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Neuro-immunology response

Raymond Y Huang, Patrick Y Wen
The Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology (RANO) Working Group is an international multidisciplinary group whose goal is to improve response criteria and define endpoints for neuro-oncology trials. The RANO criteria for high-grade gliomas attempt to address the issues of pseudoprogression, pseudoresponse, and nonenhancing tumor progression. Incorporation of advanced MR imaging may eventually help improve the ability of these criteria to define enhancing and nonenhancing disease better. The RANO group has also developed criteria for neurologic response and evaluation of patients receiving immunologic therapies...
November 2016: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America
Xiao Liu, Haihong Qin, Jinhua Xu
Autophagy is a highly conserved catabolic process, whereby unwanted cytoplasmic contents are enclosed by the double-membrane autophagosomes and delivered to the lysosomes for degradation. It is responsible for the recycling of nutrients and cellular components, thus playing a pivotal role in maintaining cellular homeostasis as well as cell survival during stress conditions. Perturbations in autophagy are implicated in multiple diseases, such as cancers and neuro-degeneration diseases. Recent studies demonstrate that autophagy may participate in almost every step of immune responses, including pathogen recognition, antigen processing and presentation, immune cell development and function, and immunoregulation...
September 24, 2016: International Immunopharmacology
K A Ahmed, Y A Abuodeh, M I Echevarria, J A Arrington, D G Stallworth, C Hogue, A O Naghavi, S Kim, Y Kim, B G Patel, S Sarangkasiri, P A S Johnstone, S Sahebjam, N I Khushalani, P A Forsyth, L B Harrison, M Yu, A B Etame, J J Caudell
BACKGROUND: The effect of immunologic and targeted agents on intracranial response rates in patients with melanoma brain metastases (MBMs) is not yet clearly understood. This report analyzes outcomes of intact MBMs treated with single-session stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and anti-PD-1 therapy, anti-CTLA-4 therapy, BRAF/MEK inhibitors(i), BRAFi, or conventional chemotherapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients were included if MBMs were treated with single-session SRS within 3 months of receiving systemic therapy...
September 15, 2016: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
Magdalena Muc, Anabela Mota-Pinto, Cristina Padez
Obesity is a risk factor for asthma, and obese asthmatics have lower disease control and increased symptom severity. Several putative links have been proposed, including genetics, mechanical restriction of the chest and the intake of corticosteroids. The most consistent evidence, however, comes from studies of cytokines produced by the adipose tissue called adipokines. Adipokine imbalance is associated with both proinflammatory status and asthma. Although reverse causation has been proposed, it is now acknowledged that obesity precedes asthma symptoms...
August 12, 2016: Nutrition Research Reviews
Katarzyna Nazimek, Spencer Strobel, Paweł Bryniarski, Michael Kozlowski, Iwona Filipczak-Bryniarska, Krzysztof Bryniarski
Depression is a common disease influencing patients' quality of life, whose etiology involves complex interactions of environmental, genetic and immunological factors. The latter factors include proinflammatory activation of monocytes and macrophages and increased serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines, altogether formulated as the "macrophage theory of depression". Our current review summarizes the impact of the most commonly used antidepressant drugs on the immune response with special emphasis on the role of macrophages in the clinically observed effects...
July 14, 2016: Immunobiology
Betül Battaloğlu Inanç
Skin is the biggest and most important organ of us. It has a large surface area and it is easily accessible. While we touch skin, piezoelectric stimulation starts, fundamental property of biological tissues, pressure electrification. And after this stimulation, ferroelectric and pyroelectric effects occur. While we insert the acupuncture needle into skin, we have created a conscious trauma and damage. After this, inflammatory phase, proliferation and tissue formation phase and tissue remodeling phase start...
