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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719837/prescription-trends-and-the-selection-of-initial-oral-antidiabetic-agents-for-patients-with-newly-diagnosed-type-2-diabetes-a-nationwide-study
#1
C-H Liu, S-T Chen, C-H Chang, L-M Chuang, M-S Lai
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine the characteristics of patients, physicians, and medical facilities, and their association with prescriptions that do not include metformin as the initial oral antidiabetic agent. STUDY DESIGN: Observational, cross-sectional study. METHODS: Patients with incident type 2 diabetes between January 1, 2006, and December 31, 2010, were identified from the Taiwan National Insurance Research Database...
July 15, 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719658/optisampletm-open-web-based-application-to-optimize-sampling-strategies-for-active-surveillance-activities-at-the-herd-level-illustrated-using-porcine-respiratory-reproductive-syndrome-prrs
#2
Anna Alba, Robert E Morrison, Ann Cheeran, Albert Rovira, Julio Alvarez, Andres M Perez
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSv) infection causes a devastating economic impact to the swine industry. Active surveillance is routinely conducted in many swine herds to demonstrate freedom from PRRSv infection. The design of efficient active surveillance sampling schemes is challenging because optimum surveillance strategies may differ depending on infection status, herd structure, management, or resources for conducting sampling. Here, we present an open web-based application, named 'OptisampleTM', designed to optimize herd sampling strategies to substantiate freedom of infection considering also costs of testing...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719537/the-effect-of-slt-laser-application-on-iris-to-treat-sectorial-heterochromia-a-promising-technique
#3
Ayhan Basoglu, Uğur Çelik
The purpose of this study is to report a new and promising method for changing iris color in a sectorial heterochromia iridis patient. A 22-year-old man with a complaint of innate color disparity between his eyes presented to our clinic to seek medical advice. He underwent a comprehensive ophthalmic examination, including visual acuity, biomicroscopy, fundoscopy, intraocular pressure measurements, endothelial cell count, and evaluation of iridocorneal angle. The causes of acquired heterochromia were excluded...
July 14, 2017: Eye & Contact Lens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719524/establishing-obstetric-anesthesiology-practice-guidelines-in-the-republic-of-armenia-a-global-health-collaboration
#4
Gordon Yuill, Ashot Amroyan, Simon Millar, Emil Vardapetyan, Ashraf S Habib, Medge D Owen
BACKGROUND: Disparity exists in anesthesia practices between high- and low-to-middle income countries, and awareness has been raised within the global health community to improve the standards of anesthesia care and patient safety. The establishment of international collaborations and appropriate practice guidelines may help address clinical care deficiencies. This report's aim was to assess the impact of a multiyear collaboration on obstetric anesthesia practices in the Republic of Armenia...
August 2017: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719395/closing-the-gap-in-cochlear-implant-access-for-african-americans-a-story-of-outreach-and-collaboration-by-our-cochlear-implant-program
#5
Sheree Sims, Lisa Houston, Ivy Schweinzger, Ravi N Samy
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Minorities often lag behind in hearing loss evaluation and treatment. Our cochlear implant program aimed to identify the socioeconomic and cultural barriers that prevented our African-American cochlear implant candidates from seeking help for their hearing loss, specifically cochlear implant surgery. RECENT FINDINGS: Our pilot study surveyed 11 African-Americans with cochlear implants and identified obstacles that included patient-physician mistrust, social stigma, financial cost, and lack of education about the devices and procedures...
July 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Otolaryngology & Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719326/malaria-related-hospitalizations-in-the-united-states-2000-2014
#6
Diana Khuu, Mark L Eberhard, Benjamin N Bristow, Marjan Javanbakht, Lawrence R Ash, Shira C Shafir, Frank J Sorvillo
Few data are available on the burden of malaria hospitalization in the United States. Study of malaria using hospital-based data can better define the impact of malaria and help inform prevention efforts. U.S. malaria cases identified from hospitalization discharge records in the 2000-2014 Nationwide Inpatient Sample were examined. Frequencies and population rates were reported by demographics, infecting species, clinical, financial, institutional, geographic, and seasonal characteristics, and disparities were identified...
July 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719246/disparities-in-exposure-to-intimate-partner-violence-among-transgender-gender-nonconforming-and-sexual-minority-primary-care-patients
#7
Sarah E Valentine, Sarah M Peitzmeier, Dana S King, Conall O'Cleirigh, Samantha M Marquez, Cara Presley, Jennifer Potter
PURPOSE: We investigated the odds of intimate partner violence (IPV) among primary care patients across subgroups of transgender and gender nonconforming (TGNC) individuals relative to cisgender women, and cisgender sexual minority men and women relative to cisgender heterosexual men and women. METHODS: Participants completed an IPV screener as part of routine primary care visits at an urban community health center (N = 7572). Electronic medical record data were pooled for all patients who received the IPV screener January 1 to December 31, 2014...
