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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29917124/socioeconomic-disparities-in-electronic-cigarette-use-and-transitions-from-smoking
#1
Abigail S Friedman, Samantha J L Horn
Introduction: Socioeconomic disparities have been established for conventional cigarette use, but not for electronic cigarettes. This study estimates socioeconomic gradients in exclusive use of conventional cigarettes, electronic cigarettes, and dual use (i.e., use of both products) among adults in the United States. Methods: Analyses consider nationally representative data on 25 to 54 year old respondents to the 2014-2016 National Health Interview Surveys (N=50,306)...
June 16, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29917065/contribution-of-chronic-conditions-to-gender-disparities-in-health-expectancies-in-belgium-2001-2004-and-2008
#2
Renata T C Yokota, Willma J Nusselder, Jean-Marie Robine, Jean Tafforeau, Françoise Renard, Patrick Deboosere, Herman Van Oyen
Background: We aimed to investigate the contribution of chronic conditions to gender differences in disability-free life expectancy (DFLE) and life expectancy with disability (LED) in Belgium in 2001, 2004 and 2008. Methods: Data on disability and chronic conditions from participants of the 2001, 2004 and 2008 Health Interview Surveys in Belgium were used to estimate disability prevalence by cause using the attribution method. Disability prevalence was applied to life tables to estimate DFLE and LED using the Sullivan method...
June 15, 2018: European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29916850/sphincter-of-oddi-dysfunction-sphincter-of-oddi-dysfunction-or-discordance-what-is-the-state-of-the-art-in-2018
#3
Jong Jin Hyun, Richard A Kozarek
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review important manuscripts published over the previous 2 years relative to sphincter of Oddi dysfunction (SOD). RECENT FINDINGS: The long-term outcomes of the Evaluating Predictors and Interventions of SOD (EPISOD) trial further substantiated results from the initial EPISOD study, reinforcing that neither endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography-manometry nor endoscopic sphincterotomy are appropriate for SOD type III. Pain management in the latter patients has reverted to neuromodulating agents, and recent studies have suggested a role for duloxetine and potentially acupuncture...
June 16, 2018: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29916402/ever-since-i-can-remember-myself-implications-of-attachment-and-perceived-maternal-feeding-practices-on-adult-women-s-body-dissatisfaction
#4
Inbar Baumgarten-Katz, Lilac Lev-Ari, Ada H Zohar
BACKGROUND: Research indicates that women with an eating disorder are more insecurely attached than those without. Over-restrictive maternal feeding practices in childhood are associated with elevated BMI and more disordered eating in adult women. GOALS: The goal of the current study was to examine the extent to which the two insecure attachment styles contribute to women's body dissatisfaction indices and to examine their role in moderating the influence of restrictive maternal child feeding practices...
2018: Israel Journal of Psychiatry and related Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29916328/quantum-caring-leadership-integrating-quantum-leadership-with-caring-science
#5
Jean Watson, Tim Porter-O'Grady, Sara Horton-Deutsch, Kathy Malloch
The authors of this article integrate two historically parallel yet disparate fields of nursing, caring science theory and nursing quantum leadership science. Through a nursing, discipline-specific unitary paradigm lens, intersecting principles of caring science and quantum leadership science are uncovered. The result is a model for unitary, discipline-specific, nursing healthcare leadership: Quantum Caring Healthcare Leadership. Ontological congruence is uncovered among the philosophical-ethical-theoretical principles of caring science and the unifying disciplinary structural concepts from quantum leadership...
