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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229638/intranasal-insulin-treatment-improves-memory-and-learning-in-a-rat-amyloid-beta-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#1
S Farzampour, A Majdi, S Sadigh-Eteghad
Recently, insulin has been used as a pro-cognitive agent for the potential treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD), because of its ability to cross the brain-blood barrier (BBB) by a saturable transport system. This study has been designed to evaluate the effects of intranasal insulin regimen, as a bypass system of BBB, on spatial memory in amyloid-beta (Aβ) model of AD in rat. Unilateral infusion of Aβ25-35 (10 nmol/2 µl/rat) into the lateral ventricular region of brain was used to produce a rat model of AD...
September 2016: Physiol Int
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228716/intranasal-bmp9-ameliorates-alzheimer-disease-like-pathology-and-cognitive-deficits-in-app-ps1-transgenic-mice
#2
Zigao Wang, Lu Xiong, Wenbin Wan, Lijie Duan, Xiaojing Bai, Hengbing Zu
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia and has no effective therapies. Previous studies showed that bone morphogenetic protein 9 (BMP9), an important factor in the differentiation and phenotype maintenance of cholinergic neurons, ameliorated the cholinergic defects resulting from amyloid deposition. These findings suggest that BMP9 has potential as a therapeutic agent for AD. However, the effects of BMP9 on cognitive function in AD and its underlying mechanisms remain elusive. In the present study, BMP9 was delivered intranasally to 7-month-old APP/PS1 mice for 4 weeks...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228623/elucidation-of-mechanism-of-blood-brain-barrier-damage-for-prevention-and-treatment-of-vascular-dementia
#3
Masaki Ueno
It is well-known that the blood-brain barrier (BBB) plays significant roles in transporting intravascular substances into the brain. The BBB in cerebral capillaries essentially impedes the influx of intravascular compounds from the blood to the brain, while nutritive substances, such as glucose, can be selectively transported through several types of influx transporters in endothelial cells. In the choroid plexus, intravascular substances can invade the parenchyma as fenestrations exist in endothelial cells of capillaries...
February 22, 2017: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228044/withaferin-a-protects-against-spinal-cord-injury-by-inhibiting-apoptosis-and-inflammation-in-mice
#4
Xianlei Yan, Guangxiang Huang, Quan Liu, Jiemin Zheng, Hongmou Chen, Qidan Huang, Jiakang Chen, Heqing Huang
CONTEXT: Withaferin A (WFA) exhibits diverse pharmaceutical applications on human diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, cancers and microbial infection. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the neuroprotective role of WFA using a mouse model of spinal cord injury (SCI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: BALB/c mice were administrated 10 mg/kg of WFA. Gene expression was measured by real-time PCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry. Cell morphology and apoptosis were determined by H&E staining and TUNEL assay...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226946/optical-measurement-of-breathing-algorithm-volume-calibration-and-preliminary-validation-on-healthy-trained-subjects
#5
C Massaroni, E Cassetta, I K Levai, S Winter, J W Dickinson, S Silvestri, C Massaroni, E Cassetta, I K Levai, S Winter, J W Dickinson, S Silvestri, E Cassetta, S Winter, J W Dickinson, S Silvestri, C Massaroni, I K Levai
The use of optical technologies may be beneficial when measuring breathing biomechanics. The purpose of this study was twofold: i) to enhance the optoelectronic plethysmography (OEP) algorithm performance for the volume estimation by the use of a novel volume calibration procedure and ii) to compare the OEP volumes gained by a commercial optoelectronic system against actual respiratory volumes measured by a breath-by-breath gas analyzer (BbB). The OEP volume algorithm calibration was performed by the use of a novel volume calibration procedure based on both a calibrator device that delivered known volumes changes and one ad-hoc designed software for the static and dynamic calibration analysis...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226454/optimization-of-electrospun-fibrous-membranes-for-in-vitro-modeling-of-blood-brain-barrier
#6
V Pensabene, S W Crowder, D A Balikov, J B Lee, H J Sung, V Pensabene, S W Crowder, D A Balikov, J B Lee, H J Sung, V Pensabene, D A Balikov, S W Crowder, J B Lee, H J Sung
