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Dedifferentiation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819426/central-role-of-cemip-in-tumorigenesis-and-its-potential-as-therapeutic-target
#1
REVIEW
Li Li, Lin-Hai Yan, Shwetha Manoj, Ying Li, Lu Lu
CEMIP (KIAA1199) was identified as migratory indicator protein which had been crudely studied in the last decade. Firstly its mutation site was reported to cause hearing loss due to the folding change of protein structure, meanwhile the over-expression of CEMIP referred to dreadful invasion and uncontrolled proliferation of tumor with distant metastasis, dedifferentiation, and limited survival opportunity of patients. Especially, over-expressed CEMIP also protected malignant tumor from strict microenvironment in hypoxia, low glucose and cracked barrier, leading to enhanced adaptability of tumor by stimulating the Wnt, EGFR, FGFR pathway...
2017: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819177/comparative-transcriptome-analysis-of-se-initial-dedifferentiation-in-cotton-of-different-se-capability
#2
Aiping Cao, Yinying Zheng, Yu Yu, Xuwen Wang, Dongnan Shao, Jie Sun, Baiming Cui
Somatic embryogenesis (SE) is a critical transition from vegetative to embryogenic growth in higher plants; however, few studies have investigated the mechanism that regulates SE initial differentiation. Most cotton varieties have not undergone regeneration by SE, so only a few varieties can be used in genetic engineering. Here, two varieties of cotton with different SE capabilities (HD, higher differentiation and LD, lower differentiation) were analyzed by high throughout RNA-Seq at the pre-induction stage (0h) and two induction stages (3h and 3d) under callus-induction medium (CIM)...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818228/phenotypic-and-functional-transformation-in-smooth-muscle-cells-derived-from-varicose-veins
#3
Yongbo Xu, Yuanyuan Bei, Yuan Li, Haibo Chu
OBJECTIVE: Varicose veins (VVs) are a common disorder of venous dilation and tortuosity, but the underlying mechanism is unclear. The functional integrity and phenotypic differences of VVs are also unclear. This study tested the hypothesis that phenotypic and functional differences exist between smooth muscle cells (SMCs) derived from VVs and normal veins. METHODS: SMCs were isolated from 28 samples of varicose great saphenous veins (VGSVs) and normal great saphenous (NGSVs) and cultured...
September 2017: Journal of Vascular Surgery. Venous and Lymphatic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815373/autologous-nasal-chondrocytes-delivered-by-injectable-hydrogel-for-in-vivo-articular-cartilage-regeneration
#4
Wenliang Chen, Changhua Li, Maoxiu Peng, Bingju Xie, Lei Zhang, Xiaojun Tang
Cell based tissue engineering serves as a promising strategy for articular cartilage repair, which remains a challenge both for researchers and clinicians. The aim of this research was to assess the potential of autologous nasal chondrocytes (NCs) combined with alginate hydrogel as injectable constructs for rabbit articular cartilage repair. Autologous nasal chondrocytes were isolated from rabbit nasal septum, expanded either on monolayer or in 3D alginate hydrogel. In vitro, DNA quantification revealed that NCs can proliferate stable in 3D alginate matrix, but slower than that cultured in monolayer...
August 16, 2017: Cell and Tissue Banking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812533/immunoreactivity-of-canine-liposarcoma-to-muscle-and-brown-adipose-antigens
#5
Elise Eva Bella LaDouceur, Sarah E Stevens, Jason Wood, Christopher M Reilly
Liposarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, and hibernoma share some overlapping histologic and immunohistochemical features. Although immunohistochemistry (IHC) is commonly used in the diagnosis of these neoplasms, expression of muscle markers has been reported in human liposarcoma and canine hibernoma in addition to rhabdomyosarcoma. Thus, these neoplasms are a diagnostic challenge but important to distinguish because of differences in prognosis and treatment. Rhabdomyosarcoma and liposarcoma are both malignant, but rhabdomyosarcoma has a higher potential for metastasis...
