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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054412/regulatory-mechanisms-for-iron-transport-across-the-blood-brain-barrier
#1
Kari A Duck, Ian A Simpson, James R Connor
Many critical metabolic functions in the brain require adequate and timely delivery of iron. However, most studies when considering brain iron uptake have ignored the iron requirements of the endothelial cells that form the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Moreover, current models of BBB iron transport do not address regional regulation of brain iron uptake or how neurons, when adapting to metabolic demands, can acquire more iron. In this study, we demonstrate that both iron-poor transferrin (apo-Tf) and the iron chelator, deferoxamine, stimulate release of iron from iron-loaded endothelial cells in an in vitro BBB model...
October 17, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054168/early-evolutionary-diversification-of-mandible-morphology-in-the-new-world-monkeys-primate-platyrrhini
#2
Guido Rocatti, Leandro Aristide, Alfred L Rosenberger, S Ivan Perez
New World monkeys (order Primates) are an example of a major mammalian evolutionary radiation in the Americas, with a contentious fossil record. There is evidence of an early platyrrhine occupation of this continent by the Eocene-Oligocene transition, evolving in isolation from the Old World primates from then on, and developing extensive morphological and size variation. Previous studies postulated that the platyrrhine clade arose as a local version of the Simpsonian ecospace model, with an early phase involving a rapid increase in morphological and ecological diversity driven by selection and ecological opportunity, followed by a diversification rate that slowed due to niche-filling...
December 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054052/synthesis-and-binding-affinity-analysis-of-%C3%AE-1-2-and-%C3%AE-1-6-o-s-linked-dimannosides-for-the-elucidation-of-sulfur-in-glycosidic-bonds-using-quartz-crystal-microbalance-sensors
#3
Oscar Norberg, Bin Wu, Niranjan Thota, Jian-Tao Ge, Germain Fauquet, Ann-Kathrin Saur, Teodor Aastrup, Hai Dong, Mingdi Yan, Olof Ramström
The role of sulfur in glycosidic bonds has been evaluated using quartz crystal microbalance methodology. Synthetic routes towards α1-2- and α1-6-linked dimannosides with S- or O-glycosidic bonds have been developed, and the recognition properties assessed in competition binding assays with the cognate lectin concanavalin A. Mannose-presenting QCM sensors were produced using photoinitiated, nitrene-mediated immobilization methods, and the subsequent binding study was performed in an automated flow-through instrumentation, and correlated with data from isothermal titration calorimetry...
October 9, 2017: Carbohydrate Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053983/conceptualizing-trust-in-community-academic-research-partnerships-using-concept-mapping-approach-a-multi-ctsa-study
#4
Gaurav Dave, Leah Frerichs, Jennifer Jones, Mimi Kim, Jennifer Schaal, Stefanie Vassar, Deepthi Varma, Catherine Striley, Corrine Ruktanonchai, Adina Black, Jennifer Hankins, Nakita Lovelady, Crystal Cene, Melissa Green, Tiffany Young, Shristi Tiwari, Ann Cheney, Linda Cottler, Greer Sullivan, Arleen Brown, Jessica Burke, Giselle Corbie-Smith
OBJECTIVES: Collaborations between communities, healthcare practices and academic institutions are a strategy to address health disparities. Trust is critical in the development and maintaining of effective collaborations. The aim of this pilot study was to engage stakeholders in defining determinants of trust in community academic research partnerships and to develop a framework for measuring trust. METHODS: The study was conducted by five collaborating National Institute of Health' Clinical and Translational Sciences Awardees...
October 12, 2017: Evaluation and Program Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053770/tourette-syndrome-a-disorder-of-the-social-decision-making-network
#5
Roger L Albin
Tourette syndrome is a common neurodevelopmental disorder defined by characteristic involuntary movements, tics, with both motor and phonic components. Tourette syndrome is usually conceptualized as a basal ganglia disorder, with an emphasis on striatal dysfunction. While considerable evidence is consistent with these concepts, imaging data suggest diffuse functional and structural abnormalities in Tourette syndrome brain. Tourette syndrome exhibits features that are difficult to explain solely based on basal ganglia circuit dysfunctions...