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) plays a critical role in brain homeostasis at the cellular and global level. Mimicking the selective permeability and transport properties of the BBB to specific molecules and cells remains a significant challenge towards the development of a physiologically relevant in vitro BBB model. In this study, we developed electrospun poly (ε-caprolactone) (PCL) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) copolymer membranes that supported different cellular components of the neurovascular unit including human-derived endothelial cells, pericytes and astrocytes...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223486/serum-borne-bioactivity-caused-by-pulmonary-multiwalled-carbon-nanotubes-induces-neuroinflammation-via-blood-brain-barrier-impairment
#7
Mario J Aragon, Lauren Topper, Christina R Tyler, Bethany Sanchez, Katherine Zychowski, Tamara Young, Guy Herbert, Pamela Hall, Aaron Erdely, Tracy Eye, Lindsey Bishop, Samantha A Saunders, Pretal P Muldoon, Andrew K Ottens, Matthew J Campen
Pulmonary exposure to multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) causes indirect systemic inflammation through unknown pathways. MWCNTs translocate only minimally from the lungs into the systemic circulation, suggesting that extrapulmonary toxicity may be caused indirectly by lung-derived factors entering the circulation. To assess a role for MWCNT-induced circulating factors in driving neuroinflammatory outcomes, mice were acutely exposed to MWCNTs (10 or 40 µg/mouse) via oropharyngeal aspiration. At 4 h after MWCNT exposure, broad disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) was observed across the capillary bed with the small molecule fluorescein, concomitant with reactive astrocytosis...
February 21, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223141/activation-of-melatonin-receptor-mt1-2-promotes-p-gp-transporter-in-methamphetamine-induced-toxicity-on-primary-rat-brain-microvascular-endothelial-cells
#8
Pichaya Jumnongprakhon, Sivanan Sivasinprasasn, Piyarat Govitrapong, Chainarong Tocharus, Jiraporn Tocharus
Melatonin has been known as a neuroprotective agent for the central nervous system (CNS) and the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which is the primary structure that comes into contact with several neurotoxins including methamphetamine (METH). Previous studies have reported that the activation of melatonin receptors (MT1/2) by melatonin could protect against METH-induced toxicity in brain endothelial cells via several mechanisms. However, its effects on the P-glycoprotein (P-gp) transporter, the active efflux pump involved in cell homeostasis, are still unclear...
February 18, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222448/acute-effects-of-viral-exposure-on-p-glyco-protein-function-in-the-mouse-fetal-blood-brain-barrier
#9
Enrrico Bloise, Sophie Petropoulos, Majid Iqbal, Alisa Kostaki, Tania Maria Ortiga-Carvalho, William Gibb, Stephen G Matthews
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Viral infection during pregnancy is known to affect the fetal brain. The toll-like receptor (TLR)-3 is a pattern recognition receptor activated by viruses known to elicit adverse fetal neurological outcomes. The P-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux transporter protects the developing fetus by limiting the transfer of substrates across both the placenta and the fetal blood-brain barrier (BBB). As such, inhibition of P-gp at these blood-barrier sites may result in increased exposure of the developing fetus to environmental toxins and xenobiotics present in the maternal circulation...
February 22, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219803/maintaining-unperturbed-cerebral-blood-flow-is-key-in-the-study-of-brain-metastasis-and-its-interactions-with-stress-and-inflammatory-responses
#10
Benbenishty Amit, Segev-Amzaleg Niva, Shaashua Lee, Melamed Rivka, Ben-Eliyahu Shamgar, Blinder Pablo
Blood-borne brain metastases are associated with poor prognosis, but little is known about the interplay between cerebral blood flow, surgical stress responses, and the metastatic process. The intra-carotid inoculation approach, traditionally used in animal studies, involves permanent occlusion of the common carotid artery (CCA). Herein we introduce a novel intra-carotid inoculation approach that avoids CCA ligation, namely - assisted external carotid artery inoculation (aECAi) - and compared it to the traditional approach in C57/BL6 mice, assessing cerebral blood flow; particle distribution; blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity; stress, inflammatory and immune responses; and tumor brain retention and growth...
