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Molecular pathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538692/exploring-anti-prion-glyco-based-and-aromatic-scaffolds-a-chemical-strategy-for-the-quality-of-life
#1
REVIEW
María Teresa Blázquez-Sánchez, Ana M de Matos, Amélia P Rauter
Prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative disorders caused by protein misfolding and aggregation, affecting the brain progressively and consequently the quality of life. Alzheimer's is also a protein misfolding disease, causing dementia in over 40 million people worldwide. There are no therapeutics able to cure these diseases. Cellular prion protein is a high-affinity binding partner of amyloid β (Aβ) oligomers, the most toxic species in Alzheimer's pathology. These findings motivate the development of new chemicals for a better understanding of the events involved...
May 24, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538413/a-long-term-survivor-with-esophageal-melanoma-and-pulmonary-metastasis-after-single-stage-esophagectomy-and-lobectomy-case-report-and-literature-review
#2
Tian Zhao, Feng-Wei Kong, Heng Wang, Dong Liu, Chun-Ying Wang, Jin-Hua Luo, Miao Zhang, Wen-Bin Wu
RATIONALE: The optimal therapeutic regimen for primary malignant melanoma of the esophagus (PMME) need to be further elucidated. Besides, the efficacy of surgery for PMME with remote metastasis is uncertain for its rarity. PATIENT CONCERNS: Herein a previously healthy patient was admitted for dysphagia and fatigue, without significant weight loss. DIAGNOSES: The pathological and molecular tests revealed his diagnosis of BRAF-mutant, advanced PMME with localized pulmonary metastasis...
May 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537734/can-simple-interaction-models-explain-sequence-dependent-effects-in-peptide-homodimerization
#3
David J Smith, M Scott Shell
The development of rapid methods to explain and predict peptide interactions, aggregation, and self-assembly has become important to understanding amyloid disease pathology, the shelf stability of peptide therapeutics, and the design of novel peptide materials. While experimental aggregation databases have been used to develop correlative and statistical models, molecular simulations offer atomic-level details that potentially provide greater physical insight and allow one to single out the most explanatory simple models...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535585/good-laboratory-standards-for-clinical-next-generation-sequencing-cancer-panel-tests
#4
REVIEW
Jihun Kim, Woong-Yang Park, Nayoung K D Kim, Se Jin Jang, Sung-Min Chun, Chang-Ohk Sung, Jene Choi, Young-Hyeh Ko, Yoon-La Choi, Hyo Sup Shim, Jae-Kyung Won
Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has recently emerged as an essential component of personalized cancer medicine due to its high throughput and low per-base cost. However, no sufficient guidelines for implementing NGS as a clinical molecular pathology test are established in Korea. To ensure clinical grade quality without inhibiting adoption of NGS, a taskforce team assembled by the Korean Society of Pathologists developed laboratory guidelines for NGS cancer panel testing procedures and requirements for clinical implementation of NGS...
May 2017: Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535584/molecular-testing-of-lymphoproliferative-disorders-current-status-and-perspectives
#5
REVIEW
Yoon Kyung Jeon, Sun Och Yoon, Jin Ho Paik, Young A Kim, Bong Kyung Shin, Hyun-Jung Kim, Hee Jeong Cha, Ji Eun Kim, Jooryung Huh, Young-Hyeh Ko
Molecular pathologic testing plays an important role for the diagnosis, prognostication and decision of treatment strategy in lymphoproliferative disease. Here, we briefly review the molecular tests currently used for lymphoproliferative disease and those which will be implicated in clinical practice in the near future. Specifically, this guideline addresses the clonality test for B- and T-cell proliferative lesions, molecular cytogenetic tests for malignant lymphoma, determination of cell-of-origin in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, and molecular genetic alterations incorporated in the 2016 revision of the World Health Organization classification of lymphoid neoplasms...