2016: Acupuncture & Electro-therapeutics Research
Jonathan Henry W Jacobsen, Lindsay M Parker, Arun V Everest-Dass, Erik P Schartner, Georgios Tsiminis, Vasiliki Staikopoulos, Mark R Hutchinson, Sanam Mustafa
The importance of neuro-immune interactions in both physiological and pathophysiological states cannot be overstated. As our appreciation for the neuroimmune nature of the brain and spinal cord grows, so does our need to extend the spatial and temporal resolution of our molecular analysis techniques. Current imaging technologies applied to investigate the actions of the neuroimmune system in both health and disease states have been adapted from the fields of immunology and neuroscience. While these classical techniques have provided immense insight into the function of the CNS, they are however, inherently limited...
April 26, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Dagmara Otto-Ślusarczyk, Wojciech Graboń, Magdalena Mielczarek-Puta
Aspartate aminotransferase is an organ-nonspecific enzyme located in many tissues of the human body where it catalyzes reversible reaction of transamination. There are two aspartate aminotransferase isoforms--cytoplasmic (AST1) and mitochondrial (AST2), that usually occur together and interact with each other metabolically. Both isoforms are homodimers containing highly conservative regions responsible for catalytic properties of enzyme. The common feature of all aspartate aminotransfeses is Lys - 259 residue covalent binding with prosthetic group - pyridoxal phosphate...
2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
Barbara Di Marco, Carmela M Bonaccorso, Elisabetta Aloisi, Simona D'Antoni, Maria V Catania
Intellectual disability (ID) and autism are present in several neurodevelopmental disorders and are often associated in genetic syndromes, such as Fragile X and Rett syndromes. While most evidence indicates that a genetic component plays an important role in the aetiology of both autism and ID, a number of studies suggest that immunological dysfunctions may participate in the pathophysiology of these disorders. Brain-specific autoantibodies have been detected in the sera of many autistic children and autoimmune disorders are increased in families of children with autism...
2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Aurora Pederzoli, Lucrezia Mola
During the life cycle of fish the larval stages are the most interesting and variable. Teleost larvae undergo a daily increase in adaptability and many organs differentiate and become active. These processes are concerted and require an early neuro-immune-endocrine integration. In larvae communication among the nervous, endocrine and immune systems utilizes several known signal molecule families which could be different from those of the adult fish. The immune-neuroendocrine system was studied in several fish species, among which in particular the sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), that is a species of great commercial interest, very important in aquaculture and thus highly studied...
March 8, 2016: Acta Histochemica
Koen F M Joosten, Dorian Kerklaan, Sascha C A T Verbruggen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Nutrition impacts outcome in critically ill children. Based on evolving neuro-endocrine, immunologic and metabolic alterations, three different phases can be proposed during the course of illness. The different phases each demand for tailored macronutrient intakes in critically ill children. RECENT FINDINGS: Early enteral nutrition is associated with decreased morbidity and mortality, but several misconceptions concerning the provision of enteral nutrition prevent adequate intake...
May 2016: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
Tadhg Crowley, John F Cryan, Eric J Downer, Olivia F O'Leary
The central nervous system, once thought to be a site of immunological privilege, has since been found to harbour immunocompetent cells and to communicate with the peripheral nervous system. In the central nervous system (CNS), glial cells display immunological responses to pathological and physiological stimuli through pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine signalling, antigen presentation and the clearing of cellular debris through phagocytosis. While this neuroinflammatory signalling can act to reduce neuronal damage and comprises a key facet of CNS homeostasis, persistent inflammation or auto-antigen-mediated immunoreactivity can induce a positive feedback cycle of neuroinflammation that ultimately results in necrosis of glia and neurons...
May 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
M Nue Møller, S Kirkeby, J Vikeså, F Cilius Nielsen, P Caye-Thomasen
The human endolymphatic sac (ES) is situated in a duplicature of the dura in the posterior cranial fossa and constitutes a part of the inner ear. The sac possesses immunological capacities and is responsible for a major part of the trans-epithelial ion transport occurring within the inner ear, via molecular mechanisms similar to that of the kidney collecting duct epithelia. Dysfunction of the trans-epithelial ion transport has been hypothesized as the reason for the endolymphatic hydrops occurring in Menieres diseases...
