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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474803/exercise-and-taurine-in-inflammation-cognition-and-peripheral-markers-of-blood-brain-barrier-integrity-in-older-women
#1
Matheus Uba Chupel, Luciele Guerra Minuzzi, Guilherme E Furtado, Mário Leonardo Santos, Eef Hogervorst, Edith Filaire, Ana Maria Teixeira
Immunosenescence contribute to increase the blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability, leading cognitive impairment and neurodegeneration. Thus, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of exercise and taurine supplementation on peripheral markers of blood-brain barrier, inflammation, and cognition of elderly women. Forty-eight elderly women (83.58±6.9 years) participated in the study, and were allocated into combined exercise training (CET: n=13), taurine supplementation (TAU: n=12), exercise training associated with taurine (CET+TAU: n=11), or control group (CG: n=12)...
February 23, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474316/autoantibodies-against-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-1-in-health-and-disease
#2
Hannelore Ehrenreich
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Humoral autoimmunity has gained highest interest in neurology and psychiatry. Despite numerous recent articles on this hot topic, however, the biological significance of natural autoantibodies (AB) and the normal autoimmune repertoire of mammals remained quite obscure. AB may contribute to disorder-relevant phenotypes and are even believed to induce diseases themselves, but the circumstances under which AB become pathogenic are not fully understood. This review will focus on the highly frequent AB against the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor 1 (NMDAR1-AB) as an illustrating example and provide a critical overview of current work (please note that the new nomenclature, GluN1, is disregarded here for consistency with the AB literature)...
February 22, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473514/the-role-of-ve-cadherin-in-blood-brain-barrier-integrity-under-central-nervous-system-pathological-conditions
#3
Wenlu Li, Zhigang Chen, Ian Chin, Zhong Chen, Haibin Dai
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a layer between the blood circulation and neural tissue. It plays a pivotal role in maintaining the vulnerable extracellular microenvironment in the neuronal parenchyma. Neuroinflammatory events can result in BBB dysregulation by disturbing adherens junctions (AJs) and tight junctions (TJs). VE-cadherin, as one of the most important components of the vascular system, is specifically responsible for the assembly of AJs and BBB architecture. Here, we present a review, which highlights recently available insights into the relationship between the neuroinflammation and BBB dysregulation...
February 22, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473493/current-limitations-in-the-treatment-parkinson-s-and-alzheimer-s-diseases-state-of-the-art-and-future-perspective-of-polymeric-carriers
#4
Chiara Tonda-Turo, Nicola Origlia, Clara Mattu, Alice Accorroni, Valeria Chiono
Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease are the most common neurodegenerative diseases worldwide and their incidence is increasing due to the aging population. At the moment, the available therapies are not disease modifying and have several limitations, some of which are discussed in this review. One of the main limitations of these treatments is the low concentration that drugs reach in the central nervous system after systemic administration. Indeed, the presence of biological barriers, particularly the blood brain barrier (BBB), hinders the effective drug delivery to the brain, reducing the potential benefit coming from the administration of the medication...
February 21, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472890/severe-blood-brain-barrier-disruption-in-cardioembolic-stroke
#5
Chang Liu, Feina Shi, Zhicai Chen, Shenqiang Yan, Xinfa Ding, Min Lou
Background: Previous studies demonstrated that cardioembolism (CE) was prone to develop hemorrhagic transformation (HT), whereas hyper-permeability of blood-brain barrier (BBB) might be one reason for the development of HT. We, thus, aimed to investigate whether the BBB permeability (BBBP) was higher in CE stroke than other stroke subtypes in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients. Methods: This study was a retrospective review of prospectively collected clinical and imaging database of AIS patients who underwent CT perfusion...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472303/harmless-transient-cortical-and-sulcal-hyperintensity-on-gadolinium-enhanced-flair-after-elective-endovascular-coiling-of-intracranial-aneurysms
#6
S Suthiphosuwan, C C-T Hsu, A Bharatha
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cortical and sulcal hyperintensity on gadolinium-enhanced FLAIR has been increasingly recognized after iodinated contrast medium exposure during angiographic procedures. The goal of this study was to assess the relationship of cortical and sulcal hyperintensity on gadolinium-enhanced FLAIR against various variables in patients following elective endovascular treatment of intracranial aneurysms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of 58 patients with 62 MR imaging studies performed within 72 hours following endovascular treatment of intracranial aneurysms...