May 2017: Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535583/molecular-testing-of-brain-tumor
#6
REVIEW
Sung-Hye Park, Jaekyung Won, Seong-Ik Kim, Yujin Lee, Chul-Kee Park, Seung-Ki Kim, Seung-Hong Choi
The World Health Organization (WHO) classification of central nervous system (CNS) tumors was revised in 2016 with a basis on the integrated diagnosis of molecular genetics. We herein provide the guidelines for using molecular genetic tests in routine pathological practice for an accurate diagnosis and appropriate management. While astrocytomas and IDH-mutant (secondary) glioblastomas are characterized by the mutational status of IDH, TP53 , and ATRX , oligodendrogliomas have a 1p/19q codeletion and mutations in IDH, CIC , FUBP1 , and the promoter region of telomerase reverse transcriptase ( TERTp )...
May 2017: Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535467/molecular-approaches-to-the-diagnosis-and-monitoring-of-production-diseases-in-pigs
#7
REVIEW
Timothy A Giles, Aouatif Belkhiri, Paul A Barrow, Neil Foster
Production disease in pigs is caused by a variety of different pathogens, mainly enteric and respiratory and can result in significant economic loss. Other factors such as stress, poor husbandry and nutrition can also contribute to an animal's susceptibility to disease. Molecular biomarkers of production disease could be of immense value by improving diagnosis and risk analysis to determine best practice with an impact on increased economic output and animal welfare. In addition to the use of multiplex PCR or microarrays to detect individual or mixed pathogens during infection, these technologies can also be used to monitor the host response to infection via gene expression...
May 17, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534873/molecular-indicators-of-stress-induced-neuroinflammation-in-a-mouse-model-simulating-features-of-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#8
S Muhie, A Gautam, N Chakraborty, A Hoke, J Meyerhoff, R Hammamieh, M Jett
A social-stress mouse model was used to simulate features of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The model involved exposure of an intruder (male C57BL/6) mouse to a resident aggressor (male SJL) mouse for 5 or 10 consecutive days. Transcriptome changes in brain regions (hippocampus, amygdala, medial prefrontal cortex and hemibrain), blood and spleen as well as epigenome changes in the hemibrain were assayed after 1- and 10-day intervals following the 5-day trauma or after 1- and 42-day intervals following the 10-day trauma...
May 23, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534152/cerebrospinal-fluid-dissemination-of-high-grade-gliomas-following-boron-neutron-capture-therapy-occurs-more-frequently-in-the-small-cell-subtype-of-idh1-r132h-mutation-negative-glioblastoma
#9
Natsuko Kondo, Rolf F Barth, Shin-Ichi Miyatake, Shinji Kawabata, Minoru Suzuki, Koji Ono, Norman L Lehman
We have used boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) to treat patients in Japan with newly diagnosed or recurrent high-grade gliomas and have observed a significant increase in median survival time following BNCT. Although cerebrospinal fluid dissemination (CSFD) is not usually seen with the current standard therapy of patients with glioblastoma (GBM), here we report that subarachnoid or intraventricular CSFD was the most frequent cause of death for a cohort of our patients with high-grade gliomas who had been treated with BNCT...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534000/improving-therapeutic-ratios-with-the-oncotype-dx%C3%A2-ductal-carcinoma-in-situ-dcis-score
#10
Nafisha Lalani, Eileen Rakovitch
Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is a non-invasive breast cancer comprising nearly 25% of breast cancer diagnoses in the mammographic era. Current guidelines recommend breast-conserving surgery followed by adjuvant radiotherapy; however, controversy exists regarding the appropriateness of these recommendations. Some women with DCIS will never recur, which raises the concern of over-treatment. Conversely, a small number of women will develop invasive recurrences, raising concerns of under-treatment. Currently, several clinical and pathologic factors have been identified as prognostic markers for recurrence; however, these variables alone have been unable to identify low-risk and high-risk subgroups...
