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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245126/geographic-and-social-disparities-in-exposure-to-air-neurotoxicants-at-u-s-public-schools
#1
Sara E Grineski, Timothy W Collins
Children are especially vulnerable to the health and developmental impacts of environmental hazards and they spend significant portions of their days at school. Yet there are no national-level studies examining school-level environmental inequalities and few have examined disparate exposure to neurological air toxicants, even though chronic exposure to air pollution impacts children's brain functioning. We paired information about the geographic locations and demographics of each public school in the US with air neurotoxicant exposure estimates pertaining to 24 known neurotoxicants included in the US Environmental Protection Agency's National Air Toxics Assessment...
December 12, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244992/oral-morphine-use-in-south-india-a-population-based-study
#2
M R Rajagopal, Safiya Karim, Christopher M Booth
Purpose Access to opioids for pain control is recognized as an urgent issue in low- and middle-income countries. Here we report temporal and regional trends in morphine use in Kerala, India. Methods Oral morphine use data for the State of Kerala (2012 to 2015) was used to describe temporal trends, regional variation, and provider characteristics. Total morphine use was calculated for each district of Kerala to derive an annual per capita use rate (milligrams per capita). Each provider was classified as government, private, nongovernment organization (NGO), or NGO partnership...
December 2017: Journal of Global Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244759/requirements-for-efficient-thiosulfate-oxidation-in-bradyrhizobium-diazoefficiens
#3
Sachiko Masuda, Hauke Hennecke, Hans-Martin Fischer
One of the many disparate lifestyles of Bradyrhizobium diazoefficiens is chemolithotrophic growth with thiosulfate as an electron donor for respiration. The employed carbon source may be CO₂ (autotrophy) or an organic compound such as succinate (mixotrophy). Here, we discovered three new facets of this capacity: (i) When thiosulfate and succinate were consumed concomitantly in conditions of mixotrophy, even a high molar excess of succinate did not exert efficient catabolite repression over the use of thiosulfate...
December 15, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244633/leveraging-the-global-health-service-partnership-model-for-workforce-development-in-global-radiation-oncology
#4
Omoruyi Credit Irabor, Vanessa Bradford Kerry, Juliet Matton, Wilfred Ngwa
A major contributor to the disparity in cancer outcome across the globe is the limited health care access in low- and middle-income countries that results from the shortfall in human resources for health (HRH), fomented by the limited training and leadership capacity of low-resource countries. In 2012, Seed Global Health teamed up with the Peace Corps to create the Global Health Service Partnership, an initiative that has introduced a novel model for tackling the HRH crises in developing regions of the world...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Global Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244262/when-religion-opens-the-door-despite-the-challenges-partnerships-with-religious-and-spiritual-communities-can-address-medical-disparities-and-improve-patients-wellbeing
#5
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243816/two-decades-of-persisting-income-disparities-in-dental-caries-among-u-s-children-and-adolescents
#6
Gary Douglas Slade, Anne Elizabeth Sanders
OBJECTIVE: To describe trends in income disparities in dental caries among U.S. children and adolescents during two decades of fluctuating economic growth. METHODS: Data were from National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys conducted in 1988-1994, 1999-2004, and 2011-2014. The number of tooth surfaces with dental caries experience per child was computed for three age groups: 2-5, 6-11, and 12-17 years. Absolute and relative measures of inequality compared caries experience in families below the poverty level with families where income was at least three times the poverty threshold...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Public Health Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243275/in-vitro-toxicity-assessment-of-nanocrystals-in-tissue-type-cells-and-macrophage-cells
#7
Meiling Chen, Ying Li, Jiezhao Zhou, Zhenbo Yang, Zhiyuan Wang, Yang Yang, Hui Zhang, Zhiping Li, Xingguo Mei
Nanocrystals (NCs), a type of innovative material particle, are a potential drug delivery platform that aims to improve the bioavailability of hydrophobic drugs. However, due to the lack of consideration of their toxicity, existing studies have not investigated whether the nanoscale properties of NCs, such as particle sizes, may lead to NC-induced toxicity. Because of the disparity between the rapid development of NCs and the lack of studies regarding NC toxicity, the present study investigated possible NC toxicity and clarified the relationship between particle sizes and NC toxicity...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242500/comparative-analysis-of-the-genomes-of-stylophora-pistillata-and-acropora-digitifera-provides-evidence-for-extensive-differences-between-species-of-corals
#8
Christian R Voolstra, Yong Li, Yi Jin Liew, Sebastian Baumgarten, Didier Zoccola, Jean-François Flot, Sylvie Tambutté, Denis Allemand, Manuel Aranda
Stony corals form the foundation of coral reef ecosystems. Their phylogeny is characterized by a deep evolutionary divergence that separates corals into a robust and complex clade dating back to at least 245 mya. However, the genomic consequences and clade-specific evolution remain unexplored. In this study we have produced the genome of a robust coral, Stylophora pistillata, and compared it to the available genome of a complex coral, Acropora digitifera. We conducted a fine-scale gene-based analysis focusing on ortholog groups...