February 22, 2018: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471172/enhancing-glioblastoma-treatment-using-cisplatin-gold-nanoparticle-conjugates-and-targeted-delivery-with-magnetic-resonance-guided-focused-ultrasound
#7
Daniel Coluccia, Carlyn A Figueiredo, Megan YiJun Wu, Alexandra N Riemenschneider, Roberto Diaz, Amanda Luck, Christian Smith, Sunit Das, Cameron Ackerley, Meaghan O'Reilly, Kullervo Hynynen, James T Rutka
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and aggressive primary brain tumor resulting in high rates of morbidity and mortality. A strategy to increase the efficacy of available drugs and enhance the delivery of chemotherapeutics through the blood brain barrier (BBB) is desperately needed. We investigated the potential of Cisplatin conjugated gold nanoparticles (GNP-UP-Cis) in combination with MR-guided Focused Ultrasound (MRgFUS) to intensify GBM treatment. Viability assays demonstrated that GNP-UP-Cis greatly inhibits the growth of GBM cells compared to free cisplatin and shows marked synergy with radiation therapy...
February 19, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468595/an-in-vitro-model-of-traumatic-brain-injury
#8
Ellaine Salvador, Malgorzata Burek, Carola Y Förster
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a significant problem causing high mortality globally. Methods to increase possibilities for treatment and prevention of secondary injuries resulting from the initial physical insult are thus much needed. TBI affects the central nervous system (CNS) and the neurovascular unit as a whole in numerous ways but one of the primarily compromised components is the blood-brain barrier (BBB).In this chapter, we present a detailed procedure on how stretch injury and oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) are applied to brain microvascular endothelial cells of the BBB in order to replicate the actual impact they receive during TBI...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468582/a-mouse-controlled-cortical-impact-model-of-traumatic-brain-injury-for-studying-blood-brain-barrier-dysfunctions
#9
Himakarnika Alluri, Chinchusha Anasooya Shaji, Matthew L Davis, Binu Tharakan
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. It is a silently growing epidemic with multifaceted pathogenesis, and current standards of treatments aim to target only the symptoms of the primary injury, while there is a tremendous need to explore interventions that can halt the progression of the secondary injuries. The use of a reliable animal model to study and understand the various aspects the pathobiology of TBI is extremely important in therapeutic drug development against TBI-associated complications...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467855/clinical-characteristics-and-value-in-early-reperfusion-therapy-for-new-onset-right-bundle-branch-block-in-patients-with-acute-myocardial-infarction
#10
Jingchao Li, Xiaodong Li, Shujuan Dong, Yapan Yang, Yingjie Chu
The value of the right bundle branch block (RBBB) in the treatment of acute myocardial infarction remains unclear. Studies on the RBBB may significantly influence the treatment of acute myocardial infarction. A total of 845 patients with acute myocardial infarction who underwent primary coronary angiography at Henan Provincial People's Hospital were analyzed. Higher peak enzyme levels, a higher ratio of Killip ≥II and closer proximal occlusion of infarct-related artery (IRA) were observed in patients with RBBB compared with those without...