July 18, 2017: LGBT Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719064/the-association-between-dental-general-and-mental-health-status-among-underserved-and-vulnerable-populations-served-at-health-centers-in-the-us
#8
Vy H Nguyen, Sue C Lin, David P Cappelli, Suma Nair
OBJECTIVES: Vulnerable populations in underserved communities are disproportionately at high risk for multiple medical, dental, and behavioral health conditions. This study aims to: a) examine the occurrence of acute dental needs and b) investigate the association of acute dental needs and self-rated general and mental health status among the adult dentate health center population. METHODS: This cross-sectional study analyzed data on adult patients (n = 5,035) from the 2014 Health Center Patient Survey, a nationally representative survey of health center patients...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Public Health Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718747/the-role-of-temporal-disparity-on-audiovisual-integration-in-low-vision-individuals
#9
Stefano Targher, Rocco Micciolo, Valeria Occelli, Massimiliano Zampini
Recent findings have shown that sounds improve visual detection in low vision individuals when the audiovisual stimuli pairs of stimuli are presented simultaneously and from the same spatial position. The present study purports to investigate the temporal aspects of the audiovisual enhancement effect previously reported. Low vision participants were asked to detect the presence of a visual stimulus (yes/no task) presented either alone or together with an auditory stimulus at different stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs)...
January 1, 2017: Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718431/racial-differences-in-cancer-susceptibility-and-survival-more-than-the-color-of-the-skin
#10
REVIEW
Berna C Özdemir, Gian-Paolo Dotto
Epidemiological studies point to race as a determining factor in cancer susceptibility. In US registries recording cancer incidence and survival by race (distinguishing 'black versus white'), individuals of African ancestry have a globally increased risk of malignancies compared with Caucasians and Asian Americans. Differences in socioeconomic status and health-care access play a key role. However, the lesser disease susceptibility of Hispanic populations with comparable lifestyles and socioeconomic status as African Americans (Hispanic paradox) points to the concomitant importance of genetic determinants...
March 2017: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717809/racial-differences-in-misclassification-of-healthy-eating-based-on-food-frequency-questionnaire-and-24-hour-dietary-recalls
#11
B Olendzki, E Procter-Gray, M F Magee, G Youssef, K Kane, L Churchill, J Ockene, W Li
OBJECTIVES: To examine the agreement in nutrient intake and alternate healthy eating indices (AHEI) between a self-administered Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and 24-hour recall (24HR) measurements of diet by race, among urban older women. DESIGN: Cross-sectional observational study. SETTING: Urban neighborhoods in Washington, DC, USA. PARTICIPANTS: Community-dwelling White and Black women aged 65 and older. MEASUREMENTS: In 2014 and 2015, 49 White and 44 Black older women were queried on diet using both FFQ and 24-hour recalls...
2017: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717769/end-of-life-care-in-latin-america
#12
REVIEW
Enrique Soto-Perez-de-Celis, Yanin Chavarri-Guerra, Tania Pastrana, Rossana Ruiz-Mendoza, Alexandra Bukowski, Paul E Goss
Cancer has become a global pandemic with disproportionately higher mortality rates in low- and middle- income countries, where a large fraction of patients present in advanced stages and in need of end-of-life care. Globally, the number of adults needing end-of-life care is greater than 19 million, and up to 78% of these patients are living in low- and middle- income countries. In the Americas alone, more than one million people are in need of end-of-life care, placing an enormous burden on local health systems, which are often unprepared to meet the challenge presented by this complex patient population...
June 2017: Journal of Global Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717753/surgery-for-cns-tumors-in-the-brazilian-national-health-care-system
#13
Luciola Pontes, Maryam Nemati Shafaee, Benjamin Haaland, Gilberto Lopes
PURPOSE: Resource limitations in low- and middle-income countries make the management of CNS tumors challenging, particularly in Brazil, a country with major disparities in socioeconomic status and access to health care. We aimed to evaluate cancer-related neurosurgical procedures in the public health care system. METHODS: On the basis of Brazil's public health system database, we collected data for neurosurgical procedures related to CNS tumors performed between January 2008 and November 2013...
April 2017: Journal of Global Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717740/curative-intent-surgery-for-pancreatic-tumors-a-review-of-procedures-from-the-brazilian-national-health-system
#14
Lucas V Dos Santos, Marco Antonio O Lessa, João Paulo S N Lima, Benjamin Haaland, Gilberto L Lopes
PURPOSE: In Brazil, a country with major health access disparities, resource limitations make management of pancreatic cancer (PC) challenging. This study evaluated curative-intent surgery for PC in the Brazilian public health care system. METHODS: We collected data for PC surgical procedures with curative intent in Brazil's public health care system (DATASUS) and from the demographic database. Costs, lengths of stay, number of perioperative deaths, and PC deaths were analyzed for each state and then associated with population, gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, and number of procedures...