December 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242369/the-affordable-care-act-medicaid-expansion-and-disparities-in-kidney-disease
#9
Amal N Trivedi, Benjamin D Sommers
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 14, 2017: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241988/disparities-in-operative-outcomes-in-patients-with-comorbid-mental-illness
#10
Elizabeth A Bailey, Christopher Wirtalla, Catherine E Sharoky, Rachel R Kelz
BACKGROUND: Patients with mental health disorders have worse medical outcomes and experience excess mortality compared with those without a mental health comorbidity. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between mental health comorbidities and surgical outcomes. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study used the National Inpatient Sample (2009-2011) to select patients who underwent one of the 4 most common general surgery procedures (cholecystectomy and common duct exploration, colorectal resection, excision and lysis of peritoneal adhesions, and appendectomy)...
December 11, 2017: Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241986/the-effects-of-gender-and-sexuality-based-harassment-on-lesbian-gay-bisexual-and-transgender-substance-use-disparities
#11
Robert W S Coulter, Melina Bersamin, Stephen T Russell, Christina Mair
PURPOSE: We tested three competing models about whether gender- and sexuality-based harassment at school have nonindependent, additive, or interactive effects on adolescents' electronic cigarette use (i.e., vaping), cigarette smoking, alcohol use, and heavy episodic drinking (HED). We also tested whether harassment mediated substance use disparities between lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT) adolescents and their cisgender heterosexual peers. METHODS: We analyzed cross-sectional data from the 2013-2014 California Healthy Kids Survey, including 316,766 students in grades 7, 9, and 11 from more than 1,500 middle and high schools...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241969/relation-of-ectopic-fat-with-atherosclerotic-cardiovascular-disease-risk-score-in-south-asians-living-in-the-united-states-from-the-mediators-of-atherosclerosis-in-south-asians-living-in-america-masala-study
#12
Morgana Mongraw-Chaffin, Unjali P Gujral, Alka M Kanaya, Namratha R Kandula, John Jeffrey Carr, Cheryl A M Anderson
Few studies have investigated the association between ectopic fat from different depots and cardiovascular risk scores and their components in the same population, and none have investigated these relations in South Asians. In a cross-sectional analysis of 796 participants in the Mediators of Atherosclerosis in South Asians Living in America (MASALA) study who had measurements of visceral, subcutaneous, pericardial, hepatic, and intermuscular fat from abdominal and cardiac computed tomography scans, we used linear regression to determine the associations of 1 standard deviation difference in each ectopic fat depot with pooled cohort risk score and its components...
October 31, 2017: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241943/gender-disparities-in-park-use-and-physical-activity-among-residents-of-high-poverty-neighborhoods-in-los-angeles
#13
Kathryn P Derose, Bing Han, Stephanie Williamson, Deborah A Cohen
INTRODUCTION: Physical inactivity is more prevalent among women than men and is related to poor health outcomes. Neighborhood parks constitute an important resource for physical activity (PA), however, previous studies of park users have found fewer women being physically active. METHODS: We conducted a hierarchical mixed-effect regression analysis of the independent associations between gender and park use and PA among a population-based sample in high-poverty neighborhoods in Los Angeles...
December 11, 2017: Women's Health Issues: Official Publication of the Jacobs Institute of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241941/finding-evolutionary-processes-hidden-in-cryptic-species
#14
REVIEW
Torsten H Struck, Jeffrey L Feder, Mika Bendiksby, Siri Birkeland, José Cerca, Vladimir I Gusarov, Sonja Kistenich, Karl-Henrik Larsson, Lee Hsiang Liow, Michael D Nowak, Brita Stedje, Lutz Bachmann, Dimitar Dimitrov
Cryptic species could represent a substantial fraction of biodiversity. However, inconsistent definitions and taxonomic treatment of cryptic species prevent informed estimates of their contribution to biodiversity and impede our understanding of their evolutionary and ecological significance. We propose a conceptual framework that recognizes cryptic species based on their low levels of phenotypic (morphological) disparity relative to their degree of genetic differentiation and divergence times as compared with non-cryptic species...
December 11, 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241719/nativity-disparities-in-human-papillomavirus-vaccination-among-u-s-adults
#15
Ashley E Pérez, Madina Agénor, Kristi E Gamarel, Don Operario
INTRODUCTION: Several studies have identified disparities in human papillomavirus (HPV)-related outcomes by nativity status (i.e., U.S.- versus foreign-born). However, few studies have explored whether vaccination differences exist by nativity status. Vaccination disparities have the potential to exacerbate HPV-related cancer disparities in the long term if left unaddressed. Therefore, the authors investigated whether there were significant differences in HPV vaccination initiation (one or more doses) and completion (three or more doses) between U...