August 22, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053709/changes-in-utilization-and-peri-operative-outcomes-of-bariatric-surgery-in-large-u-s-hospital-database-2011-2014
#6
Lu Zhang, John Scott, Lu Shi, Khoa Truong, Qingwei Hu, Joseph A Ewing, Liwei Chen
BACKGROUND: With the epidemic of morbid obesity, bariatric surgery has been accepted as one of the most effective treatments of obesity. OBJECTIVE: To investigate recent changes in the utilization of bariatric surgery, patients and hospital characteristics, and in-hospital complications in a nationwide hospital database in the United States. SETTING: This is a secondary data analysis of the Premier Perspective database. METHODS: ICD-9 codes were used to identify bariatric surgeries performed between 2011 and 2014...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053386/promoting-health-from-the-pulpit-a-process-evaluation-of-hiv-sermons-to-reduce-hiv-stigma-and-promote-testing-in-african-american-and-latino-churches
#7
Denise D Payán, Karen R Flórez, Laura M Bogart, David E Kanouse, Michael A Mata, Clyde W Oden, Kathryn P Derose
Embedding health messages into sermons is a potentially valuable strategy to address HIV and other health disparities in churches that predominantly serve racial and ethnic minorities. This study explores implementation of an HIV sermon as part of a multi-component intervention in three churches (Latino Catholic, Latino Pentecostal, and African American Baptist) in high HIV prevalence areas of Los Angeles County, California. Clergy were given an HIV sermon guide that included local public health data, stigma reduction cues, HIV testing messages, and a sample sermon...
October 20, 2017: Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053158/prevalence-of-myeloma-precursor-state-monoclonal-gammopathy-of-undetermined-significance-in-12372-individuals-10-49-years-old-a-population-based-study-from-the-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-survey
#8
O Landgren, B I Graubard, S Kumar, R A Kyle, J A Katzmann, K Murata, R Costello, A Dispenzieri, N Caporaso, S Mailankody, N Korde, M Hultcrantz, T M Therneau, D R Larson, J R Cerhan, S V Rajkumar
We studied the prevalence of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) in younger individuals, age 10-49 years, using samples from the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) III. NHANES prevalence rates were standardized to the 2000 US total population. Among 12 372 individuals (4073 blacks, 4146 Mexican-Americans, 3595 whites, and 558 others), MGUS was identified in 63 persons (0.34%, 95% CI 0.23-0.50). The prevalence of MGUS was significantly higher in blacks (0.88%, 95% CI 0...
October 20, 2017: Blood Cancer Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052515/is-there-a-financial-incentive-to-immigrate-examining-of-the-health-worker-salary-gap-between-india-and-popular-destination-countries
#9
Gavin George, Bruce Rhodes
BACKGROUND: International migration is one of the factors resulting in the shortage of Human Resources for Health (HRH) in India. Literature suggests that migration is fuelled by the prospect of higher salaries available abroad. The extent of these salary differentials are unknown, and this study seeks to examine the salaries of selected HRH in India and four popular destination countries (United States of America, United Kingdom, Canada and the United Arab Emirates), whilst accounting for the in-country cost of living...
October 19, 2017: Human Resources for Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052314/modeling-the-convergence-accommodation-of-stereo-vision-for-binocular-endoscopy
#10
Yuanqian Gao, Jinhua Li, Jianmin Li, Shuxin Wang
BACKGROUND: The stereo laparoscope is an important tool for achieving depth perception in robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery (MIS). METHODS: A dynamic convergence accommodation algorithm is proposed to improve the viewing experience and achieve accurate depth perception. Based on the principle of the human vision system, a positional kinematic model of the binocular view system is established. The imaging plane pair is rectified to ensure that the two rectified virtual optical axes intersect at the fixation target to provide immersive depth perception...
