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Neuroinflammation anesthesia

Yuping Li, Ke Pan, Lin Chen, Jiao-Lin Ning, Xiaojun Li, Ting Yang, Niccolò Terrando, Jianteng Gu, Guocai Tao
BACKGROUND: Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a common complication after surgery, especially amongst elderly patients. Neuroinflammation and iron homeostasis are key hallmarks of several neurological disorders. In this study, we investigated the role of deferoxamine (DFO), a clinically used iron chelator, in a mouse model of surgery-induced cognitive dysfunction and assessed its neuroprotective effects on neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, and memory function. METHODS: A model of laparotomy under general anesthesia and analgesia was used to study POCD...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Giustino Varrassi, Antonella Paladini
Professor Giustino Varrassi and Antonella Paladini speak to Jade Parker, Commissioning Editor: Professor Giustino Varrassi is Full Professor of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine in the LUdeS University, Valletta, Malta. He graduated at the Medical School of the University 'La Sapienza' (Rome, Italy) in 1973, and became board certified in Anesthesiology and Intensive Care in 1976 and in Pneumology in 1978, both in the same Medical School. He is currently President of the European League Against Pain and of the Paolo Procacci Foundation, and is a founding member of both of these...
September 19, 2016: Pain Management
Michel Maitre, Christian Klein, Ayikoe G Mensah-Nyagan
Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB or Xyrem(R)) is frequently used in humans for several clinical indications, including anesthesia, narcolepsy/cataplexy, and alcohol-withdrawal symptoms. Pharmacological effects induced in the brain by therapeutic doses of Xyrem(R) are generally GABAergic-dependent. These effects allow sedation, stress/anxiety reduction, deep sleep induction, decrease of neuroinflammation, and neuroprotection. Furthermore, Xyrem(R) promotes the expression of pivotal genes reducing toxic proteinopathies, as demonstrated in laboratory animal models...
2016: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
Jan Hirsch, Susana Vacas, Niccolo Terrando, Miao Yuan, Laura P Sands, Joel Kramer, Kevin Bozic, Mervyn M Maze, Jacqueline M Leung
BACKGROUND: Postoperative delirium is prevalent in older patients and associated with worse outcomes. Recent data in animal studies demonstrate increases in inflammatory markers in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) even after aseptic surgery, suggesting that inflammation of the central nervous system may be part of the pathogenesis of postoperative cognitive changes. We investigated the hypothesis that neuroinflammation was an important cause for postoperative delirium and cognitive dysfunction after major non-cardiac surgery...
2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Yang-Zi Zhu, Rui Yao, Zhe Zhang, Hui Xu, Li-Wei Wang
BACKGROUND: Trial design neuroinflammation and postoperative pain after surgery are increasingly reported in association with postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD). Parecoxib, a selective cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitor, is used for postoperative analgesia for its potent anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. This study aimed to evaluate parecoxib's effects on POCD in elderly patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty. METHODS: Around 134 elderly patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty were randomly divided into parecoxib (group P) and control (group C) groups, and treated with parecoxib sodium and saline, respectively, shortly after induction of general anesthesia and 12-h postsurgery, respectively...
July 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Zhijie Zhang, Xiuhua Li, Fayin Li, Lijun An
Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a significant cause of morbidity after surgery, especially for the elderly. Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that neuroinflammation plays a key role in the pathogenesis of POCD. Thus, we hypothesized that berberine, an isoquinoline alkaloid with anti-inflammatory effects, could improve surgery-induced cognitive impairment. Twenty-month-old male C57BL/6 mice were subjected to exploratory laparotomy with isoflurane anesthesia to mimic the clinical human abdominal surgery...
September 2016: International Immunopharmacology
Nengli Yang, Yafeng Liang, Pei Yang, Weijian Wang, Xuezheng Zhang, Junlu Wang
Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD), a common clinical in aged patients, is characterized by deficits in cognitive functions in patients following anesthesia and surgery. It has been demonstrated that isoflurane may lead to cognitive impairment in aged rats; however, effective clinical interventions for preventing this disorder are limited. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α has been suggested to be involved in neuroinflammation as well as the development of POCD. Accordingly, the present study aimed to investigate whether TNF-α signaling is involved in the isoflurane-induced cognitive impairment in aged rats, and whether TNF-α receptor antagonist are able to attenuate isoflurane-induced cognitive impairment in aged rats...
