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Blood brain barrier

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054049/individual-variability-in-clinical-effect-and-tolerability-of-opioid-analgesics-importance-of-drug-interactions-and-pharmacogenetics
#1
REVIEW
Vigdis Solhaug, Espen Molden
BACKGROUND: As pain is often a comorbid condition, many patients use opioid analgesics in combination with several other drugs. This implies a generally increased risk of drug interactions, which along with inherent pharmacogenetic variability and other factors may cause differences in therapeutic response of opioids. AIM: To provide an overview of interactions and pharmacogenetic variability of relevance for individual differences in effect and tolerability of opioid analgesics, which physicians and other healthcare professionals should be aware of in clinical practice...
October 17, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053032/a-mouse-model-of-subcortical-vascular-dementia-reflecting-degeneration-of-cerebral-white-matter-and-microcirculation
#2
Eek-Sung Lee, Jin-Hui Yoon, Jiye Choi, Faris R Andika, Taekwan Lee, Yong Jeong
Subcortical vascular dementia(SVaD) is associated with white matter damage, lacunar infarction, and degeneration of cerebral microcirculation. Currently available mouse models can mimic only partial aspects of human SVaD features. Here, we combined bilateral common carotid artery stenosis (BCAS) with a hyperlipidaemia model in order to develop a mouse model of SVaD; 10- to 12-week-old apolipoprotein E (ApoE)-deficient or wild-type C57BL/6J mice were subjected to sham operation or chronic cerebral hypoperfusion with BCAS using micro-coils...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053009/plasma-exosomes-disrupt-blood-brain-barrier-in-children-with-osa-and-neurocognitive-deficits
#3
Abdelnaby Khalyfa, David Gozal, Leila Kheirandish-Gozal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 20, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051603/quantitative-assessment-of-the-blood-brain-barrier-opening-caused-by-streptococcus-agalactiae-hyaluronidase-in-a-balb-c-mouse-model
#4
Su Luo, Qing Cao, Ke Ma, Zhaofei Wang, Guangjin Liu, Chengping Lu, Yongjie Liu
Streptococcus agalactiae is a pathogen causing meningitis in animals and humans. However, little is known about the entry of S. agalactiae into brain tissue. In this study, we developed a BALB/c mouse model based on the intravenous injection of β-galactosidase-positive Escherichia coli M5 as an indicator of blood-brain barrier (BBB) opening. Under physiological conditions, the BBB is impermeable to E. coli M5. In pathological conditions caused by S. agalactiae, E. coli M5 is capable of penetrating the brain through a disrupted BBB...
October 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050158/-ct-perfusion-analysis-on-the-association-of-permeability-surface-with-hematoma-and-edema-volume-in-acute-spontaneous-putaminal-and-thalamic-hematoma
#5
H L Xu, J C Wang, Y Zhang, S L Liu, W W He, X T Qin, G Q Cao, Y J Yang, Q C Zhuge, W J Chen
Objective: To discuss the correlation of permeability surface (PS) with hematoma and edema volume in acute spontaneous putaminal and thalamic hematoma using CT perfusion imaging. Methods: A total of 48 acute spontaneous putaminal and thalamic hemorrhage patients were enrolled in this study during October 2015 and December 2016 at the First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University. At the image slice with maximum size of hematoma, PS was measured by drawing various regions of interest (ROI) including"hot spots", perihematomal regions, outward regions, hemisphere regions and contralateral mirror regions...
October 10, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048735/6-hydroxydopamine-induces-brain-vascular-endothelial-inflammation
#6
Qizhi Fu, Runluo Song, Zhongxi Yang, Qi Shan, Wenna Chen
Disruption of the blood-brain barrier associated with endothelial dysfunction is an important hallmark of Parkinson's disease (PD). 6-Hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) is a synthetic dopamine derivate often used to model PD as it results in retrograde degeneration of striatal dopaminergic (DA) terminals. Presently, the effects of 6-OHDA on endothelial dysfunction remain unknown. Using a 6-OHDA rodent model of PD, we found that administration of 6-OHDA could increase the expression of endothelial adhesion molecules, such as intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), and E-selectin...
