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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457569/hospital-onset-mrsa-bacteremia-rates-are-significantly-correlated-with-sociodemographic-factors-a-step-toward-risk-adjustment
#1
Joshua T Freeman, Matthew R Blakiston, Deverick J Anderson
The correlations between census-derived sociodemographic variables and hospital-onset methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (HO-MRSAB) rates were examined at the US state level. On multivariable analysis, only percent African American remained statistically significant. This finding highlights an important disparity and suggests that risk adjustment is needed when comparing HO-MRSAB rates among US states. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2018;1-3.
February 19, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457521/relationships-between-race-ethnicity-and-health-care-utilization-among-older-post-acute-home-health-care-patients
#2
Jo-Ana D Chase, David Russell, Liming Huang, Alexandra Hanlon, Melissa O'Connor, Kathryn H Bowles
Few studies have explored racial/ethnic differences in health care outcomes among patients receiving home health care (HHC), despite known differences in other care settings. We conducted a retrospective cohort study examining racial/ethnic disparities in rehospitalization and emergency room (ER) use among post-acute patients served by a large northeastern HHC agency between 2013 and 2014 ( N = 22,722). We used multivariable binomial logistic regression to describe the relationship between race/ethnicity and health care utilization outcomes, adjusting for individual-level factors that are conceptually related to health service use...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Applied Gerontology: the Official Journal of the Southern Gerontological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457481/selection-and-use-of-health-services-for-infants-needs-by-indigenous-mothers-in-canada-integrative-literature-review
#3
A Wright, O Wahoush, M Ballantyne, C Gabel, S M Jack
In Canada, Indigenous infants experience significant health disparities when compared to non-Indigenous infants, including significantly higher rates of birth complications and infant mortality rates. The use of primary health care is one way to improve health outcomes; however, Indigenous children may use health services less often than non-Indigenous children. To improve health outcomes within this growing population, it is essential to understand how caregivers, defined here as mothers, select and use health services in Canada...
January 1, 2018: Canadian Journal of Nursing Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche en Sciences Infirmières
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457466/feasibility-of-an-alzheimer-s-disease-knowledge-intervention-in-the-latino-community
#4
Jaime Perales, W Todd Moore, Cielo Fernandez, Daniel Chavez, Mariana Ramirez, David Johnson, Jason Resendez, Carolina Bueno, Eric D Vidoni
BACKGROUND: Latinos experience disparities in Alzheimer's disease (AD) knowledge. The aim of this study was to explore the feasibility of a 45-minute culturally-tailored AD knowledge presentation for professionals serving the Latino community and Latinos served by Latino community organizations. METHODS: One-session AD knowledge lunch-and-learn events were conducted with 40 professionals and 37 served Latinos. Participants received a pre-post survey including questions on satisfaction, a subjective AD knowledge question and a 14 item objective AD knowledge questionnaire...
February 18, 2018: Ethnicity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457138/leveraging-the-learning-health-care-model-to-improve-equity-in-the-age-of-genomic-medicine
#5
Katherine D Blizinsky, Vence L Bonham
To fully achieve the goals of a genomics-enabled learning health care system, purposeful efforts to understand and reduce health disparities and improve equity of care are essential. This paper highlights three major challenges facing genomics-enabled learning health care systems, as they pertain to ancestrally diverse populations: inequality in the utility of genomic medicine; lack of access to pharmacogenomics in clinical care; and inadequate incorporation of social and environmental data into the electronic health care record (EHR)...
January 2018: Learning Health Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456133/no-evidence-for-systematic-white-matter-correlates-of-dyslexia-an-activation-likelihood-estimation-meta-analysis
#6
David Moreau, Josephine E Stonyer, Nicole S McKay, Karen E Waldie
Dyslexia is a prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder, characterized by reading and spelling difficulties. Beyond the behavioral and functional correlates of this condition, a growing number of studies have explored structural differences between individuals with dyslexia and typically developing individuals. To date, findings remain disparate - some studies suggest differences in fractional anisotropy (FA), an indirect measure of white matter integrity, whereas others do not identify significant disparities...