February 17, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219791/full-title-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-conditioned-medium-enhances-vascular-remodeling-after-stroke-in-type-2-diabetic-rats
#11
Jie Xiang, Jinxia Hu, Tong Shen, Bin Liu, Fang Hua, Kun Zan, Jie Zu, Guiyun Cui, Xinchun Ye
Our previous studies have found that stem cells conditioned medium (CM) facilitated functional recovery after stroke in non-diabetics. However, whether bone marrow stromal cells conditioned medium (BMSCs-CM) treatment after stroke in type 2 diabetic (T2DM) rats improve functional outcomes remains unclear. T2DM rats were induced and subjected to stroke then treated with or without BMSCs-CM. Functional outcomes and blood-brain barrier (BBB) leakage were performed, the expression of Angiopoietin (Ang) 1 and tyrosine kinase (Tie) 2 were also assessed...
February 17, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219703/immunomodulatory-properties-of-1-2-dihydro-4-hydroxy-2-oxo-1-8-naphthyridine-3-carboxamide-derivative-vl15
#12
Anna Maria Malfitano, Chiara Laezza, Simone Bertini, Daniela Marasco, Tiziano Tuccinardi, Maurizio Bifulco, Clementina Manera
1,2-dihydro-4-hydroxy-2-oxo-1,8-naphthyridine-3-carboxamide derivative VL15 has been recently developed as a selective cannabinoid CB2 receptor compound. Given the high selectivity of this compound at the cannabinoid CB2 receptor and the well-known protective function of this receptor in neurological disorders with autoimmune component like multiple sclerosis, we assessed the immunomodulatory properties of VL15. We assessed on activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), proliferation and viability, cell cycle progression and measured activation markers and the expression of phosphorylated proteins...
February 17, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217292/oxygen-or-cooling-to-make-a-decision-after-acute-ischemia-stroke
#13
REVIEW
Wen-Cao Liu, Xin-Chun Jin
The presence of a salvageable penumbra, a region of ischemic brain tissue with sufficient energy for short-term survival, has been widely agreed as the premise for thrombolytic therapy with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), which remains the only United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved treatment for acute ischemia stroke. However, the use of tPA has been profoundly constrained due to its narrow therapeutic time window and the increased risk of potentially deadly hemorrhagic transformation (HT)...
October 2016: Medical Gas Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215668/potential-of-surfactant-coated-nanoparticles-to-improve-brain-delivery-of-arylsulfatase-a
#14
Tilman Schuster, Astrid Mühlstein, Claudia Yaghootfam, Olga Maksimenko, Elena Shipulo, Svetlana Gelperina, Jörg Kreuter, Volkmar Gieselmann, Ulrich Matzner
The lysosomal storage disorder (LSD) metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD) is caused by a deficiency of the soluble, lysosomal hydrolase arylsulfatase A (ASA). The disease is characterized by accumulation of 3-O-sulfogalactosylceramide (sulfatide), progressive demyelination of the nervous system and premature death. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT), based on regular intravenous injections of recombinant functional enzyme, is in clinical use for several LSDs. For MLD and other LSDs with central nervous system (CNS) involvement, however, ERT is limited by the blood-brain barrier (BBB) restricting transport of therapeutic enzymes from the blood to the brain...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212524/role-of-nrf2-and-protective-effects-of-metformin-against-tobacco-smoke-induced-cerebrovascular-toxicity
#15
Shikha Prasad, Ravi K Sajja, Mohammad Abul Kaisar, Jee Hyun Park, Heidi Villalba, Taylor Liles, Thomas Abbruscato, Luca Cucullo
Cigarette smoking (CS) is associated with vascular endothelial dysfunction in a causative way primarily related to the TS content of reactive oxygen species (ROS), nicotine, and inflammation. TS promotes glucose intolerance and increases the risk of developing type-2 diabetes mellitus (2DM) with which it shares other pathogenic traits including the high risk of cerebrovascular and neurological disorders like stroke via ROS generation, inflammation, and blood-brain barrier (BBB) impairment. Herein we provide evidence of the role played by nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) in CS-induced cerebrobvascular/BBB impairments and how these cerebrovascular harmful effects can be circumvented by the use of metformin (MF; a widely prescribed, firstline anti-diabetic drug) treatment...
