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Guido Sebastiani, Giuseppina Emanuela Grieco, Noemi Brusco, Giuliana Ventriglia, Caterina Formichi, Lorella Marselli, Piero Marchetti, Francesco Dotta
β-cell dedifferentiation has been recently suggested as an additional mechanism contributing to type-1 and to type-2 diabetes pathogenesis. Moreover, several studies demonstrated that in vitro culture of native human pancreatic islets derived from non-diabetic donors resulted in the generation of an undifferentiated cell population. Additional evidence from in vitro human β-cell lineage tracing experiments, demonstrated that dedifferentiated cells derive from β-cells, thus representing a potential in vitro model of β-cell dedifferentiation...
April 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Mouloud Bouyoucef, Rodolphe Rakic, Tangni Gómez-Leduc, Thomas Latire, Frédéric Marin, Sylvain Leclercq, Franck Carreiras, Antoine Serpentini, Jean-Marc Lebel, Philippe Galéra, Florence Legendre
The shells of the bivalve mollusks are organo-mineral structures predominantly composed of calcium carbonate, but also of a minor organic matrix, a mixture of proteins, glycoproteins, and polysaccharides. These proteins are involved in mineral deposition and, more generally, in the spatial organization of the shell crystallites in well-defined microstructures. In this work, we extracted different organic shell extracts (acid-soluble matrix, acid-insoluble matrix, water-soluble matrix, guanidine HCl/EDTA-extracted matrix, referred as ASM, AIM, WSM, and EDTAM, respectively) from the shell of the scallop Pecten maximus and studied their biological activities on human articular chondrocytes (HACs)...
April 7, 2018: Marine Biotechnology
Qing-Bo Lu, Hui-Ping Wang, Zi-Han Tang, Han Cheng, Qiong Du, Yuan-Ben Wang, Wu-Bing Feng, Ke-Xue Li, Wei-Wei Cai, Li-Ying Qiu, Hai-Jian Sun
The phenotypic transformation from differentiated to dedifferentiated vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) plays a crucial role in VSMC proliferation and vascular remodeling in many cardiovascular diseases including hypertension. Nesfatin-1, a multifunctional adipocytokine, is critically involved in the regulation of blood pressure. However, it is still largely unexplored whether nesfatin-1 is a potential candidate in VSMC phenotypic switch and proliferation in hypertension. Experiments were carried out in Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY), spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), human VSMCs and primary rat aortic VSMCs...
April 5, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Tathiane M Malta, Artem Sokolov, Andrew J Gentles, Tomasz Burzykowski, Laila Poisson, John N Weinstein, Bożena Kamińska, Joerg Huelsken, Larsson Omberg, Olivier Gevaert, Antonio Colaprico, Patrycja Czerwińska, Sylwia Mazurek, Lopa Mishra, Holger Heyn, Alex Krasnitz, Andrew K Godwin, Alexander J Lazar, Joshua M Stuart, Katherine A Hoadley, Peter W Laird, Houtan Noushmehr, Maciej Wiznerowicz
Cancer progression involves the gradual loss of a differentiated phenotype and acquisition of progenitor and stem-cell-like features. Here, we provide novel stemness indices for assessing the degree of oncogenic dedifferentiation. We used an innovative one-class logistic regression (OCLR) machine-learning algorithm to extract transcriptomic and epigenetic feature sets derived from non-transformed pluripotent stem cells and their differentiated progeny. Using OCLR, we were able to identify previously undiscovered biological mechanisms associated with the dedifferentiated oncogenic state...
April 5, 2018: Cell
M Samiec, M Skrzyszowska
The efficiency of somatic cell cloning in mammals remains disappointingly low. Incomplete and aberrant reprogramming of epigenetic memory of somatic cell nuclei in preimplantation nuclear- transferred (NT) embryos is one of the most important factors that limit the cloning effectiveness. The extent of epigenetic genome-wide alterations, involving histone or DNA methylation and histone deacetylation, that are mediated by histone-lysine methyltransferases (HMTs) or DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs) can be modulated/reversed via exogenous inhibitors of these enzymes throughout in vitro culture of nuclear donor cells, nuclear recipient oocytes and/or cloned embryos...
March 2018: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
David Lawrence, Kevan Salimian, Thorsten Leucker, Seth Martin
We describe the case of a 67-year-old man presenting with ventricular tachycardia (VT) and systolic heart failure secondary to a left adrenal phaeochromocytoma. After treatment with amiodarone, the patient's VT resolved. However, his course was complicated by femoral deep venous thrombosis secondary to an incidentally discovered dedifferentiated liposarcoma of the thigh, for which he was prescribed a course of enoxaparin. The patient was discharged with plans for adrenalectomy following achievement of sufficient preoperative heart rate and blood pressure control with alpha-adrenergic receptor blockade, but re-presented to an outside facility in haemorrhagic shock, where he ultimately expired...