July 2018: Nursing Science Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29916191/racial-disparities-in-revision-total-knee-arthroplasty-analysis-of-125-901-patients-in-national-us-private-payer-database
#6
Martin Roche, Tsun Yee Law, Assem A Sultan, Erica Umpierrez, Anton Khlopas, Sam Rosas, Jennifer Kurowicki, Kevin Wang, Michael A Mont
INTRODUCTION: There is a relative paucity of studies that characterized racial disparities in revision total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Therefore, this study was specifically conducted to evaluate the following: (1) incidence; (2) annual burden; (3) causes; and (4) age group distribution of revision TKA among different racial groups in the US sample population. METHODS: The PearlDiver database was utilized to identify patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) who underwent primary then subsequent revision TKA from January 2007 to December 2014...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915810/recommendations-from-transgender-healthcare-consumers-in-rural-areas
#7
Douglas Knutson, Meredith A Martyr, Travis A Mitchell, Tori Arthur, Julie M Koch
Purpose: Scholars indicate that rates of mental and physical health issues (e.g., substance use, anxiety, depression) may be much higher among transgender individuals relative to the general population. This disparity may be even greater for transgender individuals in rural areas. Clinical researchers suggest using affirmative therapeutic approaches and interventions to address the health concerns of transgender individuals, specifically to connect individuals with the transgender community. However, little is known about the content of information that is shared in transgender communities in rural areas...
2018: Transgender Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915362/national-trends-in-stunting-thinness-and-overweight-among-chinese-school-aged-children-1985-2014
#8
Yi Song, Anette Agardh, Jun Ma, Liubai Li, Yuanting Lei, Randall S Stafford, Judith J Prochaska
OBJECTIVE: We sought to examine changes in regional and sex disparities in stunting, thinness, and overweight among Chinese school-aged children from 1985 to 2014. METHODS: We analyzed data on 1,489,953 children aged 7-18 years in the Chinese National Survey on Students' Constitution and Health. Stunting, thinness, and overweight were defined according to WHO anthropomorphic definitions. After adjustment for age, socioeconomic status, and school, logistic regression was used to estimate the prevalence of stunting, thinness, and overweight by region and sex over 30 years' time...
June 18, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915344/tempo-and-timing-of-ecological-trait-divergence-in-bird-speciation
#9
Jay P McEntee, Joseph A Tobias, Catherine Sheard, J Gordon Burleigh
Organismal traits may evolve either gradually or in rapid pulses, but the relative importance of these modes in the generation of species differences is unclear. Additionally, while pulsed evolution is frequently assumed to be associated with speciation events, few studies have explicitly examined how the tempo of trait divergence varies with respect to different geographical phases of speciation, starting with geographic isolation and ending, in many cases, with spatial overlap (sympatry). Here we address these issues by combining divergence time estimates, trait measurements and geographic range data for 952 avian sister species pairs worldwide to examine the tempo and timing of trait divergence in recent speciation events...
June 18, 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915302/high-resolution-crossover-mapping-reveals-similarities-and-differences-of-male-and-female-recombination-in-maize
#10
Penny M A Kianian, Minghui Wang, Kristin Simons, Farhad Ghavami, Yan He, Stefanie Dukowic-Schulze, Anitha Sundararajan, Qi Sun, Jaroslaw Pillardy, Joann Mudge, Changbin Chen, Shahryar F Kianian, Wojciech P Pawlowski
Meiotic crossovers (COs) are not uniformly distributed across the genome. Factors affecting this phenomenon are not well understood. Although many species exhibit large differences in CO numbers between sexes, sex-specific aspects of CO landscape are particularly poorly elucidated. Here, we conduct high-resolution CO mapping in maize. Our results show that CO numbers as well as their overall distribution are similar in male and female meioses. There are, nevertheless, dissimilarities at local scale. Male and female COs differ in their locations relative to transcription start sites in gene promoters and chromatin marks, including nucleosome occupancy and tri-methylation of lysine 4 of histone H3 (H3K4me3)...
