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Daniel W Bradford, Joseph Goulet, Marcia Hunt, Natasha C Cunningham, Rani Hoff
OBJECTIVE: Individuals with serious mental illness have increased mortality relative to those without these illnesses. Although cancer is a leading cause of death, few studies have evaluated potential disparities relative to mortality for individuals with serious mental illness who are diagnosed with cancer. In this study, we evaluated mortality after diagnosis of a common malignancy (lung cancer) in a prototypical serious mental illness (schizophrenia). METHODS: Using administrative data in the Veterans Affairs system, we identified 34,664 individuals who were diagnosed with lung cancer between October 1, 2001, and September 30, 2005...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Lisa I Iezzoni
Erroneous assumptions among health care professionals about the daily lives, preferences, values, and expectations of persons with disability can contribute to documented health care disparities, faulty communication, and substandard quality of care affecting this heterogeneous population. Efforts to reduce racial and ethnic disparities have focused on expanding diversity in the physician workforce. Would expanding the numbers of physicians with disability benefit patients with disability? Increasing the number of physicians who identify as "disabled" is one strategy for proactively confronting disability-related barriers affecting patients, but such efforts will likely face substantial challenges...
October 1, 2016: AMA Journal of Ethics
John V Gahagan, Mark H Hanna, Matthew D Whealon, Steven Maximus, Michael J Phelan, Michael Lekawa, Cristobal Barrios, Nicole P Bernal
Disparities in access to health care between white and minority patients are well described. We aimed to analyze the trends and outcomes of cholecystectomy based on racial classification. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample database was reviewed for all patients undergoing cholecystectomy from 2009 to 2012. Patients were stratified as white or non-white. A total of 243,536 patients were analyzed: 159,901 white and 83,635 non-white. Non-white patients had significantly higher proportions of Medicaid (25% vs 9.3%), self-pay (14% vs 7...
October 2016: American Surgeon
Neal D Goldstein, Igor Burstyn, Seth L Welles
BACKGROUND: Men who have sex with men (MSM) continue to be overrepresented for new HIV infections compared to non-MSM. This disparity becomes even more alarming when considering racial groups. We describe the race-specific effects in HIV prevalence among MSM relative to non-MSM and explore the causes of disagreement among estimates. METHODS: We used data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, a nationally representative longitudinal survey conducted in the U...
October 21, 2016: Epidemiology
Chanelle J Howe
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 21, 2016: Epidemiology
Lisa Gallicchio, Carla Calhoun, David Riseberg, Kathy Helzlsouer
The purpose of this study was to compare the cardiovascular health of Black and White breast cancer patients undergoing adjuvant treatment. Baseline data from a cohort study of Black (n = 45) and White (n = 101) breast cancer patients initiating aromatase inhibitor treatment were analyzed. Participants had a cardiovascular health assessment, including carotid intimal medial thickness measurement, donated a blood sample, and completed a questionnaire. Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) event risk scores were calculated...
October 25, 2016: Breast Journal
Douglas F Dluzen, Nicole Noren Hooten, Yongqing Zhang, Yoonseo Kim, Frank E Glover, Salman M Tajuddin, Kimberly D Jacob, Alan B Zonderman, Michele K Evans
Systemic arterial hypertension is an important cause of cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality. African Americans are disproportionately affected by hypertension, in fact the incidence, prevalence, and severity of hypertension is highest among African American (AA) women. Previous data suggests that differential gene expression influences individual susceptibility to selected diseases and we hypothesized that this phenomena may affect health disparities in hypertension. Transcriptional profiling of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from AA or white, normotensive or hypertensive females identified thousands of mRNAs differentially-expressed by race and/or hypertension...
October 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
Jessica L Barrington-Trimis, Myles Cockburn, Catherine Metayer, W James Gauderman, Joseph Wiemels, Roberta McKean-Cowdin
Incidence rates of childhood leukemia in the United States have steadily increased over the last several decades, but only recently have disparities in the increase in incidence been recognized. In the current analysis, Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) data were used to evaluate recent trends in the incidence of childhood leukemia diagnosed at age 0-19 years from 1992-2013, overall and by age, race/ethnicity, gender, and histologic subtype. Hispanic White children were more likely than non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black or non-Hispanic Asian children to be diagnosed with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) from 2009-2013...
October 25, 2016: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Yu Qian, Eranthie Weerapana
Cysteine residues on proteins serve diverse functional roles in catalysis and regulation and are susceptible to numerous posttranslational modifications. Methods to monitor the reactivity of cysteines within the context of a complex proteome have facilitated the identification and functional characterization of cysteine residues on disparate proteins. Here, we describe the use of a cysteine-reactive iodoacetamide probe coupled to isotopically labeled, cleavable linkers to identify and quantify cysteine-reactivity changes from two biological samples...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Alain Chichom-Mefire, Victor Mbome Njie, Vincent Verla, Julius Atashili
BACKGROUND: Surgery-related conditions account for the majority of admissions in primary referral hospitals in Sub-Saharan Africa. The role of surgery in the reduction of global disease burden is well recognized, but there is a great qualitative and quantitative disparity in the delivery of surgical and anaesthetic services between countries. This study aims at estimating the nature and volume of surgery delivered in an entire administrative division of Cameroon. METHODS: In this retrospective survey conducted during the year 2013, we used a standard tool to analyse the infrastructure and human resources involved in the delivery of surgical and anaesthetic services in the Fako division in the south-west region of Cameroon...