October 19, 2017: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048243/mithramycin-a-improves-functional-recovery-by-inhibiting-bscb-disruption-and-hemorrhage-after-spinal-cord-injury
#7
Jee Youn Lee, Hye Y Choi, Chan S Park, Bong G Ju, Tae Y Yune
After spinal cord injury (SCI), blood spinal cord barrier (BSCB) disruption and progressive hemorrhage lead to secondary injury, subsequent apoptosis and/or necrosis of neuron and glia, causing permanent neurological deficits. Growing evidences indicate that mithramycin A (MA), an anticancer drug, has neuroprotective effects in ischemic brain injury and Huntington's disease. However, the precise mechanism underlying its protective effects is largely unknown. Here, we examined the effect of MA on BSCB breakdown and hemorrhage as well as subsequent inflammation after SCI...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047383/a-novel-small-molecule-inhibitor-of-p32-mitochondrial-protein-overexpressed-in-glioma
#8
Venkata Yenugonda, Natsuko Nomura, Valentina Kouznetsova, Igor Tsigelny, Valentina Fogal, Elmar Nurmemmedov, Santosh Kesari, Ivan Babic
BACKGROUND: The mitochondrial protein p32 is a validated therapeutic target of cancer overexpressed in glioma. Therapeutic targeting of p32 with monoclonal antibody or p32-binding LyP-1 tumor-homing peptide can limit tumor growth. However, these agents do not specifically target mitochondrial-localized p32 and would not readily cross the blood-brain barrier to target p32-overexpressing gliomas. Identifying small molecule inhibitors of p32 overexpressed in cancer is a more rational therapeutic strategy...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046157/blood-brain-barrier-and-alzheimer-s-disease-similarity-and-dissimilarity-of-molecular-alerts
#9
Alla P Toropova, Andrey A Toropov, S Begum, P G R Achary
BACKGROUND: Blood brain barrier and Alzheimer's disease are interrelated. This interrelation is detected by physicochemical methods, pharmacological and electrophysiological analyses. Nature of the phenomenon is extremely complex. The description of this interrelation in mathematical terms is very important task. OBJECTIVE: The systematization of facts, which are described in the literature and related to interaction between processes, which influence on Alzheimer's disease and blood brain barrier is object of this work...
October 16, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046146/phospholipid-based-immobilized-artificial-membrane-iam-chromatography-a-powerful-tool-to-model-drug-distribution-processes
#10
Anna W Sobańska, Elżbieta Brzezińska
A review of applications of the Immobilized Artificial Membrane (IAM) chromatography in drug discovery is given. IAM chromatography is presented as a tool to predict the interactions of solutes with biomembranes, blood-brain barrier permeability, volume of distribution, oral and skin absorption of drugs and compared to other in vitro techniques used to study drug bioavailability (caco-2 cells, liposome partition). Unbound phosphatidylcholine based stationary phases are also discussed. Some new trends and ideas in the IAM chromatography are presented...
October 18, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045030/drug-delivery-to-the-brain-across-the-blood-brain-barrier-using-nanomaterials
#11
REVIEW
Yung-Hao Tsou, Xue-Qing Zhang, He Zhu, Sahla Syed, Xiaoyang Xu
A major obstacle facing brain diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, brain tumors, and strokes is the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The BBB prevents the passage of certain molecules and pathogens from the circulatory system into the brain. Therefore, it is nearly impossible for therapeutic drugs to target the diseased cells without the assistance of carriers. Nanotechnology is an area of growing public interest; nanocarriers, such as polymer-based, lipid-based, and inorganic-based nanoparticles can be engineered in different sizes, shapes, and surface charges, and they can be modified with functional groups to enhance their penetration and targeting capabilities...
