Read by QxMD icon Read

Molecular pathology

Patrizia Ferroni, Francesca Santilli, Francesco Cavaliere, Paola Simeone, Leopoldo Costarelli, Rossella Liani, Romina Tripaldi, Silvia Riondino, Mario Roselli, Giovanni Davi, Fiorella Guadagni
The hypothesis that increased oxidative stress in breast cancer (BC) patients could induce enhanced lipid peroxidation, which, in turn, would contribute to platelet activation and poor clinical outcome is attractive. To address this issue, we investigated pre-surgical urinary 8-iso-prostaglandin (PG)F2α (marker of in vivo oxidative stress) and 11-dehydro-thromboxane (TX)B2 (marker of in vivo platelet activation) levels in patients with primary BC (n=115) compared with control women paired for co-morbidities and their association with patients' metabolic profile and clinical prognostic factors...
October 26, 2016: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Karla A Mark, Kathleen J Dumas, Dipa Bhaumik, Birgit Schilling, Sonnet Davis, Tal Ronnen Oron, Dylan J Sorensen, Mark Lucanic, Rachel B Brem, Simon Melov, Arvind Ramanathan, Bradford W Gibson, Gordon J Lithgow
Vitamin D has multiple roles, including the regulation of bone and calcium homeostasis. Deficiency of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, the major circulating form of vitamin D, is associated with an increased risk of age-related chronic diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, cognitive impairment, and cancer. In this study, we utilized Caenorhabditis elegans to examine the mechanism by which vitamin D influences aging. We found that vitamin-D3-induced lifespan extension requires the stress response pathway genes skn-1, ire-1, and xbp-1...
October 25, 2016: Cell Reports
Huabing Wang, Lisa Lang, Derek Thomas Logan, Jens Danielsson, Mikael Oliveberg
Despite continuing interest in partly unfolded proteins as precursors for aggregation and adverse gain-of-function in human disease, there is yet little known about the local transitions of native structures that possibly lead to such intermediate states. To target this problem, we present here a protein-design strategy that allows real-time detection of rupture and swapping of complete secondary-structure elements in globular proteins: molecular events that have previously been inaccessible experimental analysis...
October 26, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Michail Nomikos, Angelos Thanassoulas, Konrad Beck, Maria Theodoridou, Jasmine Kew, Junaid Kashir, Brian L Calver, Emily Matthews, Pierre Rizkallah, Zili Sideratou, George Nounesis, Anthony F Lai
Hereditary leukonychia is a rare genetic nail disorder characterized by distinctive whitening of the nail plate of all twenty nails. Hereditary leukonychia may exist as an isolated feature, or in simultaneous occurrence with other cutaneous or systemic pathologies. Associations between hereditary leukonychia and mutations in the gene encoding phospholipase C delta-1 (PLCδ1) have previously been identified. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying PLCδ1-mutations and hereditary leukonychia remain uncharacterized...
October 26, 2016: FEBS Journal
Yannis M Paulus, Akrit Sodhi
Recent breakthroughs in our understanding of the molecular pathophysiology of retinal vascular disease have allowed us to specifically target pathological angiogenesis while minimizing damage to the neurosensory retina. This is perhaps best exemplified by the development of therapies targeting the potent angiogenic growth factor and vascular permeability mediator, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Anti-VEGF therapies, initially introduced for the treatment of choroidal neovascularization in patients with age-related macular degeneration, have also had a dramatic impact on the management of retinal vascular disease and are currently an indispensable component for the treatment of macular edema in patients with diabetic eye disease and retinal vein occlusions...
October 26, 2016: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
Devasena Ponnalagu, Harpreet Singh
Mitochondria are the "power house" of a cell continuously generating ATP to ensure its proper functioning. The constant production of ATP via oxidative phosphorylation demands a large electrochemical force that drives protons across the highly selective and low-permeable mitochondrial inner membrane. Besides the conventional role of generating ATP, mitochondria also play an active role in calcium signaling, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), stress responses, and regulation of cell-death pathways...
October 26, 2016: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
Cheng Ye, Duo Zhang, Lei Zhao, Yan Li, Xiaohan Yao, Hui Wang, Shengjie Zhang, Wei Liu, Hongchao Cao, Shuxian Yu, Yucheng Wang, Jingjing Jiang, Hui Wang, Xihua Li, Hao Ying
Skeletal muscle has a major role in locomotion and muscle disorders are associated with poor regenerative efficiency. Therefore, a deeper understanding of muscle regeneration is needed to provide a new insight for new therapies. CaMKK2 plays a role in the calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase cascade; however, its role in skeletal muscle remains unknown. Here, we found that CaMKK2 expression levels were altered under physiological and pathological conditions including postnatal myogensis, freeze or cardiotoxin-induced muscle regeneration, and Duchenne muscular dystrophy...