March 15, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455921/clinical-and-epidemiological-characteristics-of-intestinal-parasite-infection-by-blastocystis-hominis
#7
C Ocaña-Losada, J A Cuenca-Gómez, M T Cabezas-Fernández, J Vázquez-Villegas, M J Soriano-Pérez, I Cabeza-Barrera, J Salas-Coronas
OBJECTIVES: Blastocystis hominis (B. hominis) is one of the most common intestinal parasites isolated in humans. The parasite can cause gastrointestinal symptoms or, in most cases, remain asymptomatic. There are issues concerning the parasite's pathogenic character. The aim of this study was to analyse the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of the parasite infection by B. hominis, with or without other parasitic co-infections. PATIENTS AND METHODS: An observational retrospective study was conducted of B...
February 15, 2018: Revista Clínica Española
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455723/addressing-a-critical-gap-in-u-s-national-teen-pregnancy-prevention-programs-the-acceptability-and-feasibility-of-father-based-sexual-and-reproductive-health-interventions-for-latino-adolescent-males
#8
Vincent Guilamo-Ramos, Alex S Bowman, Diane Santa Maria, Francesca Kabemba, Yoyce Geronimo
PURPOSE: The purpose of the research was to examine the feasibility and acceptability of a father-based sexual and reproductive health intervention designed to reduce sexual and reproductive (SRH) disparities and increase correct and consistent condom use among Latino adolescent males. METHODS: The current study conducted in-depth semi-structured interviews with Latino father-son dyads (N=30) designed to elicit perspectives on communication regarding sex and condom use...
March 2018: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455566/-he-supported-me-100-mexican-immigrant-fathers-daughters-and-adolescent-sexual-health
#9
Kate Coleman-Minahan, Goleen Samari
OBJECTIVE: First and second generation Mexican-origin adolescents in the U.S. face social and economic disadvantage and sexual health disparities. Although fathers can support child and adolescent development, the literature has portrayed Mexican-origin immigrant fathers as emotionally distant and sexist. This study aims to treat migration as a social determinant of health to examine father-daughter relationships and adolescent sexual health in Mexican-origin immigrant families. METHODS: Integrating qualitative data from life history interviews with 21 Mexican-origin young women in immigrant families with quantitative data on first and second generation Mexican-origin young women in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, this study describes father-daughter relationships, examines the association between father-daughter relationships and daughters' early sexual initiation, and considers the impact of migration on the father-daughter relationship and sexual health among Mexican-origin young women...
February 19, 2018: Ethnicity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455465/insulin-like-growth-factor-2-a-poor-prognostic-biomarker-linked-to-racial-disparity-in-women-with-uterine-carcinosarcoma
#10
Anne R Van Arsdale, Rebecca C Arend, Maria J Cossio, Britt K Erickson, Yanhua Wang, David W Doo, Charles A Leath, Gary L Goldberg, Gloria S Huang
The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship of insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) expression and survival in women with uterine carcinosarcoma (UCS). Insulin-like growth factor 2 protein expression was determined by immunohistochemical staining of tumor tissues from 103 patients with UCS. The H-score (product of staining intensity and percentage positive cells) was quantified for the epithelial cytoplasmic (EC), epithelial nuclear (EN), and malignant stromal compartments. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to examine the relationship of IGF2 levels with progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS)...
February 18, 2018: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455464/disparities-in-second-generation-dna-metabarcoding-results-exposed-with-accessible-and-repeatable-workflows
#11
Timothy J Divoll, Veronica A Brown, Jeff Kinne, Gary F McCracken, Joy M O'Keefe
Different second-generation sequencing technologies may have taxon-specific biases when DNA metabarcoding prey in predator feces. Our major objective was to examine differences in prey recovery from bat guano across two different sequencing workflows using the same fecal DNA extracts. We compared results between the Ion Torrent PGM and the Illumina MiSeq with similar library preparations and the same analysis pipeline. We focus on repeatability and provide an R Notebook in an effort toward transparency for future methodological improvements...