October 16, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044654/animal-models-of-neuroinflammation-secondary-to-acute-insults-originated-outside-the-brain
#12
REVIEW
Mike Yoshio Hamasaki, Marcel Cerqueira César Machado, Fabiano Pinheiro da Silva
The term "neuroinflammation" has been widely used to describe a series of acute or chronic conditions that cause inflammation in the central nervous system (CNS). Neurological damage can be a consequence of direct local injury or, secondary, of systemic or even distant inflammatory processes. In this respect, animal models have been developed to better understand the pathophysiology and, possibly, to evaluate more effective methods of treatment for these disorders. Animal models that promote alterations in blood-brain barrier permeability-the activation of microglia or astrocytes, modifications in neuropeptide expression, oxidative stress, increased apoptosis, release of inflammatory mediators, leukocyte infiltration, and brain edema-are likely to involve neuroinflammation and therefore can serve as useful models for human inflammatory CNS injury...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044412/correlation-between-extravasation-and-alterations-of-cerebrovascular-laminin-and-%C3%AE-dystroglycan-immunoreactivity-following-cryogenic-lesions-in-rats
#13
Mihály Kálmán, László Tóth, Dávid Szöllosi, Erzsébet Oszwald, Judit Mahalek, Sam Sadeghian
The blood-brain barrier becomes "leaky" following lesions. Former studies revealed that following lesions the immunoreactivity of cerebrovascular laminin becomes detectable whereas that of β-dystroglycan disappears. These alterations may be indicators of glio-vascular decoupling that may result in the impairment of the blood-brain-barrier. This study investigates correlation between the post-lesion extravasation and the above-mentioned immunohistochemical alterations. Following cryogenic lesions, the survival periods lasted 5, 10, 30 minutes, 1 or 12 hours, or 1 day...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043230/advances-in-the-treatment-of-newly-diagnosed-primary-central-nervous-system-lymphomas
#14
REVIEW
Liren Qian, Ciprian Tomuleasa, Ioan-Alexandru Florian, Jianliang Shen, Ioan-Stefan Florian, Mihnea Zdrenghea, Delia Dima
Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is a type of highly invasive non-Hodgkin lymphoma. With a growing number of organ transplantation and immunosuppressant therapy, the incidence of PCNSL has been growing rapidly in recent years, which is attributed to the increased incidence of HIV/AIDS, a prominent risk factor for developing PCNSL. The rising rate of PCNSL incidence is the highest among the intracranial tumors. In the past 20 years, dozens of clinical trials related to PCNSL have been registered, but adequate therapeutics are still challenging...
September 2017: Blood Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042617/expression-and-function-of-abcg4-in-the-mouse-blood-brain-barrier-role-in-restricting-the-brain-entry-of-amyloid-%C3%AE-peptide
#15
Agnès Dodacki, Matthew Wortman, Bruno Saubaméa, Stéphanie Chasseigneaux, Sophie Nicolic, Nathalie Prince, Murielle Lochus, Anne-Laure Raveu, Xavier Declèves, Jean-Michel Scherrmann, Shailendra B Patel, Fanchon Bourasset
ABCG4 is an ATP-binding cassette transmembrane protein which has been shown, in vitro, to participate in the cellular efflux of desmosterol and amyloid-β peptide (Aβ). ABCG4 is highly expressed in the brain, but its localization and function at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) level remain unknown. We demonstrate by qRT-PCR and confocal imaging that mouse Abcg4 is expressed in the brain capillary endothelial cells. Modelling studies of the Abcg4 dimer suggested that desmosterol showed thermodynamically favorable binding at the putative sterol-binding site, and this was greater than for cholesterol...