April 5, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Ya-Xian Ning, Xiao-Yuan Wang, Jian-Qin Wang, Rong Zeng, Gou-Qin Wang
Renal fibrosis is a common pathological feature of chronic kidney diseases, and their development and progression are influenced by epigenetic modifications including aberrant microRNA (miRNA or miR) expression. miRNAs have been demonstrated to modulate the aggressiveness of various cancers and have emerged as possible therapeutic agents for the management of renal fibrosis. Transforming growth factor β1 (TGF‑β1)‑induced epithelial‑mesenchymal transition (EMT) of tubular epithelial cells serves a role in the initiation and progression of renal fibrosis...
April 3, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Lohrasb R Sayadi, Zaidal Obagi, Derek A Banyard, Mary E Ziegler, Jordyne Prussak, Luke Tomlinson, Gregory R D Evans, Alan D Widgerow
In developed countries, over 100 million people per year form scars, of which 30% become hypertrophic. These scars are defined histologically by the presence of persistently contractile myofibroblasts. Recent in vitro research suggests that certain bone morphogenic proteins (BMP) can induce scar myofibroblast dedifferentiation and reprogramming into adipocytes. Since platelets contain BMPs within their granules, it is possible that platelet-rich plasma (PRP) can act as a vehicle to deliver BMP to sites of scarring or potential scarring...
March 30, 2018: Aesthetic Surgery Journal
Hannah C Beird, Chia-Chin Wu, Davis R Ingram, Wei-Lien Wang, Asrar Alimohamed, Curtis Gumbs, Latasha Little, Xingzhi Song, Barry W Feig, Christina L Roland, Jianhua Zhang, Robert S Benjamin, Patrick Hwu, Alexander J Lazar, P Andrew Futreal, Neeta Somaiah
Well-differentiated (WD) liposarcoma is a low-grade mesenchymal tumor with features of mature adipocytes and high propensity for local recurrence. Often, WD patients present with or later progress to a higher-grade nonlipogenic form known as dedifferentiated (DD) liposarcoma. These DD tumors behave more aggressively and can metastasize. Both WD and DD liposarcomas harbor neochromosomes formed from amplifications and rearrangements of Chr 12q that encode oncogenes ( MDM2 , CDK4 , and YEATS2) and adipocytic differentiation factors ( HMGA2 and CPM) However, genomic changes associated with progression from WD to DD have not been well-defined...
April 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Molecular Case Studies
Ji-Ru Zhang, Qing-Bo Lu, Wu-Bing Feng, Hui-Ping Wang, Zi-Han Tang, Han Cheng, Qiong Du, Yuan-Ben Wang, Ke-Xue Li, Hai-Jian Sun
The dedifferentiation, proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) are essential in the progression of hypertension, atherosclerosis and intimal hyperplasia. Nesfatin-1 is a potential modulator in cardiovascular functions. However, the role of nesfatin-1 in VSMC biology has not been explored. The present study was designed to determine the regulatory role of nesfatin-1 in VSMC proliferation, migration and intimal hyperplasia after vascular injury. Herein, we demonstrated that nesfatin-1 promoted VSMC phenotype switch from a contractile to a synthetic state, stimulated VSMC proliferation and migration in vitro...
March 28, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Yoshito Kimura, Akihisa Fukuda, Satoshi Ogawa, Takahisa Maruno, Yutaka Takada, Motoyuki Tsuda, Yukiko Hiramatsu, Osamu Araki, Munemasa Nagao, Takaaki Yoshikawa, Kozo Ikuta, Takuto Yoshioka, Zong Wang, Haruhiko Akiyama, Christopher V Wright, Kyoichi Takaori, Shinji Uemoto, Tsutomu Chiba, Hiroshi Seno
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The AT-rich interaction domain 1A gene (ARID1A) encodes a protein that is part of the large ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complex SWI/SNF and is frequently mutated in human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDACs). We investigated the functions of ARID1A during formation of PDACs in mice. METHODS: We performed studies with Ptf1a-Cre; KrasG12D mice, which express activated Kras in the pancreas and develop pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasias (PanINs), as well as those with disruption of Aird1a (Ptf1a-Cre; KrasG12D ; Arid1af/f mice) or disruption of Brg1 (encodes a catalytic ATPase of the SWI/SNF complex) (Ptf1a-Cre; KrasG12D ; Brg1f/f mice)...
March 28, 2018: Gastroenterology
Vittoria Guarda, Anja Pickhard, Melanie Boxberg, Katja Specht, Anna Maria Stefanie Buchberger
Background: Liposarcomas of the thyroid gland are extremely rare tumors, and, to our knowledge, only 12 cases have been reported in the English literature. An accurate diagnosis is challenging due to the nonspecific clinical presentation of this cancer, frequently defined just by a swelling of the neck. Patient Findings: We present an 82-year-old woman with liposarcoma of the thyroid, complaining of a fast-growing neck mass. MRI and neck ultrasound showed a large lipomatous mass, which corresponded to a cold nodule in the thyroid scan...