June 18, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915206/ossification-of-the-ligamentum-flavum-in-a-nineteenth-century-skeletal-population-sample-from-ireland-using-bioarchaeology-to-reveal-a-neglected-spine-pathology
#11
Jonny Geber, Niels Hammer
Ossification of the ligamentum flavum of the spine (OLF) is rarely reported in individuals of European ancestry. It has, however, been observed in archaeological skeletons from Europe. The aim of this study was to revisit OLF rates, utilising a mid-nineteenth-century skeletal sample from Ireland. The hypothesis was that the OLF prevalence rate was similar to studies on non-Europeans. Spines from 345 individuals were analysed, and the extent of OLF recorded on the cranial and caudal attachment sites of each vertebra using the following classification system: Grade 0 (no change); Grade 1 (<2 mm); Grade 2 (2-4 mm); Grade 3 (≥4 mm)...
June 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914860/mhealth-technology-use-and-implications-in-historically-underserved-and-minority-populations-in-the-united-states-systematic-literature-review
#12
REVIEW
Charkarra Anderson-Lewis, Gabrielle Darville, Rebeccah Eve Mercado, Savannah Howell, Samantha Di Maggio
BACKGROUND: The proportion of people in the United States who are members of at least two ethnic groups is projected to increase to 10% by the year 2050. This makes addressing health disparities and health inequities in minority populations increasingly more difficult. Minority populations, including those who classify themselves as African American and Hispanic, are using mobile phones to access health information via the internet more frequently than those who classify themselves as white, providing unique opportunities for those in public health and health education to reach these traditionally underserved populations using mobile health (mHealth) interventions...
June 18, 2018: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914717/future-directions-for-medication-assisted-treatment-for-opioid-use-disorder-with-american-indian-alaska-natives
#13
Kamilla L Venner, Dennis M Donovan, Aimee N C Campbell, Dennis C Wendt, Traci Rieckmann, Sandra M Radin, Sandra L Momper, Carmen L Rosa
The U.S. is experiencing an alarming opioid epidemic, and although American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) are especially hard hit, there is a paucity of opioid-related treatment research with these communities. AI/ANs are second only to Whites in the U.S. for overdose mortality. Thus, the National Institute on Drug Abuse convened a meeting of key stakeholders to elicit feedback on the acceptability and uptake of medication assisted treatment (MAT) for opioid use disorders (OUDs) among AI/ANs. Five themes from this one-day meeting emerged: 1) the mismatch between Western secular and reductionistic medicine and the AI/AN holistic healing tradition; 2) the need to integrate MAT into AI/AN traditional healing; 3) the conflict between standardized MAT delivery and the traditional AI/AN desire for healing to include being medicine free; 4) systemic barriers; and 5) the need to improve research with AI/ANs using culturally relevant methods...
May 23, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914469/variability-of-assister-availability-in-health-insurance-marketplace-in-the-u-s
#14
Jayoung Han, Dongwoo Ko
BACKGROUND: The Affordable Care Act (ACA) established the health insurance marketplaces to provide people the opportunity to obtain healthcare coverage. Assisters have worked with people who may have difficulty understanding the new system and selecting the right plan. This study aims to describe the local availability of assister programs, and examine the factors influencing assister provision. METHODS: The 2016 Small Area Health Insurance Estimates data and a database of assister programs constructed using healthcare...
June 19, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914446/-improving-native-american-elder-access-to-and-use-of-health-care-through-effective-health-system-navigation
#15
Cathleen E Willging, David H Sommerfeld, Elise Trott Jaramillo, Erik Lujan, Roxane Spruce Bly, Erin K Debenport, Steven P Verney, Ron Lujan
BACKGROUND: Public insurance reforms of the past two decades have failed to substantively address the healthcare needs of American Indians in general, let alone the particular needs of American Indian elders, ages 55 years and older. Historically, this population is more likely to be uninsured and to suffer from greater morbidities, poorer health outcomes and quality of life, and lower life expectancies compared to all other United States aging populations, representing a neglected group within the healthcare system...