December 11, 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241474/optimising-design-and-cost-effective-implementation-of-future-pan-african-dietary-studies-a-review-of-existing-economic-integration-and-nutritional-indicators-for-scenario-based-profiling-and-clustering-of-countries
#16
Elom K Aglago, Edwige Landais, Francis Zotor, Genevieve Nicolas, Marc J Gunter, Paul Amuna, Nadia Slimani
Most of the African countries are undergoing a complex nutrition and epidemiologic transition associated with a rapid increase in the prevalence of diverse non-communicable diseases. Despite this alarming situation, the still limited and fragmented resources available in Africa impede the implementation of effective action plans to tackle the current and projected diet-disease burden. In order to address these common needs and challenges, the African Union is increasingly supporting continental approaches and strategies as reflected in the launching of the Agenda 2063 and the African regional nutrition strategy 2015-2025, among others...
December 15, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241469/-social-obstetrics-a-level-playing-field-when-it-comes-to-a-healthy-start
#17
E A P Steegers
Next to foetal growth, embryonic development during the first weeks of pregnancy is associated not only with the health of the newborn, but also with health and disease in later life. In the Netherlands, large disparities exist in perinatal health. These are not only related to medical risks but also to an accumulation of risks related to lifestyle and the social environment. The effects of poverty on perinatal health appear to be substantial. These new insights should lead to a renewal of pregnancy-related care in the form of the implementation of preconception care and 'social obstetrics', into which medical and social domains of care should be integrated...
2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241436/integrated-primary-care-in-assertive-community-treatment
#18
Benjamin F Henwood, Elizabeth Siantz, Debra R Hrouda, Debbie Innes-Gomberg, Todd P Gilmer
Assertive community treatment (ACT) has the potential to serve as a medical home for adults with serious mental illness, a population that experiences some of the most significant health disparities in the United States. Using site visit methodology, the authors describe partnerships that were created between five ACT programs and federally qualified health centers (FQHCs) to provide integrated behavioral health and primary care. The authors examined rates of screening for common chronic conditions. The programs used three distinct approaches: two programs colocated ACT teams at an FQHC, two programs employed primary care providers who split their time between the FQHC and the ACT program, and one program embedded a primary care provider within the ACT team...
December 15, 2017: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241142/unmet-needs-burden-of-treatment-and-patient-engagement-in-multiple-sclerosis-a-combined-perspective-from-the-ms-in-the-21st-century-steering-group
#19
Peter Rieckmann, Diego Centonze, Irina Elovaara, Gavin Giovannoni, Eva Havrdová, Jurg Kesselring, Gisela Kobelt, Dawn Langdon, Sarah A Morrow, Celia Oreja-Guevara, Sven Schippling, Christoph Thalheim, Heidi Thompson, Patrick Vermersch, Karen Aston, Birgit Bauer, Christy Demory, Maria Paz Giambastiani, Jana Hlavacova, Jocelyne Nouvet-Gire, George Pepper, Maija Pontaga, Emma Rogan, Chrystal Rogalski, Pieter van Galen, Ali-Frédéric Ben-Amor
BACKGROUND: Patient engagement is vital in multiple sclerosis (MS) in order to optimise outcomes for patients, society and healthcare systems. It is essential to involve all stakeholders in potential solutions, working in a multidisciplinary way to ensure that people with MS (PwMS) are included in shared decision-making and disease management. To start this process, a collaborative, open environment between PwMS and healthcare professionals (HCPs) is required so that similarities and disparities in the perception of key areas in patient care and unmet needs can be identified...
November 21, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240988/photoinduced-co-cf3-bond-activation-enables-arene-c-h-trifluoromethylation
#20
Caleb F Harris, Christopher S Kuehner, John Bacsa, Jake D Soper
Visible light capture activates a thermodynamically inert CoIII-CF3 bond for direct C-H trifluoromethylation of arenes and heteroarenes. New trifluoromethylcobalt(III) complexes supported by a redox-active [OCO] pincer ligand were prepared. Coordinating solvents, such as MeCN, afford quasi-octahedral [(SOCO)CoIII(CF3)(MeCN)2] (2), but in non-coordinating solvents the complex is square pyramidal [(SOCO)CoIII(CF3)(MeCN)] (3). Both are thermally stable, and 2 is stable in light. But exposure of 3 to low-energy light results in facile homolysis of the CoIII-CF3 bond, releasing ●CF3 radical, which is trapped by TEMPO● or (hetero)arenes...
December 14, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
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