. After CS was confirmed to minimize MSCs distribution in vivo by the positron emission tomography (PET) imaging, the repair capacity of combined implantation of CS and MSCs and the effect on classically activated macrophage (M1)/alternatively activated macrophage (M2) polarization was assessed in a hemisected SCI rat model...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837475/pericytes-in-brain-injury-and-repair-after-ischemic-stroke
#5
REVIEW
Wei Cai, Huan Liu, Jingyan Zhao, Lily Y Chen, Jun Chen, Zhengqi Lu, Xiaoming Hu
Pericytes are functional components of the neurovascular unit (NVU). They provide support to other NVU components and maintain normal physiological functions of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The brain ischemia and reperfusion result in pathological alterations in pericytes. The intimate anatomical and functional interactions between pericytes and other NVU components play pivotal roles in the progression of stroke pathology. In this review, we depict the biology and functions of pericytes in the normal brain and discuss their effects in brain injury and repair after ischemia/reperfusion...
November 12, 2016: Translational Stroke Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789279/conditioned-medium-of-olfactory-ensheathing-cells-promotes-the-functional-recovery-and-axonal-regeneration-after-contusive-spinal-cord-injury
#6
Mengchao Gu, Zhengchao Gao, Xiaohui Li, Lei Guo, Teng Lu, Yuhuan Li, Xijing He
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effectiveness and the potential role of olfactory ensheathing cell conditioned medium (OEC-M) to treat contusive spinal cord injury (SCI). METHODS: The contusive SCI model was established by NYU weight-drop impactor at T10 segment. Male Sprague-Dawley rats received intraperitoneal injection of control medium (Con-M, n=18), low dose OEC-M (n=18) and high dose OEC-M (n=18). Immunofluorescence was performed to identify the purity of cultured OECs...
January 1, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738326/radiosensitizing-effect-of-lapatinib-in-human-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-2-positive-breast-cancer-cells
#7
Tosol Yu, Bong Jun Cho, Eun Jung Choi, Ji Min Park, Dan Hyo Kim, In Ah Kim
Trastuzumab has been widely used for the treatment of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-overexpressing breast cancer, however, it cannot easily cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and is known to increase the incidence of brain metastases. In contrast, lapatinib has a low molecular weight and can cross the BBB and it could be useful to treat brain metastases in patients with HER2-positive breast cancer.To explore the impact of lapatinib on radiation response, we conducted an in vitro experiment using SKBR3 and BT474 breast carcinoma cells exhibiting HER2/neu amplification...
October 12, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27707627/sobetirome-prodrug-esters-with-enhanced-blood-brain-barrier-permeability
#8
Andrew T Placzek, Skylar J Ferrara, Meredith D Hartley, Hannah S Sanford-Crane, J Matthew Meinig, Thomas S Scanlan
There is currently great interest in developing drugs that stimulate myelin repair for use in demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis. Thyroid hormone plays a key role in stimulating myelination during development and also controls the expression of important genes involved in myelin repair in adults. Because endogenous thyroid hormone in excess lacks a generally useful therapeutic index, it is not used clinically for indications other than hormone replacement; however, selective thyromimetics such as sobetirome offer a therapeutic alternative...
September 16, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27698773/neural-stem-cell-transplantation-combined-with-erythropoietin-for-the-treatment-of-spinal-cord-injury-in-rats
#9
Yan Zhao, Yuan Zuo, Jianming Jiang, Huibo Yan, Xiliang Wang, Hunjun Huo, Yulong Xiao
Spinal cord injury (SCI) comprises nerve and motor function disorders that may be caused by a variety of damaging factors and is challenging to treat. The aim of the present study was to investigate the regenerative effects of neural stem cell (NSC) transplantation combined with intraperitoneal injection of erythropoietin (EPO) on cross-sectional SCI in rats. A model of SCI was induced in 40 adult Wistar rats via the complete transection of the 10th thoracic vertebra (T10). The rats were allocated at random into 4 groups: Control, NSC, EPO and NSC + EPO groups (n=10 per group)...