June 18, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914316/enhancing-motion-in-depth-perception-of-random-dot-stereograms
#16
Di Zhang, Vincent Nourrit, Jean-Louis De Bougrenet de la Tocnaye
Random-dot stereograms have been widely used to explore the neural mechanisms underlying binocular vision. Although they are a powerful tool to stimulate motion-in-depth (MID) perception, published results report some difficulties in the capacity to perceive MID generated by random-dot stereograms. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the performance of MID perception could be improved using an appropriate stimulus design. Sixteen inexperienced observers participated in the experiment. A training session was carried out to improve the accuracy of MID detection before the experiment...
July 2018: Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914077/lhx2-mediates-the-fgf-to-shh-regulatory-loop-during-limb-development
#17
Billy A Watson, Jennifer M Feenstra, Jonathan M Van Arsdale, Karndeep S Rai-Bhatti, Diana J H Kim, Ashley S Coggins, Gennaya L Mattison, Stephen Yoo, Eric D Steinman, Charmaine U Pira, Brendan R Gongol, Kerby C Oberg
During limb development, fibroblast growth factors (Fgfs) govern proximal⁻distal outgrowth and patterning. FGFs also synchronize developmental patterning between the proximal⁻distal and anterior⁻posterior axes by maintaining Sonic hedgehog (Shh) expression in cells of the zone of polarizing activity (ZPA) in the distal posterior mesoderm. Shh, in turn, maintains Fgfs in the apical ectodermal ridge (AER) that caps the distal tip of the limb bud. Crosstalk between Fgf and Shh signaling is critical for patterned limb development, but the mechanisms underlying this feedback loop are not well-characterized...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913445/disparities-in-the-presentation-and-management-of-cutaneous-melanoma-that-required-admission
#18
Zaid Al-Qurayshi, Sudesh Srivastav, Alun Wang, Erin Boh, John Hamner, Mohamed Hassan, Emad Kandil
OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aimed to examine the association of demographic and socioeconomic factors with cutaneous melanoma that required admission. METHODS: A cross-sectional study utilizing the Nationwide Inpatient Sample database, 2003-2009, was merged with County Health Rankings Data. RESULTS: A total of 2,765 discharge -records were included. Men were more likely to have melanoma in the head, neck, and trunk regions (p < 0.001), while extremities melanoma was more common in women (p < 0...
June 18, 2018: Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913438/race-age-and-gender-based-characteristics-and-toxicities-of-targeted-therapies-on-phase-i-trials
#19
Taofeek K Owonikoko, Adeniyi K Busari, Sungjin Kim, Zhengjia Chen, Adebowale Akintayo, Colleen Lewis, Bradley C Carthon, Olatunji B Alese, Bassel F El-Rayes, Suresh S Ramalingam, R Donald Harvey
BACKGROUND: The impact of age-, gender-, and race-based differences on safety and efficacy in phase I clinical trials has not been well studied. METHODS: We analyzed data from phase I clinical trials evaluating targeted biologic agents in patients with advanced solid malignancies. Race and gender distribution of enrolled patients was compared to the referral population demographics at the city, metro, and state levels. The association between age, gender, and race with type, frequency, and severity of treatment-emergent toxicities and clinical benefit was assessed using univariate and multivariable models...
June 18, 2018: Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913379/the-role-of-social-support-in-family-socio-economic-disparities-in-depressive-symptoms-during-early-pregnancy-evidence-from-a-chinese-birth-cohort
#20
Dong-Mei Wei, Shiu Lun Au Yeung, Jian-Rong He, Wan-Qing Xiao, Jin-Hua Lu, Si Tu, Nian-Nian Chen, Kin Bong Hubert Lam, Kar-Keung Cheng, Gabriel M Leung, Hui-Min Xia, C Mary Schooling, Xiu Qiu
BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined the association between a composite measure of family socio-economic position (SEP)2 and depressive symptoms among Chinese pregnant women, nor any potential underlying mechanisms which may be amenable to preventative interventions. METHODS: We investigated the association between a composite SEP measure and depressive symptoms during early pregnancy, and tested for mediation by social support and moderation by parity in the Born in Guangzhou Cohort Study (n = 12,382) using adjusted logistic regression and causal mediation analysis...
June 5, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
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