March 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467462/hipsc-derived-neural-stem-cells-from-patients-with-schizophrenia-induce-an-impaired-angiogenesis
#11
Bárbara S Casas, Gabriela Vitória, Marcelo N do Costa, Rodrigo Madeiro da Costa, Pablo Trindade, Renata Maciel, Nelson Navarrete, Stevens K Rehen, Verónica Palma
Schizophrenia is a neurodevelopmental disease characterized by cerebral connectivity impairment and loss of gray matter. It was described in adult schizophrenia patients (SZP) that concentration of VEGFA, a master angiogenic factor, is decreased. Recent evidence suggests cerebral hypoperfusion related to a dysfunctional Blood Brain Barrier (BBB) in SZP. Since neurogenesis and blood-vessel formation occur in a coincident and coordinated fashion, a defect in neurovascular development could result in increased vascular permeability and, therefore, in poor functionality of the SZP's neurons...
February 22, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466890/selective-drug-delivery-approaches-to-lesioned-brain-through-blood-brain-barrier-disruption
#12
Zahraa S Al-Ahmady
A big challenge in the development of therapeutics for central nervous system (CNS) disorders, is achieving sufficient translocation through blood-brain interface named the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Until recently BBB has been considered a substantial hindrance for the penetration of blood-borne molecules including drugs to the CNS. However, recent research findings have proven that the nature of BBB is much more complex and dynamic and is altered in several neurological conditions. This complexity encourages revisiting drug delivery strategies to the CNS as this can give a wide range of opportunities for CNS drug development...
February 21, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466707/iron-transport-kinetics-through-blood-brain-barrier-endothelial-cells
#13
Aminul Islam Khan, Jin Liu, Prashanta Dutta
BACKGROUND: Transferrin and its receptors play an important role during the uptake and transcytosis of iron through blood-brain barrier (BBB) endothelial cells (ECs) to maintain iron homeostasis in BBB endothelium and brain. Any disruptions in the cell environment may change the distribution of transferrin receptors on the cell surface, which eventually alter the homeostasis and initiate neurodegenerative disorders. In this paper, we developed a comprehensive mathematical model that considers the necessary kinetics for holo-transferrin internalization and acidification, apo-transferrin recycling, and exocytosis of free iron and transferrin-bound iron through basolateral side of BBB ECs...
February 18, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466231/transcytosis-of-payloads-that-are-noncovalently-complexed-to-bispecific-antibodies-across-the-hcmec-d3-blood-brain-barrier-model
#14
Daniela Schmid, Annette Buntz, Thi Ngoc Hanh Phan, Klaus Mayer, Eike Hoffmann, Irmgard Thorey, Jens Niewöhner, Katrin Vasters, Ranjan Sircar, Olaf Mundigl, Roland E Kontermann, Ulrich Brinkmann
A transcellular shuttle system was generated for delivery of non-covalently linked payloads across blood-brain-barrier (BBB) endothelial cells. Transcytosis enabling shuttles are composed of bispecific antibodies (bsAbs) that simultaneously bind transferrin receptor (TfR) and haptens such as digoxigenin or biocytinamide. Haptenylated payloads are attached to these vehicles via non-covalent hapten-antibody complexation. This enables targeting to and internalization into human BBB-derived microvascular endothelial HCMEC/D3 cells...
December 20, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464572/brain-renin-angiotensin-system-blockade-attenuates-methamphetamine-induced-hyperlocomotion-and-neurotoxicity
#15
Linhong Jiang, Ruiming Zhu, Qian Bu, Yan Li, Xue Shao, Hui Gu, Jueying Kong, Li Luo, Hailei Long, Wei Guo, Jingwei Tian, Yinglan Zhao, Xiaobo Cen
Methamphetamine (METH) abuse has become a major public health concern worldwide without approved pharmacotherapies. The brain renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is involved in the regulation of neuronal function as well as neurological disorders. Angiotensin II (Ang II), which interacts with Ang II type 1 receptor (AT1 -R) in the brain, plays an important role as a neuromodulator in dopaminergic transmission. However, the role of brain RAS in METH-induced behavior is largely unknown. Here, we revealed that repeated METH administration significantly upregulated the expression of AT1 -R in the striatum of mice, but downregulated dopamine D3 receptor (D3R) expression...