February 17, 2018: Molecular Ecology Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455440/computer-aided-solution-for-automatic-segmenting-and-measurements-of-blood-leucocytes-using-static-microscope-images
#12
Enas Abdulhay, Mazin Abed Mohammed, Dheyaa Ahmed Ibrahim, N Arunkumar, V Venkatraman
Blood leucocytes segmentation in medical images is viewed as difficult process due to the variability of blood cells concerning their shape and size and the difficulty towards determining location of Blood Leucocytes. Physical analysis of blood tests to recognize leukocytes is tedious, time-consuming and liable to error because of the various morphological components of the cells. Segmentation of medical imagery has been considered as a difficult task because of complexity of images, and also due to the non-availability of leucocytes models which entirely captures the probable shapes in each structures and also incorporate cell overlapping, the expansive variety of the blood cells concerning their shape and size, various elements influencing the outer appearance of the blood leucocytes, and low Static Microscope Image disparity from extra issues outcoming about because of noise...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Medical Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454851/declines-in-adult-blood-lead-levels-in-new-york-city-compared-with-the-united-states-2004-2014
#13
Alexis Feinberg, Wendy McKelvey, Paromita Hore, Rania Kanchi, Patrick J Parsons, Christopher D Palmer, Lorna E Thorpe
OBJECTIVES: To assess changes in lead exposure in the New York City (NYC) adult population over a 10-year period and to contrast changes with national estimates, overall, and by socio-demographics and smoking status. METHODS: We used measurements of blood lead levels (BLLs) from NYC resident adults who participated in the NYC Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (HANES) in 2004 and 2013-2014. We compared estimates of geometric means (GM), 95th percentiles, and prevalence of BLL ≥ 5 µg/dL overall and by subgroups over time, with adults who participated in the National HANES (NHANES) 2001-2004 and 2011-2014...
February 14, 2018: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454845/evaluation-of-a-new-multiplex-pcr-assay-paragenie-g-amoeba-real-time-pcr-kit-targeting-giardia-intestinalis-entamoeba-histolytica-and-entamoeba-dispar-entamoeba-moshkovskii-from-stool-specimens-evidence-for-the-limited-performances-of-microscopy-based-approach
#14
Florent Morio, Stéphane Valot, Adrien Laude, Guillaume Desoubeaux, Nicolas Argy, Céline Nourrisson, Christelle Pomares, Marie Machouart, Yohann Le Govic, Frédéric Dalle, Françoise Botterel, Nathalie Bourgeois, Estelle Cateau, Marion Leterrier, Fakhri Jeddi, Manuel Gaboyard, Patrice Le Pape
OBJECTIVES: Besides the potential to identify a wide variety of gastrointestinal parasites, microscopy remains the gold standard in clinical microbiology for amoeba species identification and especially, when coupled with adhesin detection, to discriminate the pathogenic E. histolytica from its sisters but non-pathogenic species E. dispar/E. moschovskii. However, this approach is time-consuming, requires a high-level of expertise that can be jeopardized considering the low prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in non-endemic countries...
February 15, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454591/the-effect-of-treatment-at-minority-serving-hospitals-on-outcomes-for-bladder-cancer
#15
Sean A Fletcher, Philipp Gild, Alexander P Cole, Malte W Vetterlein, Adam S Kibel, Toni K Choueiri, Guru P Sonpavde, Mark A Preston, Daniel Pucheril, Mani Menon, Maxine Sun, Stuart R Lipsitz, Quoc-Dien Trinh
OBJECTIVES: Healthcare for racial minorities is densely concentrated at a small subset of hospitals in the United States. Understanding long-term outcomes at these minority-serving hospitals is highly relevant to elucidating the sources of racial disparities in cancer care. We investigated the effect of treatment at a minority-serving hospital on overall survival and receipt of definitive treatment for bladder cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using the National Cancer Database, we identified all patients diagnosed with clinically localized, muscle-invasive bladder cancer between 2004 and 2012...