October 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042554/glycaemic-control-boosts-glucosylated-nanocarrier-crossing-the-bbb-into-the-brain
#16
Y Anraku, H Kuwahara, Y Fukusato, A Mizoguchi, T Ishii, K Nitta, Y Matsumoto, K Toh, K Miyata, S Uchida, K Nishina, K Osada, K Itaka, N Nishiyama, H Mizusawa, T Yamasoba, T Yokota, K Kataoka
Recently, nanocarriers that transport bioactive substances to a target site in the body have attracted considerable attention and undergone rapid progression in terms of the state of the art. However, few nanocarriers can enter the brain via a systemic route through the blood-brain barrier (BBB) to efficiently reach neurons. Here we prepare a self-assembled supramolecular nanocarrier with a surface featuring properly configured glucose. The BBB crossing and brain accumulation of this nanocarrier are boosted by the rapid glycaemic increase after fasting and by the putative phenomenon of the highly expressed glucose transporter-1 (GLUT1) in brain capillary endothelial cells migrating from the luminal to the abluminal plasma membrane...
October 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042487/differential-response-of-glioma-stem-cells-to-arsenic-trioxide-therapy-is-regulated-by-mnk1-and-mrna-translation
#17
Jonathan B Bell, Frank Eckerdt, Harshil Dhruv, Darren Finlay, Sen Peng, Seungchan Kim, Barbara Kroczynska, Elspeth Beauchamp, Kristen Alley, Jessica Clymer, Stewart Goldman, Shi-Yuan Cheng, C David James, Ichiro Nakano, Craig Horbinski, Andrew P Mazar, Kristiina Vuori, Priya Kumthekar, Jeffery Raizer, Michael E Berens, Leonidas C Platanias
Mesenchymal (MES) and proneural (PN) are two distinct glioma stem cells (GSCs) populations that drive therapeutic resistance in glioblastoma (GBM). We screened a panel of 650 small molecules against patient-derived GBM cells to discover compounds targeting specific GBM subtypes. Arsenic trioxide (ATO), a FDA-approved drug that crosses the blood-brain barrier, was identified as a potent PN-specific compound in the initial screen and follow-up validation studies. Furthermore, MES and PN GSCs exhibited differential sensitivity to ATO...
October 17, 2017: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042297/trek-1-pathway-mediates-isoflurane-induced-memory-impairment-in-middle-aged-mice
#18
Yanhui Cai, Zhengwu Peng, Haiyun Guo, Feng Wang, Yi Zeng
Post-operative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) has been widely reported, especially in elderly patients. An association between POCD and inhalational anesthetics, such as isoflurane, has been suggested. The TWIK-related K(+) channel-1 (TREK-1) controls several major cellular responses involved in memory formation and is believed to participate in the development of depression, cerebral ischemia and blood-brain barrier dysfunction. However, the specific role of TREK-1 in mediating anesthesia-induced POCD remains unknown...
October 14, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042193/microrna-126-3p-attenuates-blood-brain-barrier-disruption-cerebral-edema-and-neuronal-injury-following-intracerebral-hemorrhage-by-regulating-pik3r2-and-akt
#19
Tianyang Xi, Feng Jin, Ying Zhu, Jialu Wang, Ling Tang, Yanzhe Wang, David S Liebeskind, Zhiyi He
MiR-126, a microRNA implicated in blood vessel integrity, angiogenesis and vascular inflammation, is markedly decreased in the sera of patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). The current study aims to evaluate the potential therapeutic effect of miR-126-3p on brain injuries in a rat model of collagenase-induced ICH. Intracerebroventricular administration of a miR-126-3p mimic significantly alleviated behavioral defects 24 h after ICH, as examined by paw placement and corner tests. ICH led to increased blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability and cerebral edema, both of which were attenuated by miR-126-3p mimic...
October 14, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041864/targets-of-therapy-in-progressive-ms
#20
Hans Lassmann
Highly effective anti-inflammatory therapies have so far been developed for patients with relapsing/remitting multiple sclerosis, which also show some benefits in the early progressive stage of the disease. However, treatment options for patients, who have entered the progressive phase, are still limited. Disease starts as an inflammatory process, which induces focal demyelinating lesions in the gray and white matter. This stage of the disease dominates in the relapsing phase, extends into the early stages of progressive disease, and can be targeted by current anti-inflammatory treatments...
October 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
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