January 1, 2017: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809431/transdifferentiation-of-myoblasts-into-osteoblasts-possible-use-for-bone-therapy
#6
REVIEW
Daphne P L Lin, Revathy Carnagarin, Arun Dharmarajan, Crispin R Dass
OBJECTIVES: Transdifferentiation is defined as the conversion of one cell type to another and is an ever-expanding field with a growing number of cells found to be capable of such a process. To date, the fact remains that there are limited treatment options for fracture healing, osteoporosis and bone repair post-destruction by bone tumours. Hence, this review focuses on the transdifferentiation of myoblast to osteoblast as a means to further understand the transdifferentiation process and to investigate a potential therapeutic option if successful...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801626/hif1%C3%AE-regulates-glioma-chemosensitivity-through-the-transformation-between-differentiation-and-dedifferentiation-in-various-oxygen-levels
#7
Pan Wang, Wenwu Wan, Shuanglong Xiong, Junwei Wang, Dewei Zou, Chuan Lan, Shuangjiang Yu, Bin Liao, Hua Feng, Nan Wu
Chemotherapy plays a significant role in glioma treatment; however, it has limited effectiveness in extending the life expectancies of glioma patients. Traditional studies have attributed this lack of efficacy to glioma stem cells (GSCs) and their high resistance to chemotherapy, and hypoxia worsens this issue. In contrast, hyperoxia effectively alleviates hypoxia in glioma and sensitizes glioma cells to chemotherapy. In a summary of traditional studies, the majority of researchers overlooked the influence of hypoxia on differentiated cells because they only focused on the maintenance of GSCs stemness, which thus resulted in chemoresistance...
August 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798140/the-hemoglobin-homolog-cytoglobin-in-smooth-muscle-inhibits-apoptosis-and-regulates-vascular-remodeling
#8
Frances L Jourd'heuil, Haiyan Xu, Timothy Reilly, Keneta McKellar, Chaymae El Alaoui, Julia Steppich, Yong Feng Liu, Wen Zhao, Roman Ginnan, David Conti, Reynold Lopez-Soler, Arif Asif, Rebecca K Keller, John J Schwarz, Le Thi Thanh Thuy, Norifumi Kawada, Xiaochun Long, Harold A Singer, David Jourd'heuil
OBJECTIVE: The role of hemoglobin and myoglobin in the cardiovascular system is well established, yet other globins in this context are poorly characterized. Here, we examined the expression and function of cytoglobin (CYGB) during vascular injury. APPROACH AND RESULTS: We characterized CYGB content in intact vessels and primary vascular smooth muscle (VSM) cells and used 2 different vascular injury models to examine the functional significance of CYGB in vivo. We found that CYGB was strongly expressed in medial arterial VSM and human veins...
August 10, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797501/integrating-morphology-and-genetics-in-the-diagnosis-of-cartilage-tumors
#9
REVIEW
Carlos E de Andrea, Mikel San-Julian, Judith V M G Bovée
Cartilage-forming tumors of bone are a heterogeneous group of tumors with different molecular mechanisms involved. Enchondromas are benign hyaline cartilage-forming tumors of medullary bone caused by mutations in IDH1 or IDH2. Osteochondromas are benign cartilage-capped bony projections at the surface of bone. IDH mutations are also found in dedifferentiated and periosteal chondrosarcoma. A recurrent HEY1-NCOA2 fusion characterizes mesenchymal chondrosarcoma. Molecular changes are increasingly used to improve diagnostic accuracy in chondrosarcomas...
September 2017: Surgical Pathology Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795433/schwann-cell-dedifferentiation-associated-demyelination-leads-to-exocytotic-myelin-clearance-in-inflammatory-segmental-demyelination
#10
So Young Jang, Byeol-A Yoon, Yoon Kyung Shin, Seoug Hoon Yun, Young Rae Jo, Yun Young Choi, Meejung Ahn, Taekyun Shin, Joo In Park, Jong Kuk Kim, Hwan Tae Park
Schwann cells (SCs), which form the peripheral myelin sheath, have the unique ability to dedifferentiate and to destroy the myelin sheath under various demyelination conditions. During SC dedifferentiation-associated demyelination (SAD) in Wallerian degeneration (WD) after axonal injury, SCs exhibit myelin and junctional instability, down-regulation of myelin gene expression and autophagic myelin breakdown. However, in inflammatory demyelinating neuropathy (IDN), it is still unclear how SCs react and contribute to segmental demyelination before myelin scavengers, macrophages, are activated for phagocytotic myelin digestion...