October 24, 2016: World Journal of Surgery
James W N Steenberg, Andrew A Millward, David J Nowak, Pamela J Robinson, Alexis Ellis
The benefits derived from urban forest ecosystems are garnering increasing attention in ecological research and municipal planning. However, because of their location in heterogeneous and highly-altered urban landscapes, urban forests are vulnerable and commonly suffer disproportionate and varying levels of stress and disturbance. The objective of this study is to assess and analyze the spatial and temporal changes, and potential vulnerability, of the urban forest resource in Toronto, Canada. This research was conducted using a spatially-explicit, indicator-based assessment of vulnerability and i-Tree Forecast modeling of temporal changes in forest structure and function...
October 24, 2016: Environmental Management
Lu Gao, Tian-Wen Wu, Xin Ni
Nitric oxide, carbon monoxide and hydrogen sulfide synthesized endogenously in living organisms produce an array of disparate biological effects, so as to be considered as gas transmitters. These three gaseous molecules play important roles in many physiological and pathological processes in the bodies, such as the regulation of vascular tone and inflammatory responses as well as reproductive function. This review mainly focuses on the distribution and biological functions of these three gas transmitters in female reproductive tissues...
October 25, 2016: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
Carlos Sequera, Aklilu Mebea, Punam Rajput
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Journal of Graduate Medical Education
Omar Y S Mousa, Rushikesh Shah, Amit S Dhamoon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Journal of Graduate Medical Education
Nichrous Mlalila, Dattatreya M Kadam, Hulda Swai, Askwar Hilonga
In recent decades, there is a global advancement in manufacturing industry due to increased applications of nanotechnology. Food industry also has been tremendously changing from passive packaging to innovative packaging, to cope with global trends, technological advancements, and consumer preferences. Active research is taking place in food industry and other scientific fields to develop innovative packages including smart, intelligent and active food packaging for more effective and efficient packaging materials with balanced environmental issues...
September 2016: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Manabu Miyata, Ryuichi Nakahara, Ichiro Hamasaki, Satoshi Hasebe, Takashi Furuse, Hiroshi Ohtsuki
Although a 0.3 Bangerter filter, which reduces visual acuity, is frequently used for treating moderate amblyopia, the effects on gross stereopsis are not well known. This study quantitatively evaluated whether gross stereopsis is degraded by a Bangerter filter. Seven healthy subjects (median age: 29 years) participated in this psychophysical study. Targets with crossed disparities of 1°, 2°, 3°, 4°, and 5° were randomly presented on a three-dimensional television display. The subjects indicated the point at which the targets popped out from the television screen (matching method)...
October 2016: Acta Medica Okayama
Tyra Bryant-Stephens, Shakira Reed-Wells, Maryori Canales, Luzmercy Perez, A Russell Localio, Andrea J Apter
Research on asthma frequently recruits patients from clinics because the ready pool of patients leads to easy access to patients in office waiting areas, emergency departments, or hospital wards. Patients with other chronic conditions, and with mobility problems, face exposures at home that are not easily identified at the clinic. In this paper we describe the perspective of the community health workers and challenges they encountered when making home visits while implementing a research intervention in a cohort of low-income, minority patients...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Annalisa Ruggeri, Fernanda Volt, Franco Locatelli, Gerard Michel, Cristina Diaz de Heredia, Manuel Abecasis, Marco Zecca, Ajay Vora, Karima Yakouben, Tracey A O'Brien, Stefano Giardino, Jacqueline Cornish, Vanderson Rocha, Christina Peters, Peter Bader, Eliane Gluckman, Jean Hugues Dalle
Infant acute leukemia still has poor prognosis and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is indicated in selected patients. Umbilical cord blood (UCB) is an attractive cell source for this population due to the low risk of chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), the strong graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effect and prompt donor availability. This is a retrospective, registry-based study reporting umbilical cord blood transplantation (UCBT) outcomes in 252 children with ALL (n=157) or AML (n=95) diagnosed before 1 year of age who received a single-unit UCBT after myeloablative conditioning between 1996 and 2012 in EBMT centers...
October 21, 2016: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
Sinan Karaca, Ahmet Onur Akpolat, Ahmet Oztermeli, Mehmet Nuri Erdem, Mehmet Aydogan
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess appropriateness of the sizes of available cervical disc prostheses based on tomographic measurement of human cervical vertebrae. METHODS: The anatomic dimensions of the C3-C7 segments were measured on 50 patients (age range 26-47 years) with computerized tomography scan and compared with the sizes of the popular cervical total disc prostheses (CTDP) at the market [Bryan (Medtronic), Prodisc-C (Synthes), Prestige LP (Medtronic), Discover (DePuy)]...
October 21, 2016: Acta Orthopaedica et Traumatologica Turcica
Ank E Nijhawan
The United States leads the world in incarceration, which disproportionately affects disadvantaged individuals, including those who are mentally ill, poor, homeless and racial minorities. Incarceration is disruptive to families and communities and contributes to health disparities in sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The objective of this grand rounds is to review (1) the epidemiology of incarceration in the United States, (2) the social factors which contribute to high rates of STIs in incarcerated individuals and (3) the HIV care cascade in incarcerated and recently released individuals...
October 2016: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
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