July 2016: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
Sachin P Gadani, James T Walsh, John R Lukens, Jonathan Kipnis
Fighting pathogens and maintaining tissue homeostasis are prerequisites for survival. Both of these functions are upheld by the immune system, though the latter is often overlooked in the context of the CNS. The mere presence of immune cells in the CNS was long considered a hallmark of pathology, but this view has been recently challenged by studies demonstrating that immunological signaling can confer pivotal neuroprotective effects on the injured CNS. In this review, we describe the temporal sequence of immunological events that follow CNS injury...
July 1, 2015: Neuron
Paul Forsythe
There is increasing awareness of a relationship between our microbiota and the pathogenesis of allergy and other inflammatory diseases. In investigating the mechanisms underlying microbiota modulation of allergy the focus has been on the induction phase; alterations in the phenotype and function of antigen presenting cells, induction of regulatory T cells and shifts in Th1/Th2 balance. However there is evidence that microbes can influence the effector phase of disease, specifically that certain potentially beneficial bacteria can attenuate mast cell activation and degranulation...
May 5, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
George B Stefano, Richard M Kream
In mammals and invertebrates, the activities of neuro- and immuno-competent cells, e.g., glia, which are present in nervous tissues, are deemed of critical importance to normative neuronal function. The responsiveness of invertebrate and vertebrate immuno-competent glia to a common set of signal molecules, such as nitric oxide and endogenous morphine, is functionally linked to physiologically driven innate immunological and neuronal activities. Importantly, the presence of a common, evolutionarily conserved, set of signal molecules in comparative animal groups strongly suggests an expansive intermediate metabolic profile dependent on high output mitochondrial ATP production and utilization...
2015: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Zahida Taibi-Djennah, Fatima Laraba-Djebari
Androctonus australis hector (Aah) venom and its neurotoxins may affect the neuro-endocrine immunological axis due to their binding to ionic channels of axonal membranes. This binding leads to the release of neurotransmitters and immunological mediators accompanied by pathophysiological effects. Although the hyperglycemia induced by scorpion venom is clearly established, the involved mediators in these deregulations are unknown. The strong relationship between inflammation and the wide variety of physiological processes can suggest that the activation of the inflammatory response and the massive release of IL-6 and TNF-α release induced by the venom may induce hyperglycemia and various biological disorders...
July 2015: International Immunopharmacology
Caroline M O Volpe, Jose A Nogueira-Machado
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) or Lou Gehrig's disease is an axonopathy with adultonset, progressive and irreversible degeneration of upper and lower motor neurons. Around 90% of ALS is considered as sporadic ALS (sALS) without apparent genetic cause while in the familial type of ALS (fALS) at least one affected blood relative needs to be identified. Both sALS and fALS show similar progression and pathological profile. Biochemical and immunological roles have been reported for both types of ALS. It has been suggested that mutation in SOD1 gene would be responsible for the oxidative stress and neurotoxicity...
2015: Recent Patents on Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Drug Discovery
R Anand, J Shankar, B N Tiwary, A P Singh
Aspergillus flavus is one of the leading Aspergillus spp. resulting in invasive aspergillosis of central nervous system (CNS) in human beings. Immunological status in aspergillosis of central nervous system remains elusive in case of both immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients. Since cytokines are the major mediators of host response, evaluation of disease pathology along with cytokine profile in brain may provide snapshots of neuro-immunological response. An intravenous model of A. flavus infection was utilized to determine the pathogenicity of infection and cytokine profile in the brain of male BALB/c mice...
April 2015: Cytokine
Michaeline L Hebron, Irina Lonskaya, Paul Olopade, Sandra T Selby, Fernando Pagan, Charbel E-H Moussa
OBJECTIVES: Neuro-inflammation is common in α-Synucleinopathies and Tauopathies; and evidence suggests a link between the tyrosine kinase Abl and neurodegeneration. Abl upregulates α-Synuclein and promotes Tau hyper-phosphorylation (p-Tau), while Abl inhibitors facilitate autophagic clearance. METHODS: A model of α-Synucleinopathy harboring human mutant A53T α-Synuclein and exhibits concomitant increase in murine p-Tau was used to determine the immunological response to Abl inhibition...
September 30, 2014: Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology
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