February 20, 2018: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463314/functional-brain-specific-microvessels-from-ipsc-derived-human-brain-microvascular-endothelial-cells-the-role-of-matrix-composition-on-monolayer-formation
#16
Moriah E Katt, Raleigh M Linville, Lakyn N Mayo, Zinnia S Xu, Peter C Searson
BACKGROUND: Transwell-based models of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) incorporating monolayers of human brain microvascular endothelial cells (dhBMECs) derived from induced pluripotent stem cells show many of the key features of the BBB, including expression of transporters and efflux pumps, expression of tight junction proteins, and physiological values of transendothelial electrical resistance. The fabrication of 3D BBB models using dhBMECs has so far been unsuccessful due to the poor adhesion and survival of these cells on matrix materials commonly used in tissue engineering...
February 20, 2018: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462638/docosahexaenoic-acid-improves-motor-function-in-the-model-of-spinal-cord-injury
#17
Igor Manzhulo, Anna Tyrtyshnaia, Yuliya Kipryushina, Inessa Dyuizen, Ekaterina Ermolenko, Olga Manzhulo
The present study demonstrates that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) injected subcutaneously leads to recovery of locomotor functions observed within 5 weeks after traumatic spinal cord injury. This activity is confirmed by improving of BBB locomotor rating scale indicators. We assume that this activity is related to (1) enhancement of remyelination process, (2) proliferative activity, (3) antioxidant activity, (4) increase in GFAP staining and (5) enhancement of vimentin expression. In general, the results of the study show that DHA has a complex effect on post-traumatic central nervous system recovery, indicating its high therapeutic potential...
February 17, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462622/additional-increased-effects-of-mannitol-temozolomide-combined-treatment-on-blood-brain-barrier-permeability
#18
Chunggab Choi, Hye Min Kim, Jeeheun Shon, Jiae Park, Hyeong-Taek Kim, Seung-Hun Oh, Nam Keun Kim, Ok-Joon Kim
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is major obstacle in drug or stem cell treatment in chronic stroke. We hypothesized that adding mannitol to temozolomide (TMZ) is a practically applicable method for resolving the low efficacy of intravenous mannitol therapy. In this study, we investigated whether BBB permeability could be increased by this combined treatment. First, we established a chronic ischemic stroke rat model and examined changes in leakage of Evans blue dye within a lesion site, and in expression of tight junction proteins (TJPs), by this combined treatment...
February 17, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460006/mechanical-disruption-of-the-blood-brain-barrier-following-experimental-concussion
#19
Victoria E Johnson, Maura T Weber, Rui Xiao, D Kacy Cullen, David F Meaney, William Stewart, Douglas H Smith
Although concussion is now recognized as a major health issue, its non-lethal nature has limited characterization of the underlying pathophysiology. In particular, potential neuropathological changes have typically been inferred from non-invasive techniques or post-mortem examinations of severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Here, we used a swine model of head rotational acceleration based on human concussion to examine blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity after injury in association with diffuse axonal injury and glial responses...
February 19, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459656/electromyographic-patterns-of-the-rat-hindlimb-in-response-to-muscle-stretch-after-spinal-cord-injury
#20
Anastasia V Keller, Kathlene M Rees, Erik J Seibt, B Danni Wood, Abigail D Wade, Johnny Morehouse, Alice Shum-Siu, David S K Magnuson
STUDY DESIGN: Experimental Study. OBJECTIVES: To characterize the specific hindlimb electromyographic (EMG) patterns in response to muscle stretch and to measure the applied forces during stretching in the rat model of moderate SCI. SETTING: Kentucky Spinal Cord Injury Research Center, Louisville, KY, USA. METHODS: Female Sprague Dawley rats (n = 4) were instrumented for telemetry-based EMG recording (right rectus femoris and biceps femoris) and received a moderate T10 spinal cord injury (SCI)...
February 19, 2018: Spinal Cord
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