July 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Desanka Milanovic, Vesna Pesic, Natasa Loncarevic-Vasiljkovic, Zeljko Pavkovic, Jelena Popic, Selma Kanazir, Vesna Jevtovic-Todorovic, Sabera Ruzdijic
A number of experimental studies have reported that exposure to common, clinically used anesthetics induce extensive neuroapoptosis and cognitive impairment when applied to young rodents, up to 2 weeks old, in phase of rapid synaptogenesis. Propofol is the most used general anesthetic in clinical practice whose mechanisms of neurotoxicity on the developing brain remains to be examined in depth. This study investigated effects of different exposures to propofol anesthesia on Fas receptor and Fas ligand expressions, which mediate proapoptotic and proinflammation signaling in the brain...
October 2016: Neurotoxicity Research
Ting Chen, Chang Chen, Zongze Zhang, Yufeng Zou, Mian Peng, Yanlin Wang
Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is a crucial receptor in the innate immune system, and increasing evidence supports its role in inflammation, stress, and tissue injury, including injury to the lung and brain. We aimed to investigate the effects of TLR4 on neuroinflammation due to the lung-brain interaction in mechanically ventilated mice. Male wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 and TLR4 knockout (TLR4 KO) mice were divided into three groups: (1) control group (C): spontaneous breathing; (2) anesthesia group (A): spontaneous breathing under anesthesia; and (3) mechanical ventilation group (MV): 6h of MV under anesthesia...
August 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Iris B Hovens, Barbara L van Leeuwen, Massimo A Mariani, Aletta D Kraneveld, Regien G Schoemaker
Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a debilitating surgical complication, with cardiac surgery patients at particular risk. To gain insight in the mechanisms underlying the higher incidence of POCD after cardiac versus non-cardiac surgery, systemic and central inflammatory changes, alterations in intraneuronal pathways, and cognitive performance were studied after cardiac and abdominal surgery in rats. Male Wistar rats were subjected to ischemia reperfusion of the upper mesenteric artery (abdominal surgery) or the left coronary artery (cardiac surgery)...
May 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Chih-Wen Yang, Jong-Ling Fuh
Exposure to anesthesia and surgery has been hypothesized to increase the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). While the exact pathogenesis of AD remains unknown, it potentially involves specific proteins (eg, amyloid beta and tau) and neuroinflammation. A growing body of preclinical evidence also suggests that anesthetic agents interact with the components that mediate AD neuropathology at multiple levels. However, it remains unclear whether anesthesia and surgery are associated with an increased risk of AD in humans...
2015: Journal of Pain Research
ZhongLiang Sun, Maiko Satomoto, Koshi Makita
BACKGROUND: Sevoflurane exposure during the early postnatal period causes neuroinflammation and neuronal apoptosis in rodents. Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) have been shown to protect and repair the damaged central nervous system, for example in ischemic stroke models. In this study, we investigated whether intravenous administration of BMSCs ameliorated neurodegeneration, induced by sevoflurane exposure, in neonatal rats. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rat pups (postnatal day 7) were exposed to 2% sevoflurane for 6 h (vehicle group, n = 7)...
August 2015: Korean Journal of Anesthesiology
Li-Li Qiu, Mu-Huo Ji, Hui Zhang, Jiao-Jiao Yang, Xiao-Ru Sun, Hui Tang, Jing Wang, Wen-Xue Liu, Jian-Jun Yang
Microglial activation plays a key role in the development of postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD). Nox2, one of the main isoforms of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase in the central nervous system, is a predominant source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction in phagocytes including microglia. We therefore hypothesized that Nox2-induced microglial activation is involved in the development of POCD. Sixteen-month-old C57BL/6 mice were subjected to exploratory laparotomy with isoflurane anesthesia to mimic the clinical human abdominal surgery...
January 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Takashi Kawano, Satoru Eguchi, Hideki Iwata, Takahiko Tamura, Naoko Kumagai, Masataka Yokoyama
BACKGROUND: Sustained neuroinflammation may contribute to the pathogenesis of postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD). Here, the authors evaluated the preventive effect of preoperative environmental enrichment (PEE) on the development of neuroinflammation and concomitant POCD in a rat abdominal surgery model. METHODS: Young and aged rats were assigned to one of four groups using a 2 × 2 experimental design: PEE versus sedentary condition for 14 days, by abdominal surgery versus anesthesia alone (n = 8 in each group)...