April 21, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533980/mitochondrial-complex-i-deficiency-leads-to-the-retardation-of-early-embryonic-development-in-ndufs4-knockout-mice
#11
Mei Wang, Ya-Ping Huang, Han Wu, Ke Song, Cong Wan, A-Ni Chi, Ya-Mei Xiao, Xiao-Yang Zhao
BACKGROUND: The NDUFS4 gene encodes an 18-kD subunit of mitochondria complex I, and mutations in this gene lead to the development of a severe neurodegenerative disease called Leigh syndrome (LS) in humans. To investigate the disease phenotypes and molecular mechanisms of Leigh syndrome, the Ndufs4 knockout (KO) mouse has been widely used as a novel animal model. Because the homozygotes cannot survive beyond child-bearing age, whether Ndufs4 and mitochondrial complex I influence early embryonic development remains unknown...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533661/macrophage-inflammatory-protein-2-as-mediator-of-inflammation-in-acute-liver-injury
#12
REVIEW
Chao-Chao Qin, Yan-Ning Liu, Ying Hu, Ying Yang, Zhi Chen
Macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2 is one of the CXC chemokines and is also known as chemokine CXC ligand (CXCL2). MIP-2 affects neutrophil recruitment and activation through the p38 mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-dependent signaling pathway, by binding to its specific receptors, CXCR1 and CXCR2. MIP-2 is produced by a variety of cell types, such as macrophages, monocytes, epithelial cells, and hepatocytes, in response to infection or injury. In liver injury, activated Kupffer cells are known as the major source of MIP-2...
May 7, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533365/prediction-of-disease-activity-in-models-of-multiple-sclerosis-by-molecular-magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-p-selectin
#13
Antoine Philippe Fournier, Aurélien Quenault, Sara Martinez de Lizarrondo, Maxime Gauberti, Gilles Defer, Denis Vivien, Fabian Docagne, Richard Macrez
New strategies for detecting disease activity in multiple sclerosis are being investigated to ameliorate diagnosis and follow-up of patients. Today, although magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is widely used to diagnose and monitor multiple sclerosis, no imaging tools exist to predict the evolution of disease and the efficacy of therapeutic strategies. Here, we show that molecular MRI targeting the endothelial adhesion molecule P-selectin unmasks the pathological events that take place in the spinal cord of mice subjected to chronic or relapsing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis...
May 22, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533331/chronic-stimulation-of-renin-cells-leads-to-vascular-pathology
#14
Masafumi Oka, Silvia Medrano, Maria Luisa S Sequeira-Lόpez, R Ariel Gómez
Experimental or spontaneous genomic mutations of the renin-angiotensin system or its pharmacological inhibition in early life leads to renal abnormalities, including poorly developed renal medulla, papillary atrophy, hydronephrosis, inability to concentrate the urine, polyuria, polydipsia, renal failure, and anemia. At the core of such complex phenotype is the presence of unique vascular abnormalities: the renal arterioles do not branch or elongate properly and they have disorganized, concentric hypertrophy...
May 22, 2017: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532995/histological-subtypes-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-are-related-to-gene-mutations-and-molecular-tumour-classification
#15
Julien Calderaro, Gabrielle Couchy, Sandrine Imbeaud, Giuliana Amaddeo, Eric Letouzé, Jean-Frédéric Blanc, Christophe Laurent, Yacine Hajji, Daniel Azoulay, Paulette Bioulac-Sage, Jean-Charles Nault, Jessica Zucman-Rossi
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Our increasing understanding of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) biology holds promise for personalized care, however its translation into clinical practice requires a precise knowledge of its relationship to tumour phenotype. METHODS: We aimed at investigating molecular-phenotypic correlations in a large series of HCC. To this purpose, 343 surgically resected HCC were investigated by pathological review, immunohistochemistry, gene expression profiling and sequencing...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532700/gastric-cancer-as-preventable-disease
#16
Massimo Rugge, Robert M Genta, Francesco Di Mario, Emad M El-Omar, Hashem B El-Serag, Matteo Fassan, Richard H Hunt, Ernst J Kuipers, Peter Malfertheiner, Kentaro Sugano, David Y Graham
Gastric cancer (GC), one of the five most common causes of cancer death, is associated with a 5-year overall survival rate less than 30%. A minority of cancers occurs as part of syndromic diseases; more than 90% of adenocarcinomas are considered as the ultimate consequence of a longstanding mucosal inflammation. H. pylori infection is the leading etiology of non-self-limiting gastritis, which may result in atrophy of the gastric mucosa and impaired acid secretion. Gastric atrophy establishes a field of cancerization prone to further molecular and phenotypic changes, possibly resulting in cancer growth...