February 2017: Journal of Global Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717727/childhood-cancer-mortality-in-india-direct-estimates-from-a-nationally-representative-survey-of-childhood-deaths
#15
Sumit Gupta, Shaun K Morris, Wilson Suraweera, Lukasz Aleksandrowicz, Rajesh Dikshit, Prabhat Jha
PURPOSE: Although most children with cancer live in low- and middle-income countries, measurements of childhood cancer burden in such countries have been restricted to incidence rates from a few subnational cancer registries and mortality rates from vital statistics. We aimed to provide alternative burden estimates by using nationally representative longitudinal survey-derived mortality rates. METHODS: We examined cancer deaths in childhood (1 month to 14 years of age) in the Million Death Study, a cohort of > 27,000 pediatric deaths in India on the basis of enhanced verbal autopsies...
December 2016: Journal of Global Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717716/breast-cancer-and-african-ancestry-lessons-learned-at-the-10-year-anniversary-of-the-ghana-michigan-research-partnership-and-international-breast-registry
#16
Evelyn Jiagge, Joseph Kwaku Oppong, Jessica Bensenhaver, Francis Aitpillah, Kofi Gyan, Ishmael Kyei, Ernest Osei-Bonsu, Ernest Adjei, Michael Ohene-Yeboah, Kathy Toy, Karen Eubanks Jackson, Marian Akpaloo, Dorcas Acheampong, Beatrice Antwi, Faustina Obeng Agyeman, Zainab Alhassan, Linda Ahenkorah Fondjo, Osei Owusu-Afriyie, Robert Newman Brewer, Amma Gyamfuah, Barbara Salem, Timothy Johnson, Max Wicha, Sofia Merajver, Celina Kleer, Judy Pang, Emmanuel Amankwaa-Frempong, Azadeh Stark, Francis Abantanga, Lisa Newman, Baffour Awuah
Women with African ancestry in western, sub-Saharan Africa and in the United States represent a population subset facing an increased risk of being diagnosed with biologically aggressive phenotypes of breast cancer that are negative for the estrogen receptor, the progesterone receptor, and the HER2/neu marker. These tumors are commonly referred to as triple-negative breast cancer. Disparities in breast cancer incidence and outcome related to racial or ethnic identity motivated the establishment of the International Breast Registry, on the basis of partnerships between the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital in Kumasi, Ghana, the University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center in Ann Arbor, Michigan, and the Henry Ford Health System in Detroit, Michigan...
October 2016: Journal of Global Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717706/cancer-pain-management-insights-and-reality-in-southeast-asia-expert-perspectives-from-six-countries
#17
Francis O Javier, Cosphiadi Irawan, Marzida Binti Mansor, Wimonrat Sriraj, Kian Hian Tan, Dang Huy Quoc Thinh
This expert opinion report examines the current realities of the cancer pain management landscape and the various factors that hinder optimal pain control in six countries in Southeast Asia, describes ongoing efforts to advance patient care, and discusses approaches for improving cancer pain management. Information was gathered from leading experts in the field of cancer pain management in each country through an initial meeting and subsequent e-mail discussions. Overall, there are vast disparities in cancer pain management practices and access to opioids in the Southeast Asian countries...
August 2016: Journal of Global Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717673/sex-and-race-ethnic-disparities-in-food-security-and-chronic-diseases-in-u-s-older-adults
#18
Joan A Vaccaro, Fatma G Huffman
Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships among sex, race/ethnicity, and food security with the likelihood of cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and lung disease for older adults. Method: Complex sample analysis by logistic regression models for chronic diseases were conducted from National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 2011 to 2012 and 2013 to 2014, for N = 3,871 adults aged ≥55 years. Results: Being female with low food security was associated with lung disease and diabetes...
January 2017: Gerontology & Geriatric Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717258/children-s-perceptions-of-social-resource-inequality
#19
Laura Elenbaas, Melanie Killen
Children's perceptions of social resource inequalities were investigated by measuring spontaneous explanations for race-based disparities in access to societal resources. Fifth graders (N = 139, M = 11.14 years, SD = .61 years) viewed animated vignettes depicting hypothetical resource inequalities between institutions serving children of African-American and European-American background. Children frequently explained disparities in terms of institutions' differing financial resources, revealing awareness that economic inequalities often underlie groups' differential access to societal resources...
January 2017: Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717190/interocular-contrast-difference-drives-illusory-3d-percept
#20
Alexandre Reynaud, Robert F Hess
Any processing delay between the two eyes can result in illusory 3D percepts for moving objects because of either changes in the pure disparities over time for disparity sensors or by changes to sensors that encode motion/disparity conjointly. This is demonstrated by viewing a fronto-parallel pendulum through a neutral density (ND) filter placed over one eye, resulting in the illusory 3D percept of the pendulum following an elliptical orbit in depth, the so-called Pulfrich phenomenon. Here we use a paradigm where a cylinder rotating in depth, defined by moving Gabor patches is presented at different interocular phases, generating strong to ambiguous depth percepts...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
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