February 12, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211988/intrathecal-enzyme-replacement-therapy-reverses-cognitive-decline-in-mucopolysaccharidosis-type-i
#16
Igor Nestrasil, Elsa Shapiro, Alena Svatkova, Patricia Dickson, Agnes Chen, Amy Wakumoto, Alia Ahmed, Edward Stehel, Sarah McNeil, Curtis Gravance, Elizabeth Maher
Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I) is an inherited lysosomal storage disease that seriously affects the brain. Severity of neurocognitive symptoms in attenuated MPS subtype (MPS IA) broadly varies partially, due to restricted permeability of blood-brain barrier (BBB) which limits treatment effects of intravenously applied α-L-iduronidase (rhIDU) enzyme. Intrathecal (IT) rhIDU application as a possible solution to circumvent BBB improved brain outcomes in canine models; therefore, our study quantifies effects of IT rhIDU on brain structure and function in an MPS IA patient with previous progressive cognitive decline...
March 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210956/mdivi-1-alleviates-early-brain-injury-after-experimental-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-in-rats-possibly-via-inhibition-of-drp1-activated-mitochondrial-fission-and-oxidative-stress
#17
Pei Wu, Yuchen Li, Shiyi Zhu, Chunlei Wang, Jiaxing Dai, Guang Zhang, Bingjie Zheng, Shancai Xu, Ligang Wang, Tongyu Zhang, PeiQuan Zhou, John H Zhang, Huaizhang Shi
Mdivi-1 is a selective inhibitor of mitochondrial fission protein, Drp1, and can penetrate the blood-brain barrier. Previous studies have shown that Mdivi-1 improves neurological outcomes after ischemia, seizures and trauma but it remains unclear whether Mdivi-1 can attenuate early brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). We thus investigated the therapeutic effect of Mdivi-1 on early brain injury following SAH. Rats were randomly divided into four groups: sham; SAH; SAH + vehicle; and SAH + Mdivi-1...
February 16, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209182/mesenchymal-stem-cells-alleviate-japanese-encephalitis-virus-induced-neuroinflammation-and-mortality
#18
Peiyu Bian, Chuantao Ye, Xuyang Zheng, Jing Yang, Wei Ye, Yuan Wang, Yun Zhou, Hongwei Ma, Peijun Han, Hai Zhang, Ying Zhang, Fanglin Zhang, Yingfeng Lei, Zhansheng Jia
BACKGROUND: Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is the leading cause of viral encephalitis in Asia. Japanese encephalitis (JE) caused by JEV is characterized by extensive inflammatory cytokine secretion, microglia activation, blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown, and neuronal death, all of which contribute to the vicious cycle of inflammatory damage. There are currently no effective treatments for JE. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been demonstrated to have a therapeutic effect on many central nervous system (CNS) diseases by regulating inflammation and other mechanisms...
February 16, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208698/advances-in-molecular-imaging-of-locally-delivered-targeted-therapeutics-for-central-nervous-system-tumors
#19
REVIEW
Umberto Tosi, Christopher S Marnell, Raymond Chang, William C Cho, Richard Ting, Uday B Maachani, Mark M Souweidane
Thanks to the recent advances in the development of chemotherapeutics, the morbidity and mortality of many cancers has decreased significantly. However, compared to oncology in general, the field of neuro-oncology has lagged behind. While new molecularly targeted chemotherapeutics have emerged, the impermeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) renders systemic delivery of these clinical agents suboptimal. To circumvent the BBB, novel routes of administration are being applied in the clinic, ranging from intra-arterial infusion and direct infusion into the target tissue (convection enhanced delivery (CED)) to the use of focused ultrasound to temporarily disrupt the BBB...
February 8, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207745/evolution-of-blood-brain-barrier-permeability-after-acute-ischemic-stroke
#20
Zamir Merali, Kun Huang, David Mikulis, Frank Silver, Andrea Kassner
The dynamics of BBB permeability after AIS in humans are not well understood. In the present study we measured the evolution of BBB permeability after AIS in humans using MRI. Patients presenting to our institution with a diagnosis of AIS underwent a single dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) sequence to measure BBB permeability during their initial workup. Forty-two patients were included in the final analysis. The patient sample underwent DCE-MRI at a mean time of 23.8hrs after the onset of AIS symptoms (range: 1...
2017: PloS One
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