July 2015: Anesthesiology
Iris B Hovens, Barbara L van Leeuwen, Csaba Nyakas, Erik Heineman, Eddy A van der Zee, Regien G Schoemaker
Older patients may experience persisting postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD), which is considered to largely depend on surgery-induced (neuro)inflammation. We hypothesize that inflammatory events before surgery could predispose patients to POCD. When part of our aged rats developed Mycoplasma pulmonis, this presented the unique opportunity to investigate whether a pulmonary infection before surgery influences surgery-induced neuroinflammation and POCD. Male 18-mo-old Wistar rats that had recovered from an active mycoplasma infection (infection) and control rats (healthy) were subjected to abdominal surgery and jugular vein catheterization under general anesthesia (surgery) or remained naïve (control)...
July 15, 2015: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Mohammad Hadi Gharedaghi, Reza Rahimian, Ahmad Reza Dehpour, Yashar Yousefzadeh-Fard, Ahmad Mohammadi-Farani
RATIONALE: Many peripheral diseases are associated with a decline in cognitive function. In this regard, there have been reports of patients with inflammatory bowel disease and an otherwise unexplained memory impairment. OBJECTIVES: We sought to assess the memory performance of mice with colitis. We also investigated the roles of N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors and nitric oxide (NO) as possible mediators of colitis-induced amnesia. METHODS: To induce colitis, male NMRI mice were intrarectally injected with a solution containing dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (DNBS; 4 mg in 100 μl) under anesthesia...
August 2015: Psychopharmacology
Yang Li, Saiying Wang, Ke Ran, Zhonghua Hu, Zhaoqian Liu, Kaiming Duan
The aim of the present study was to investigate the differences in the expression of hippocampal proteins between normal control aged rats and aged rats with postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD). A total of 24 aged rats were randomly divided into a surgery group (n=12) and a control group (n=12). The rats in the surgery group were treated with 2 h isoflurane anesthesia and splenectomy, while the rats in the control group received 40% oxygen for 2 h without surgery. The cognitive functions of the two groups were examined using a Y-maze test...
August 2015: Molecular Medicine Reports
Chang Chen, Zongze Zhang, Ting Chen, Mian Peng, Xing Xu, Yanlin Wang
INTRODUCTION: Patients undergoing surgery frequently develop neuropsychological disturbances, including cognitive decline or memory impairment, and routine clinical procedures such as mechanical ventilation (MV) may affect acute-phase brain outcome. We aimed to investigate the effect of the prolonged MV on postoperative memory dysfunction in surgical mice. METHODS: Male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into the following three groups: (1) The control group (group C) comprised anesthetized, unventilated animals; (2) the surgery group (subgroups S1h, S3h and S6h) was unventilated animals that underwent surgery under general anesthesia; and (3) the MV group (subgroups MV1h, MV3h and MV6h) was made up of animals under MV for 1 hour, 3 hours or 6 hours after surgery...
2015: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Junfeng Zhang, Hongying Tan, Wei Jiang, Zhiyi Zuo
Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) often occurs in elderly patients and may involve neuroinflammation. This study was to determine whether anesthetic choice (intravenous vs. volatile anesthetics) affects cognitive impairment and neuroinflammation in elderly rat. Total 54 twenty-month old male Fischer 344 rats were assigned randomly to control, right carotid exposure under propofol-buprenorphine or isoflurane-buprenorphine anesthesia groups. They were tested by Barnes maze and fear conditioning from 6 days after the surgery...
March 2015: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
Shunsuke Tachibana, Tomo Hayase, Michiko Osuda, Satoshi Kazuma, Michiaki Yamakage
Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) increases morbidity and mortality. The mechanisms underlying POCD remain elusive; however, systemic responses induced by anesthesia and surgery might trigger neuroinflammation and POCD. Desflurane is a preferable volatile anesthetic agent for elderly patients because it facilitates shorter recovery from general anesthesia. The aim of this study was to determine whether quality of emergence and cognitive function in elderly patients undergoing a long duration desflurane anesthesia are better than those in the case of sevoflurane anesthesia...
August 2015: Journal of Anesthesia
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