October 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677851/parp-inhibition-in-leukocytes-diminishes-inflammation-via-effects-on-integrins-cytoskeleton-and-protects-the-blood-brain-barrier
#10
Slava Rom, Viviana Zuluaga-Ramirez, Nancy L Reichenbach, Holly Dykstra, Sachin Gajghate, Pal Pacher, Yuri Persidsky
BACKGROUND: Blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction/disruption followed by leukocyte infiltration into the brain causes neuroinflammation and contributes to morbidity in multiple sclerosis, encephalitis, traumatic brain injury, and stroke. The identification of pathways that decreases the inflammatory potential of leukocytes would prevent such injury. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP) controls various genes via its interaction with myriad transcription factors. Selective PARP inhibitors have appeared lately as potent anti-inflammatory tools...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27636866/effects-of-early-surgical-decompression-on-functional-and-histological-outcomes-after-severe-experimental-thoracic-spinal-cord-injury
#11
Devesh Jalan, Neginder Saini, Mohammad Zaidi, Alexandra Pallottie, Stella Elkabes, Robert F Heary
OBJECTIVE In acute traumatic brain injury, decompressive craniectomy is a common treatment that involves the removal of bone from the cranium to relieve intracranial pressure. The present study investigated whether neurological function following a severe spinal cord injury improves after utilizing either a durotomy to decompress the intradural space and/or a duraplasty to maintain proper flow of cerebrospinal fluid. METHODS Sixty-four adult female rats (n = 64) were randomly assigned to receive either a 3- or 5-level decompressive laminectomy (Groups A and B), laminectomy + durotomy (Groups C and D), or laminectomy + duraplasty with graft (Group E and F) at 24 hours following a severe thoracic contusion injury (200 kilodynes)...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27581191/sparc-expression-by-cerebral-microvascular-endothelial-cells-in-vitro-and-its-influence-on-blood-brain-barrier-properties
#12
Samir Alkabie, Jayasree Basivireddy, Lixin Zhou, Jane Roskams, Peter Rieckmann, Jacqueline A Quandt
BACKGROUND: SPARC (secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine) is a nonstructural, cell-matrix modulating protein involved in angiogenesis and endothelial barrier function, yet its potential role in cerebrovascular development, inflammation, and repair in the central nervous system (CNS) remains undetermined. METHODS: This study examines SPARC expression in cultured human cerebral microvascular endothelial cells (hCMEC/D3)-an in vitro model of the blood-brain barrier (BBB)-as they transition between proliferative and barrier phenotypes and encounter pro-inflammatory stimuli...
2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27576607/the-neuroprotective-effect-of-puerarin-in-acute-spinal-cord-injury-rats
#13
Dapeng Zhang, Guozhang Ma, Mingming Hou, Tao Zhang, Limin Chen, Chengbin Zhao
BACKGROUND: Acute spinal cord injury (SCI) leads to permanent disabilities. This study evaluated the neuroprotective effect of puerarin, a natural extract, in a rat model of SCI. METHODS: Acute SCI models were established in rats using a modified Allen's method. Locomotor function was evaluated using the BBB test. The histological changes in the spinal cord were observed by H&E staining. Neuron survival and glial cells activation were evaluated by immunostaining...
2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27538949/nanowired-drug-delivery-across-the-blood-brain-barrier-in-cns-injury-and-repair
#14
Aruna Sharma, Preeti Menon, Dafin F Muresanu, Asya Ozkizilcik, Z Ryan Tian, José V Lafuente, Hari Sharma
The BBB is a physiological regulator of transport of essential items from blood to brain for the maintenance of homeostasis of the central nervous system (CNS) within the narrow limit. The BBB is also responsible for export of harmful or metabolic products from brain to blood to keep the fluid microenvironment of the CNS healthy. However, following any noxious insult to the brain caused by trauma, ischemia or environmental/chemical toxins the function of the BBB is altered to small as well as to large molecules e...
August 19, 2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27513556/transplantation-of-pro-oligodendroblasts-preconditioned-by-lps-stimulated-microglia-promotes-recovery-after-acute-contusive-spinal-cord-injury
#15
Xiaojing Lin, Tingbao Zhao, Melissa Walker, Aishi Ding, Shide Lin, Yongcheng Cao, Jinfeng Zheng, Xiaohong Liu, Ming Geng, Xiao-Ming Xu, Shaojun Liu
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a significant clinical challenge and, to date, no effective treatment is available. Oligodendrocyte progenitor cell (OPC) transplantation has been a promising strategy for SCI repair. However, the poor post-transplantation survival and deficiency in differentiation into myelinating oligodendrocytes (OLs) are two major challenges that limit the use of OPCs as donor cells. Here we report the generation of an OL lineage population, i.e. pro-oligodendroblast (proOL) that is relatively more mature than OPC, for transplantation after SCI...