May 19, 2017: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531180/characterization-of-tauc3-antibody-and-demonstration-of-its-potential-to-block-tau-propagation
#17
Samantha B Nicholls, Sarah L DeVos, Caitlin Commins, Chloe Nobuhara, Rachel E Bennett, Diana L Corjuc, Eduardo Maury, Bahareh Eftekharzadeh, Ololade Akingbade, Zhanyun Fan, Allyson D Roe, Shuko Takeda, Susanne Wegmann, Bradley T Hyman
The spread of neurofibrillary tangle (NFT) pathology through the human brain is a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD), which is thought to be caused by the propagation of "seeding" competent soluble misfolded tau. "TauC3", a C-terminally truncated form of tau that is generated by caspase-3 cleavage at D421, has previously been observed in NFTs and has been implicated in tau toxicity. Here we show that TauC3 is found in the seeding competent high molecular weight (HMW) protein fraction of human AD brain. Using a specific TauC3 antibody, we were able to substantially block the HMW tau seeding activity of human AD brain extracts in an in vitro tau seeding FRET assay...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529572/recurrent-female-adnexal-tumor-of-probable-wolffian-origin-treated-with-debulking-surgery-imatinib-and-paclitaxel-carboplatin-combination-chemotherapy-a-case-report
#18
Akihiko Wakayama, Hirofumi Matsumoto, Hajime Aoyama, Masanao Saio, Ayumi Kumagai, Takuma Ooyama, Morihiko Inamine, Yoichi Aoki
In view of the small number of recurrent and metastatic cases of female adnexal tumors of probable Wolffian origin (FATWO), there is a distinct lack of evidence to support recommendations regarding treatment. In the present study, a 37-year-old female was diagnosed with a left adnexal tumor and underwent a left salpingo-oophorectomy (SO). The tumor was found to arise from the left tubal fimbria and extend to the posterior leaf of the broad ligament. Pathological examination identified a number of solid, tubular and cystic architectures, with areas of hyalinization, hemorrhage and necrosis...
May 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529539/jiangtang-decoction-ameliorate-diabetic-nephropathy-through-the-regulation-of-pi3k-akt-mediated-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathways-in-kk-ay-mice
#19
Jin-Ni Hong, Wei-Wei Li, Lin-Lin Wang, Hao Guo, Yong Jiang, Yun-Jia Gao, Peng-Fei Tu, Xue-Mei Wang
BACKGROUND: Jiangtang decoction (JTD) is a China patented drug which contains Euphorbia humifusa Willd, Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, Astragalus mongholicus Bunge, Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bunge, and Coptis chinensis Franch. For decades, it has also been used clinically to treat diabetic nephropathy (DN) effectively; however, the associated mechanisms remain unknown. Thus, the present study aimed to examine the protective efficacy of JTD in DN and elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms...
2017: Chinese Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528902/x-cells-are-globally-distributed-genetically-divergent-fish-parasites-related-to-perkinsids-and-dinoflagellates
#20
Mark A Freeman, Janina Fuss, Árni Kristmundsson, Marit F M Bjorbækmo, Jean-François Mangot, Javier Del Campo, Patrick J Keeling, Kamran Shalchian-Tabrizi, David Bass
"X-cells" have long been associated with tumor-like formations (xenomas) in marine fish, including many of commercial interest. The name was first used to refer to the large polygonal cells that were found in epidermal xenomas from flatfish from the Pacific Northwest [1]. Similar looking cells from pseudobranchial xenomas had previously been reported from cod in the Atlantic [2] and Pacific Oceans [3]. X-cell pathologies have been reported from five teleost orders: Pleuronectiformes (flatfish), Perciformes (perch-like fish), Gadiformes (cods), Siluriformes (catfish), and Salmoniformes (salmonids)...
May 13, 2017: Current Biology: CB
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