October 24, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Belen Rubio-Gonzalez, Jasmine Zain, Steven T Rosen, Christiane Querfeld
The primary cutaneous lymphomas are a heterogeneous group of T-, Natural Killer- and B- cell neoplasms with a wide range of clinical and pathological presentations, and with very different prognoses compared to systemic lymphomas. Recent studies have shown that the skin microenvironment, which is composed of various immune cell subsets as well as their spatial distribution and T-cell interactions through different chemokines and cytokines, has an important role in the development and pathogenesis of cutaneous lymphomas and has assisted in the development of novel and more effective immunotherapies...
October 26, 2016: British Journal of Haematology
Alessandra Ammazzalorso, Barbara De Filippis, Cristina Campestre, Antonio Laghezza, Alessandro Marrone, Rosa Amoroso, Paolo Tortorella, Mariangela Agamennone
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are an important family of zinc-containing enzymes with a central role in many physiological and pathological processes. Although several MMP inhibitors have been synthesized over the years, none reached the market because of off-target effects, due to the presence of a zinc binding group in the inhibitor structure. To overcome this problem non-zinc-binding inhibitors (NZIs) have been recently designed. In a previous article, a virtual screening campaign identified some hydroxynaphtyridine and hydroxyquinoline as MMP-2 non-zinc-binding inhibitors...
October 22, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Saket Kumar Singh, Bibhas Kumar Bhunia, Nandana Bhardwaj, Sween Gilotra, Biman B Mandal
Tunable repeated drug administration is often inevitable in number of pathological cases. Reloadable 3D matrices for sustained drug delivery are predicted as a prospective avenue to realize this objective. This study was directed towards sonication-induced fabrication of novel reloadable Bombyx mori silk fibroin (SF) (4, 6 and 8 wt%) hydrogel, injected within 3D porous (8 wt%) scaffolds. The focus was to develop a dual-barrier reloadable depot system for sustained molecular cargo-release. Both the varying SF concentration (4, 6 and 8 wt%) and the sonication time (30, 45 and 60 s) dictated the extent of cross-linking, β-sheet content and porosity (1-10 µm) influencing the release behavior of model molecules...
October 26, 2016: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Shihao Dong, Jingsong Chen
Serrated polyposis syndrome (SPS) is closely associated with the initiation and development of colorectal cancer (CRC), however, there is few research on SPS in China. Serrated polyps can be divided into hyperplastic polyps, sessile serrated polyps and traditional serrated polyps. The diagnosis standard of SPS is as following: (1) There are at least 5 serrated lesions in proximal colon, and diameter of more than 2 lesions is >10 mm; (2) The patient has one serrated polyp with family history of SPS; (3) More than 20 serrated polyps can be found in the entire large bowel...
October 25, 2016: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
Ya Yang, Di Li, Zhiqiang Tian, Jun Lv, Fengjun Sun, Qian Wang, Yao Liu, Peiyuan Xia
Endotoxin tolerance (ET) is a complex protective mechanism against endotoxin shock. The looped CLP-19 peptide derived from Limulus anti-LPS peptide induced the ET phenomenon but the molecular mechanism has yet to be fully elucidated. Here, we confirmed that CLP-19 attenuated upon LPS stimulated pro-inflammatory factor secretion of TNF-α and IL-6 but increased anti-inflammatory factor production of IL-10 in dose- and time-dependent manners. CLP-19 also inhibited subsequent LPS stimulated expression of TLR4 on the cell membrane...
October 22, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
G Kaur, M Pawlik, S E Gandy, M E Ehrlich, J F Smiley, E Levy
Recent data suggest that intraneuronal accumulation of metabolites of the amyloid-β-precursor protein (APP) is neurotoxic. We observed that transgenic mice overexpressing in neurons a human APP gene harboring the APP(E693Q) (Dutch) mutation have intraneuronal lysosomal accumulation of APP carboxylterminal fragments (APP-CTFs) and oligomeric amyloid β (oAβ) but no histological evidence of amyloid deposition. Morphometric quantification using the lysosomal marker protein 2 (LAMP-2) immunolabeling showed higher neuronal lysosomal counts in brain of 12-months-old APP(E693Q) as compared with age-matched non-transgenic littermates, and western blots showed increased lysosomal proteins including LAMP-2, cathepsin D and LC3...
October 25, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
Hua Wang, Matthew B Schabath, Ying Liu, Ying Han, Qi Li, Robert J Gillies, Zhaoxiang Ye
PURPOSE: To determine if clinical and CT characteristics of surgically resected lung adenocarcinomas can distinguish those harboring ALK rearrangements from EGFR mutations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients who had surgical resection and histologically confirmed lung adenocarcinoma were enrolled, including 41 patients with ALK rearrangements and 66 patients with EGFR mutations. Eighteen categorical and six quantitative CT characteristics were used to evaluate the tumors...