August 10, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793867/the-effect-of-nullomer-derived-peptides-9r-9s1r-and-124r-on-the-nci-60-panel-and-normal-cell-lines
#11
Abdelkrim Alileche, Greg Hampikian
BACKGROUND: Nullomer peptides are the smallest sequences absent from databases of natural proteins. We first began compiling a list of absent 5-amino acid strings in 2006 (1). We report here the effects of Nullomer-derived peptides 9R, 9S1R and 124R on the NCI-60 panel, derived from human cancers of 9 organs (kidney, ovary, skin melanoma, lung, brain, lung, colon, prostate and the hematopoietic system), and four normal cell lines (endothelial HUVEC, skin fibroblasts BJ, colon epithelial FHC and normal prostate RWPE-1)...
August 9, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791382/potential-role-of-zeb1-as-a-dna-repair-regulator-in-colorectal-cancer-cells-revealed-by-cancer-associated-promoter-profiling
#12
Miao Wang, Su-Fei He, Lei-Lei Liu, Xiao-Xia Sun, Fan Yang, Qian Ge, Wei-Kang Wong, Jing-Yan Meng
Besides being a key contributor to epithelial‑to‑mesenchymal transition (EMT) activation and stemness maintenance, zinc finger E-box binding homeobox 1 (ZEB1) is also a crucial inducer of chemoresistance and radioresistance. Unlike the clear mechanism that mediates its effect on EMT and dedifferentiation, the mechanism of how ZEB1 promotes chemo- and radio-resistance remains to be elucidated. It has been previously reported that ZEB1 promotes DNA double-strand break clearance by enhancing the deubiquitylating activity of ubiquitin-specific peptidase (USP)7 on checkpoint kinase 1, which is an important step during DNA repair...
August 8, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790305/single-cardiomyocyte-nuclear-transcriptomes-reveal-a-lincrna-regulated-de-differentiation-and-cell-cycle-stress-response-in-vivo
#13
Kelvin See, Wilson L W Tan, Eng How Lim, Zenia Tiang, Li Ting Lee, Peter Y Q Li, Tuan D A Luu, Matthew Ackers-Johnson, Roger S Foo
Cardiac regeneration may revolutionize treatment for heart failure but endogenous progenitor-derived cardiomyocytes in the adult mammalian heart are few and pre-existing adult cardiomyocytes divide only at very low rates. Although candidate genes that control cardiomyocyte cell cycle re-entry have been implicated, expression heterogeneity in the cardiomyocyte stress-response has never been explored. Here, we show by single nuclear RNA-sequencing of cardiomyocytes from both mouse and human failing, and non-failing adult hearts that sub-populations of cardiomyocytes upregulate cell cycle activators and inhibitors consequent to the stress-response in vivo...
August 9, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783170/loss-of-claudin-3-expression-induces-il6-gp130-stat3-signaling-to-promote-colon-cancer-malignancy-by-hyperactivating-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling
#14
R Ahmad, B Kumar, Z Chen, X Chen, D Müller, S M Lele, M K Washington, S K Batra, P Dhawan, A B Singh
The hyperactivated Wnt/β-catenin signaling acts as a switch to induce epithelial to mesenchymal transition and promote colorectal cancer. However, due to its essential role in gut homeostasis, therapeutic targeting of this pathway has proven challenging. Additionally, IL-6/Stat-3 signaling, activated by microbial translocation through the dysregulated mucosal barrier in colon adenomas, facilitates the adenoma to adenocarcinomas transition. However, inter-dependence between these signaling pathways and key mucosal barrier components in regulating colon tumorigenesis and cancer progression remains unclear...
August 7, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781950/role-of-the-tgf-%C3%AE-pathway-in-dedifferentiation-of-human-mature-adipocytes
#15
Julie Anne Côté, Julie Lessard, Mélissa Pelletier, Simon Marceau, Odette Lescelleur, Julie Fradette, André Tchernof
Dedifferentiation of adipocytes contributes to the generation of a proliferative cell population that could be useful in cellular therapy or tissue engineering. Adipocytes can dedifferentiate into precursor cells to acquire a fibroblast-like phenotype using ceiling culture, in which the buoyancy of fat cells is exploited to allow them to adhere to the inner surface of a container. Ceiling culture is usually performed in flasks, which limits the ability to test various culture conditions. Using a new six-well plate ceiling culture approach, we examined the relevance of TGF-β signaling during dedifferentiation...