February 14, 2018: Urologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454554/geospatial-inequalities-and-determinants-of-nutritional-status-among-women-and-children-in-afghanistan-an-observational-study
#16
Nadia Akseer, Zaid Bhatti, Taufiq Mashal, Sajid Soofi, Rahim Moineddin, Robert E Black, Zulfiqar A Bhutta
BACKGROUND: Undernutrition is a pervasive condition in Afghanistan, and prevalence is among the highest in the world. We aimed to comprehensively assess district-level geographical disparities and determinants of nutritional status (stunting, wasting, or underweight) among women and children in Afghanistan. METHODS: The study used individualised data from the recent Afghanistan National Nutrition Survey 2013. Outcome variables were based on growth and weight anthropometry data, which we analysed linearly as Z scores and as dichotomous categories...
February 14, 2018: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454351/disparate-compensation-policies-for-research-related-injury-in-an-era-of-multinational-trials-a-case-study-of-brazil-russia-india-china-and-south-africa
#17
George Rugare Chingarande, Keymanthri Moodley
BACKGROUND: Compensation for research related injuries is a subject that is increasingly gaining traction in developing countries which are burgeoning destinations of multi center research. However, the existence of disparate compensation rules violates the ethical principle of fairness. The current paper presents a comparison of the policies of Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa (BRICS). METHODS: A systematic search of good clinical practice guidelines was conducted employing search strategies modeled in line with the recommendations of ADPTE Collaboration (2007)...
February 17, 2018: BMC Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453847/fiber-bundle-endomicroscopy-with-multi-illumination-for-three-dimensional-reflectance-image-reconstruction
#18
Yoriko Ando, Hirohito Sawahata, Takeshi Kawano, Kowa Koida, Rika Numano
Bundled fiber optics allow in vivo imaging at deep sites in a body. The intrinsic optical contrast detects detailed structures in blood vessels and organs. We developed a bundled-fiber-coupled endomicroscope, enabling stereoscopic three-dimensional (3-D) reflectance imaging with a multipositional illumination scheme. Two illumination sites were attached to obtain reflectance images with left and right illumination. Depth was estimated by the horizontal disparity between the two images under alternative illuminations and was calibrated by the targets with known depths...
February 2018: Journal of Biomedical Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453768/mental-rotation-in-false-belief-understanding
#19
Jiushu Xie, Him Cheung, Manqiong Shen, Ruiming Wang
This study examines the spontaneous use of embodied egocentric transformation (EET) in understanding false beliefs in the minds of others. EET involves the participants mentally transforming or rotating themselves into the orientation of an agent when trying to adopt his or her visuospatial perspective. We argue that psychological perspective taking such as false belief reasoning may also involve EET because of what has been widely reported in the embodied cognition literature, showing that our processing of abstract, propositional information is often grounded in concrete bodily sensations which are not apparently linked to higher cognition...
February 17, 2018: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453528/longitudinal-analysis-of-racial-ethnic-trends-in-quality-outcomes-in-community-health-centers-2009-2014
#20
Megan B Cole, Brad Wright, Ira B Wilson, Omar Galárraga, Amal N Trivedi
BACKGROUND: To monitor progress towards eliminating health disparities, community health centers have reported on hypertension control, diabetes control, and birthweight by race and ethnicity since 2008. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate racial/ethnic time trends in quality outcomes in health centers and to assess both within- and between-center disparities in outcomes. DESIGN AND SAMPLE: Using 2009-2014 data from all US health centers (n = 1047 centers, serving 19...
February 16, 2018: Journal of General Internal Medicine
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