November 2016: European Journal of Radiology
Quan Feng Liu, Haemin Jeong, Jang Ho Lee, Yoon Ki Hong, Youngje Oh, Young-Mi Kim, Yoon Seok Suh, Semin Bang, Hye Sup Yun, Kyungho Lee, Sung Man Cho, Sung Bae Lee, Songhee Jeon, Young-Won Chin, Byung-Soo Koo, Kyoung Sang Cho
Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common neurodegenerative disease, has a complex and widespread pathology that is characterized by the accumulation of amyloid [Formula: see text]-peptide (A[Formula: see text]) in the brain and various cellular abnormalities, including increased oxidative damage, an amplified inflammatory response, and altered mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling. Based on the complex etiology of AD, traditional medicinal plants with multiple effective components are alternative treatments for patients with AD...
October 25, 2016: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
Antonietta Franco, Richard N Kitsis, Julie A Fleischer, Evripidis Gavathiotis, Opher S Kornfeld, Guohua Gong, Nikolaos Biris, Ann Benz, Nir Qvit, Sara K Donnelly, Yun Chen, Steven Mennerick, Louis Hodgson, Daria Mochly-Rosen, Gerald W Dorn
Mitochondria are dynamic organelles, remodeling and exchanging contents during cyclic fusion and fission. Genetic mutations of mitofusin (Mfn) 2 interrupt mitochondrial fusion and cause the untreatable neurodegenerative condition, Charcot Marie Tooth disease type 2A (CMT2A). It has not been possible to directly modulate mitochondrial fusion, in part because the structural basis of mitofusin function is incompletely understood. Here we show that mitofusins adopt either a fusion-constrained or fusion-permissive molecular conformation directed by specific intramolecular binding interactions, and demonstrate that mitofusin-dependent mitochondrial fusion can be regulated by targeting these conformational transitions...
October 24, 2016: Nature
Sonia Merino, Nekane Ibarluzea, Hiart Maortua, Begoña Prieto, Idoia Rouco, Maria-Asunción López-Aríztegui, Maria-Isabel Tejada
Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) and fragile X-associated primary ovarian insufficiency (FXPOI) are definitely related to the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) premutation (PM). Additional medical problems have also been associated with the PM, such as fibromyalgia, endocrine, and psychiatric disorders. To improve our understanding in the field, we reviewed all PM carriers and their reasons for any medical referrals from 104 fragile X families molecularly diagnosed in our laboratory and living in the Spanish Basque Country...
October 21, 2016: Genes
Henrieta Škovierová, Eva Vidomanová, Silvia Mahmood, Janka Sopková, Anna Drgová, Tatiana Červeňová, Erika Halašová, Ján Lehotský
Homocysteine (Hcy) is a sulfur-containing non-proteinogenic amino acid derived in methionine metabolism. The increased level of Hcy in plasma, hyperhomocysteinemia, is considered to be an independent risk factor for cardio and cerebrovascular diseases. However, it is still not clear if Hcy is a marker or a causative agent of diseases. More and more research data suggest that Hcy is an important indicator for overall health status. This review represents the current understanding of molecular mechanism of Hcy metabolism and its link to hyperhomocysteinemia-related pathologies in humans...
October 20, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
K B Skowron, S P Pitroda, J P Namm, O Balogun, M A Beckett, M L Zenner, O Fayanju, X Huang, C Fernandez, W Zheng, G Qiao, R Chin, S J Kron, N N Khodarev, M C Posner, G D Steinberg, R R Weichselbaum
Strategies to identify tumors at highest risk for treatment failure are currently under investigation for patients with bladder cancer. We demonstrate that flow cytometric detection of poorly differentiated basal tumor cells (BTCs), as defined by the co-expression of CD90, CD44 and CD49f, directly from patients with early stage tumors (T1-T2 and N0) and patient-derived xenograft (PDX) engraftment in locally advanced tumors (T3-T4 or N+) predict poor prognosis in patients with bladder cancer. Comparative transcriptomic analysis of bladder tumor cells isolated from PDXs indicates unique patterns of gene expression during bladder tumor cell differentiation...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
Viviana Guadagni, Chiara Cerri, Ilaria Piano, Elena Novelli, Claudia Gargini, Carla Fiorentini, Matteo Caleo, Enrica Strettoi
Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) comprises a group of inherited pathologies characterized by progressive photoreceptor degeneration. In rodent models of RP, expression of defective genes and retinal degeneration usually manifest during the first weeks of postnatal life, making it difficult to distinguish consequences of primary genetic defects from abnormalities in retinal development. Moreover, mouse eyes are small and not always adequate to test pharmacological and surgical treatments. An inducible paradigm of retinal degeneration potentially extensible to large animals is therefore desirable...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"