October 19, 2017: International Journal of Medical Robotics + Computer Assisted Surgery: MRCAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052176/factors-associated-with-american-indian-mental-health-service-use-in-comparison-with-white-older-adults
#11
Heehyul Moon, Yeon-Shim Lee, Soonhee Roh, Catherine E Burnette
OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to identify the factors that impact mental health service use among American Indian (AI) older adults living in South Dakota compared to their White counterparts. DESIGN AND METHODS: Using a cross-sectional design with 735 participants (n = 502 Whites, n = 233 AIs), we used ordinal regressions to analyze the extent to which predisposing, need, and enabling/hindering factors predicted the level of mental health service utilization...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052175/african-americans-with-cirrhosis-are-less-likely-to-receive-endoscopic-variceal-screening-within-one-year-of-cirrhosis-diagnosis
#12
Ann Robinson, Hesam Tavakoli, Benny Liu, Taft Bhuket, Ramsey Cheung, Robert J Wong
BACKGROUND: Esophageal variceal hemorrhage is a complication of cirrhosis that carries high mortality, and can be reduced with timely endoscopic variceal screening and treatment. AIM: We aim to evaluate overall rates of and disparities in receipt of endoscopic variceal screening among an ethnically diverse urban safety-net hospital. METHODS: All consecutive adults with cirrhosis (7/1/2014 to 12/31/2015) were retrospectively evaluated to determine the rates of receiving esophageal variceal screening within 6 months and within 1 year after cirrhosis diagnosis...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052171/statin-use-and-breast-cancer-prognosis-in-black-and-white-women
#13
Amanda Leiter, Nina A Bickell, Derek LeRoith, Anupma Nayak, Sheldon M Feldman, Neil B Friedman, Alison Estabrook, Tari A King, Kezhen Fei, Rebeca Franco, Emily J Gallagher
Studies show decreased risk of breast cancer recurrence and improved survival with statin use, but data on racial disparities regarding breast cancer prognosis and statin use are lacking. Our objective was to investigate if racial disparities in breast cancer prognosis can be partially explained by differences in pre-diagnosis statin use. Patients were identified from a prospective, multicenter study examining the effects of metabolic factors on breast cancer prognosis in Black and White women. Statin use, prognosis (as measured by Nottingham Prognostic Index), anthropometric, tumor, and socio-demographic characteristics were examined...
October 19, 2017: Hormones & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051722/event-based-stereo-depth-estimation-using-belief-propagation
#14
Zhen Xie, Shengyong Chen, Garrick Orchard
Compared to standard frame-based cameras, biologically-inspired event-based sensors capture visual information with low latency and minimal redundancy. These event-based sensors are also far less prone to motion blur than traditional cameras, and still operate effectively in high dynamic range scenes. However, classical framed-based algorithms are not typically suitable for these event-based data and new processing algorithms are required. This paper focuses on the problem of depth estimation from a stereo pair of event-based sensors...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051688/facilitating-motor-imagery-based-brain-computer-interface-for-stroke-patients-using-passive-movement
#15
Mahnaz Arvaneh, Cuntai Guan, Kai Keng Ang, Tomas E Ward, Karen S G Chua, Christopher Wee Keong Kuah, Gopal Joseph Ephraim Joseph, Kok Soon Phua, Chuanchu Wang
Motor imagery-based brain-computer interface (MI-BCI) has been proposed as a rehabilitation tool to facilitate motor recovery in stroke. However, the calibration of a BCI system is a time-consuming and fatiguing process for stroke patients, which leaves reduced time for actual therapeutic interaction. Studies have shown that passive movement (PM) (i.e., the execution of a movement by an external agency without any voluntary motions) and motor imagery (MI) (i.e., the mental rehearsal of a movement without any activation of the muscles) induce similar EEG patterns over the motor cortex...