August 2017: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777153/a-diagnostic-pitfall-atypical-teratoid-rhabdoid-tumor-versus-dedifferentiated-poorly-differentiated-chordoma-analysis-of-a-mono-institutional-series
#16
Anna Maria Buccoliero, Chiara Caporalini, Mirko Scagnet, Gianna Baroni, Selene Moscardi, Federico Mussa, Flavio Giordano, Iacopo Sardi, Lorenzo Genitori
Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) and dedifferentiated/poorly differentiated chordoma are pediatric tumors with some overlapping morphologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular features. Both these tumors have alterations in the tumor suppressor gene SMARCB1 resulting in loss of expression of the INI-1 protein. On the contrary, dedifferentiated/poorly differentiated chordoma expresses the transcription factor brachyury, whereas AT/RT does not. In this article we have reviewed the clinicopathologic features of a pediatric series of tumors (17 samples from 14 patients) located in the brain or within the axial spine and the base of the skull diagnosed as AT/RTs or as dedifferentiated/poorly differentiated chordomas...
August 2, 2017: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775125/smad3-stat3-signaling-mediates-%C3%AE-cell-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-in-chronic-pancreatitis-related-diabetes
#17
Xiangwei Xiao, Shane Fischbach, Tina Zhang, Congde Chen, Qingfeng Sheng, Ray Zimmerman, Sneha Patnaik, Joseph Fusco, Yungching Ming, Ping Guo, Chiyo Shiota, Krishna Prasadan, Nupur Gangopadhyay, Sohail Z Husain, Henry Dong, George K Gittes
Many patients with chronic pancreatitis develop diabetes (chronic pancreatitis-related diabetes; CPRD) through an undetermined mechanism. Here, we used long-term partial pancreatic duct ligation (PDL) as a model to study CPRD. We found that long-term PDL induced significant β-cell dedifferentiation, followed by a time-dependent decrease in functional β-cell mass, all specifically in the ligated tail portion of the pancreas (PDL-tail). High levels of transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1) were detected in the PDL-tail, mainly produced by M2 macrophages at the early stage, and by activated myofibroblasts at the later stage...
August 3, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769858/dedifferentiation-does-not-account-for-hyperconnectivity-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#18
Rachel Anne Bernier, Arnab Roy, Umesh Meyyappan Venkatesan, Emily C Grossner, Einat K Brenner, Frank Gerard Hillary
OBJECTIVE: Changes in functional network connectivity following traumatic brain injury (TBI) have received increasing attention in recent neuroimaging literature. This study sought to understand how disrupted systems adapt to injury during resting and goal-directed brain states. Hyperconnectivity has been a common finding, and dedifferentiation (or loss of segregation of networks) is one possible explanation for this finding. We hypothesized that individuals with TBI would show dedifferentiation of networks (as noted in other clinical populations) and these effects would be associated with cognitive dysfunction...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765517/the-hedgehog-gli-pathway-in-embryonic-development-and-cancer-implications-for-pulmonary-oncology-therapy
#19
REVIEW
Armas López Leonel, Zúñiga Joaquín, Arrieta Oscar, Ávila-Moreno Federico
Transcriptional regulation and epigenetic mechanisms closely control gene expression through diverse physiological and pathophysiological processes. These include the development of germ layers and post-natal epithelial cell-tissue differentiation, as well as, involved with the induction, promotion and/or progression of human malignancies.Diverse studies have shed light on the molecular similarities and differences involved in the stages of embryological epithelial development and dedifferentiation processes in malignant tumors of epithelial origin, of which many focus on lung carcinomas...
July 24, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765173/a2a-adenosine-receptors-control-pancreatic-dysfunction-in-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity
#20
Balázs Csóka, Gábor Törő, Joana Vindeirinho, Zoltán V Varga, Balázs Koscsó, Zoltán H Németh, Endre Kókai, Luca Antonioli, Mara Suleiman, Piero Marchetti, Karolina Cseri, Ádám Deák, László Virág, Pál Pacher, Péter Bai, György Haskó
Adenosine, a key extracellular signaling mediator, regulates several aspects of metabolism by activating 4 G protein-coupled receptors, the A1, A2A, A2B, and A3 adenosine receptors (ARs). The role of A2AARs in regulating high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced metabolic derangements is unknown. To evaluate the role of A2AARs in regulating glucose and insulin homeostasis in obesity, we fed A2AAR knockout (KO) and control mice an HFD for 16 wk to initiate HFD-induced metabolic disorder. We found that genetic deletion of A2AARs caused impaired glucose tolerance in mice fed an HFD...
August 1, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
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