March 2018: European Thyroid Journal
Dorota Buczylowska, Franz Petermann
The current study was aimed at investigating across-tasks intraindividual variability, also termed dispersion, in EF performance. The German adaptation of the Neuropsychological Assessment Battery (NAB) was used as a measure of EFs. Data of 444 participants aged 18-99 from six NAB Executive Functions Module subtests (i.e., Planning, Mazes, Letter Fluency, Judgment, Categories, and Word Generation) along with the NAB Total Index score as a measure of overall cognitive ability were analyzed. Maximum discrepancy (MD) was applied as a measure of dispersion...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Amna Asif, Sajid Mushtaq, Usman Hassan, Noreen Akhtar, Mudassar Hussain, Muhammad Azam, Romena Qazi
Introduction:Soft tissue sarcomas are rare tumors comprising 1 percent of solid malignancies. The latest edition of WHO soft tissue pathology lists 94 benign and malignant soft tissue tumors. Many of these show a large degree of morphological overlap. Immunohistochemistry has been shown to be reliable in many cases for differential diagnosis of lesions, although cytogenetic tests are considered the gold standard for many entities.Fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) is a cytogenetic technique that uses fluorescent probes that bind to only those parts of the chromosome which have a high degree of sequence complementarity...
March 27, 2018: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
Lili Zhao, Ying Yuan, Ping Li, Jiacheng Pan, Jing Qin, Yisheng Liu, Yu Zhang, Feng Tian, Bin Yu, Songlin Zhou
Following peripheral nerve injury, Schwann cells (SCs) undergo dedifferentiation, proliferation, migration, and remyelination. Recent works demonstrated the importance of the short non-coding RNA (miRNAs) in SCs dedifferentiation and remyelination after nerve injury. Previously, we found some miRNAs like miR-9, miR-221, miR-222 and miR-182 could regulate the proliferation and migration of SCs. Therefore, it is imperative to ask whether these miRNAs could regulate the myelination of SCs. Here we demonstrated that miR-221-3p could inhibit the myelination of Schwann Cells when co-cultured with dorsal root ganglion cells in vitro...
March 22, 2018: Neuroscience
Justin Parreno, Vanessa J Bianchi, Corey Sermer, Suresh C Regmi, David Backstein, Tannin A Schmidt, Rita A, Kandel
Generating the best possible bioengineered cartilage from passaged chondrocytes requires culture condition optimization. In this study the use of adherent agarose mold (adAM) cultures to support redifferentiation of passaged twice (P2) chondrocytes and serve as a scalable platform to assess the effect of growth factor combinations on proteoglycan accumulation by cells was examined. By 2 days in adAM culture, bovine P2 cells were partially redifferentiated as demonstrated by regression of actin-based dedifferentiation signalling and fibroblast matrix and contractile gene expression...
March 25, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
Manabu Shimizu, Taro Matsumoto, Shinsuke Kikuta, Munenori Ohtaki, Koichiro Kano, Hiroaki Taniguchi, Shu Saito, Masahiro Nagaoka, Yasuaki Tokuhashi
BACKGROUND: Mature adipocyte-derived dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells possesses the ability to proliferate effectively and the potential to differentiate into multiple linages of mesenchymal tissue; similar to adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs). The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of DFAT cell transplantation on cartilage repair in a rat model of osteochondral defects. METHODS: Full-thickness osteochondral defects were created in the knees of Sprague-Dawley rats bilaterally...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Science: Official Journal of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association
Sunlei Pan, Huahua Liu, Feidan Gao, Hangqi Luo, Hui Lin, Liping Meng, Chengjian Jiang, Yan Guo, Jufang Chi, Hangyuan Guo
Many studies support the cardioprotective effects of folic acid (FA). We aimed to evaluate the utility of FA supplementation in preventing the development of atherosclerotic in low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient (LDLR-/-) mice and to elucidate the molecular processes underlying this effect. LDLR-/- mice were randomly distributed into four groups: control group, HF group, HF + FA group and the HF + RAPA group. vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) were divided into the following four groups: control group, PDGF group, PDGF + FA group and PDGF + FA + RAPA group...
March 23, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Haize Goikuria, Maria Del Mar Freijo, Reyes Vega Manrique, María Sastre, Elena Elizagaray, Ana Lorenzo, Koen Vandenbroeck, Iraide Alloza
Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) are central players in carotid atherosclerosis plaque development. Although the precise mechanisms involved in plaque destabilization are not completely understood, it is known that VSMC proliferation and migration participate in plaque stabilization. In this study, we analyzed expression patterns of genes involved in carotid atherosclerosis development (e.g., transcription factors of regulation of SMC genes) of VSMCs located inside or outside the plaque lesion that may give clues about changes in phenotypic plasticity during atherosclerosis...
March 18, 2018: Cells
L Lu, H Z Shi, Z J Xiao, D Wang, C L Li
Objective: To summarize the experience in diagnosis and treatment of primary retroperitoneal liposarcoma. Methods: The clinic data of 73 cases of primary retroperitoneal liposarcoma were reviewed. The age of patients was 23 to 75 years old, with a median age of 53 years. Forty-five cases were treated for the first time, and 28 cases were re-treated after local recurrence. All patients underwent ultrasonography, CT or MRI before operation and were diagnosed of primary retroperitoneal liposarcoma. Results: No lymph node and distant metastasis were found in all patients...
March 13, 2018: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
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