2017: Neural Computing & Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051027/the-conception-of-the-abcd-study-from-substance-use-to-a-broad-nih-collaboration
#16
REVIEW
Nora D Volkow, George F Koob, Robert T Croyle, Diana W Bianchi, Joshua A Gordon, Walter J Koroshetz, Eliseo J Pérez-Stable, William T Riley, Michele H Bloch, Kevin Conway, Bethany G Deesds, Gayathri J Dowling, Steven Grant, Katia D Howlett, John A Matochik, Glen D Morgan, Margaret M Murray, Antonio Noronha, Catherine Y Spong, Eric M Wargo, Kenneth R Warren, Susan R B Weiss
Adolescence is a time of dramatic changes in brain structure and function, and the adolescent brain is highly susceptible to being altered by experiences like substance use. However, there is much we have yet to learn about how these experiences influence brain development, how they promote or interfere with later health outcomes, or even what healthy brain development looks like. A large longitudinal study beginning in early adolescence could help us understand the normal variability in adolescent brain and cognitive development and tease apart the many factors that influence it...
October 10, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051012/vergence-driven-accommodation-with-simulated-disparity-in-myopia-and-emmetropia
#17
Guido Maiello, Kristen L Kerber, Frank Thorn, Peter J Bex, Fuensanta A Vera-Diaz
The formation of focused and corresponding foveal images requires a close synergy between the accommodation and vergence systems. This linkage is usually decoupled in virtual reality systems and may be dysfunctional in people who are at risk of developing myopia. We study how refractive error affects vergence-accommodation interactions in stereoscopic displays. Vergence and accommodative responses were measured in 21 young healthy adults (n = 9 myopes, 22-31 years) while subjects viewed naturalistic stimuli on a 3D display...
October 16, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050886/disparities-in-access-to-emergency-general-surgery-care-in-the-united-states
#18
Jasmine A Khubchandani, Connie Shen, Didem Ayturk, Catarina I Kiefe, Heena P Santry
BACKGROUND: As fewer surgeons take emergency general surgery call and hospitals decrease emergency services, a crisis in access looms in the United States. We examined national emergency general surgery capacity and county-level determinants of access to emergency general surgery care with special attention to disparities. METHODS: To identify potential emergency general surgery hospitals, we queried the database of the American Hospital Association for "acute care general hospital," with "surgical services," and "emergency department," and ≥1 "operating room...
October 16, 2017: Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050659/community-coalitions-gender-aware-policy-and-systems-changes-to-improve-the-health-of-women-and-girls
#19
Shelly Kowalczyk, Suzanne M Randolph, Linda Oravecz
BACKGROUND: Addressing environmental barriers and community conditions through policy and systems change provides the foundation for creating sustainable public health change at the population level. In an effort to influence population-level change that is gender aware, the United States Department of Health and Human Services Office on Women's Health funded the Coalition for a Healthier Community initiative supporting 10 grantees in the implementation of gender-based, public health systems approaches to improve women and girls' health...
October 17, 2017: Women's Health Issues: Official Publication of the Jacobs Institute of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050658/addressing-health-disparities-from-within-the-community-community-based-participatory-research-and-community-health-worker-policy-initiatives-using-a-gender-based-approach
#20
Sara E Simonsen, Brenda Ralls, Anna Guymon, Teresa Garrett, Patricia Eisenman, Jeannette Villalta, O Fahina Tavake-Pasi, Valentine Mukundente, France A Davis, Kathleen Digre, Stephen Hayes, Stephanie Alexander
BACKGROUND: The Coalition for a Healthier Community for Utah Women and Girls (CHC-UWAG) focused on addressing obesity-related health disparities impacting Utah women of color using community-based participatory research, a gender-based approach, and culturally sensitive health promotion activities delivered through community health workers (CHWs). A randomized trial of low vs. high intensity wellness coaching by CHWs was initiated. During this process, numerous policy issues emerged and were tracked...
October 17, 2017: Women's Health Issues: Official Publication of the Jacobs Institute of Women's Health
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