August 1, 2016: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27400746/neurotrophic-factor-small-molecule-mimetics-mediated-neuroregeneration-and-synaptic-repair-emerging-therapeutic-modality-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#16
REVIEW
Syed Faraz Kazim, Khalid Iqbal
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an incurable and debilitating chronic progressive neurodegenerative disorder which is the leading cause of dementia worldwide. AD is a heterogeneous and multifactorial disorder, histopathologically characterized by the presence of amyloid β (Aβ) plaques and neurofibrillary tangles composed of Aβ peptides and abnormally hyperphosphorylated tau protein, respectively. Independent of the various etiopathogenic mechanisms, neurodegeneration is a final common outcome of AD neuropathology...
2016: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27240161/enhanced-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-delivery-by-ultrasound-and-microbubbles-promotes-white-matter-repair-after-stroke
#17
Berta Rodríguez-Frutos, Laura Otero-Ortega, Jaime Ramos-Cejudo, Patricia Martínez-Sánchez, Inés Barahona-Sanz, Teresa Navarro-Hernanz, María Del Carmen Gómez-de Frutos, Exuperio Díez-Tejedor, María Gutiérrez-Fernández
Ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction (UTMD) has been shown to be a promising tool to deliver proteins to select body areas. This study aimed to analyze whether UTMD was able to deliver brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) to the brain, enhancing functional recovery and white matter repair, in an animal model of subcortical stroke induced by endothelin (ET)-1. UTMD was used to deliver BDNF to the brain 24 h after stroke. This technique was shown to be safe, given there were no cases of hemorrhagic transformation or blood brain barrier (BBB) leakage...
September 2016: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27215737/cultured-pericytes-from-human-brain-show-phenotypic-and-functional-differences-associated-with-differential-cd90-expression
#18
Thomas I-H Park, Vaughan Feisst, Anna E S Brooks, Justin Rustenhoven, Hector J Monzo, Sheryl X Feng, Edward W Mee, Peter S Bergin, Robyn Oldfield, E Scott Graham, Maurice A Curtis, Richard L M Faull, P Rod Dunbar, Mike Dragunow
The human brain is a highly vascular organ in which the blood-brain barrier (BBB) tightly regulates molecules entering the brain. Pericytes are an integral cell type of the BBB, regulating vascular integrity, neuroinflammation, angiogenesis and wound repair. Despite their importance, identifying pericytes amongst other perivascular cell types and deciphering their specific role in the neurovasculature remains a challenge. Using primary adult human brain cultures and fluorescent-activated cell sorting, we identified two CD73(+)CD45(-) mesenchymal populations that showed either high or low CD90 expression...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27194298/propitious-therapeutic-modulators-to-prevent-blood-spinal-cord-barrier-disruption-in-spinal-cord-injury
#19
Hemant Kumar, Alexander E Ropper, Soo-Hong Lee, Inbo Han
The blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB) is a specialized protective barrier that regulates the movement of molecules between blood vessels and the spinal cord parenchyma. Analogous to the blood-brain barrier (BBB), the BSCB plays a crucial role in maintaining the homeostasis and internal environmental stability of the central nervous system (CNS). After spinal cord injury (SCI), BSCB disruption leads to inflammatory cell invasion such as neutrophils and macrophages, contributing to permanent neurological disability...
May 18, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27132229/lentivirus-mediated-pgc-1%C3%AE-overexpression-protects-against-traumatic-spinal-cord-injury-in-rats
#20
Jianzhong Hu, Ye Lang, Tao Zhang, Shuangfei Ni, Hongbin Lu
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1α) is a crucial neuronal regulator in the brain. However, its role in the spinal cord and the underlying regulating mechanisms remain poorly understood. Our previous study demonstrated that PGC-1α is significantly down-regulated following acute spinal cord injury (SCI) in rats. The current study aimed to explore the effects of PGC-1α overexpression on the injured spinal cord by establishing a contusive SCI model in adult Sprague-Dawley rats, followed by immediate intraspinal injection of lentiviral vectors at rostral and caudal sites 3mm from the lesion epicenter...
July 22, 2016: Neuroscience
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