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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220294/clinical-and-molecular-spectrum-of-liposarcoma
#1
Alex Thomas John Lee, Khin Thway, Paul H Huang, Robin Lewis Jones
Liposarcomas are rare malignant tumors of adipocytic differentiation. The classification of liposarcomas into four principal subtypes reflects the distinct clinical behavior, treatment sensitivity, and underlying biology encompassed by these diseases. Increasingly, clinical management decisions and the development of investigational therapeutics are informed by an improved understanding of subtype-specific molecular pathology. Well-differentiated liposarcoma is the most common subtype and is associated with indolent behavior, local recurrence, and insensitivity to radiotherapy and chemotherapy...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217688/sustained-mapk-erk-activation-in-adult-schwann-cells-impairs-nerve-repair
#2
Ilaria Cervellini, Jorge Galino, Ning Zhu, Shannen Allen, Carmen Birchmeier, David L Bennett
The MAPK/ERK pathway has a critical role in PNS development. It is required for Schwann cell (SC) differentiation and myelination; sustained embryonic MAPK/ERK activation in SCs enhances myelin growth overcoming signals that normally end myelination. Excess activation of this pathway can be maladaptive as in adulthood acute strong activation of MAPK/ERK has been shown to cause SC dedifferentiation and demyelination. We used a mouse model (including male and female animals) in which gain of function Mek1DD allele produces sustained MAPK/ERK activation in adult SCs and we determined the impact of such activation on nerve repair...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216010/calcitonin-gene-related-peptide-cgrp-role-in-peripheral-nerve-regeneration
#3
REVIEW
Albert M Chung
Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a neuropeptide that has an important anti-inflammatory role in the immune system. Research has shown that CGRP is an integral part in peripheral nerve regeneration by (1) suppressing tumor necrosis factor-α, (2) forming an initial nerve bridge by increasing fibroblast motility and extracellular matrix synthesis, (3) vascularizing the spinal cord injury site, and (4) inducing Schwann cell (SC) proliferation. In this treatise, the following hypotheses will be explored: (1) CGRP is induced by c-Jun to regulate SC dedifferentiation, (2) CGRP promotes the chemotaxic migration of SCs along the nerve bridge, and (3) CGRP induces myelinophagy by activating various signaling pathways, such as p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and Raf/extracellular signal-regulated kinase...
December 7, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214424/itraq-based-comparative-proteomic-analysis-provides-insights-into-somatic-embryogenesis-in-gossypium-hirsutum-l
#4
Hua-Guo Zhu, Wen-Han Cheng, Wen-Gang Tian, Yang-Jun Li, Feng Liu, Fei Xue, Qian-Hao Zhu, Yu-Qiang Sun, Jie Sun
KEY MESSAGE: iTRAQ based proteomic identified key proteins and provided new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying somatic embryogenesis in cotton. Somatic embryogenesis, which involves cell dedifferentiation and redifferentiation, has been used as a model system for understanding molecular events of plant embryo development in vitro. In this study, we performed comparative proteomics analysis using samples of non-embryogenic callus (NEC), embryogenic callus (EC) and somatic embryo (SE) using the isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) technology...
December 6, 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213245/implication-of-free-fatty-acids-in-thrombin-generation-and-fibrinolysis-in-vascular-inflammation-in-zucker-rats-and-evolution-with-aging
#5
Jérémy Lagrange, Mélusine Didelot, Amel Mohamadi, Lucy A Walton, Saartje Bloemen, Bas de Laat, Huguette Louis, Simon N Thornton, Brian Derby, Michael J Sherratt, Bruno Fève, Pascal Challande, Riaz Akhtar, J Kennedy Cruickshank, Patrick Lacolley, Véronique Regnault
Background: The metabolic syndrome (MetS) and aging are associated with modifications in blood coagulation factors, vascular inflammation, and increased risk of thrombosis. Objectives: Our aim was to determine concomitant changes in thrombin generation in the blood compartment and at the surface of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and its interplay with adipokines, free fatty acids (FFA), and metalloproteinases (MMPs) in obese Zucker rats that share features of the human MetS. Methods: Obese and age-matched lean Zucker rats were compared at 25 and 80 weeks of age...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211970/facilitating-in-vivo-articular-cartilage-repair-by-tissue-engineered-cartilage-grafts-produced-from-auricular-chondrocytes
#6
Chin-Chean Wong, Chih-Hwa Chen, Li-Hsuan Chiu, Yang-Hwei Tsuang, Meng-Yi Bai, Ren-Jei Chung, Yun-Ho Lin, Fon-Jou Hsieh, You-Tzung Chen, Tsung-Lin Yang
BACKGROUND: Insufficient cell numbers still present a challenge for articular cartilage repair. Converting heterotopic auricular chondrocytes by extracellular matrix may be the solution. HYPOTHESIS: Specific extracellular matrix may convert the phenotype of auricular chondrocytes toward articular cartilage for repair. STUDY DESIGN: Controlled laboratory study. METHODS: For in vitro study, rabbit auricular chondrocytes were cultured in monolayer for several passages until reaching status of dedifferentiation...
December 1, 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211452/promoted-chondrogenesis-of-co-cultured-chondrocytes-and-mesenchymal-stem-cells-under-hypoxia-using-in-situ-forming-degradable-hydrogel-scaffolds
#7
Xiaobin Huang, Yong Hou, Leilei Zhong, Dechun Huang, Hongliang Qian, Marcel Karperien, Wei Chen
We investigated the effects of different oxygen tension (21% and 2.5% O2) on the chondrogenesis of different cell systems cultured in pH-degradable PVA hydrogels including human articular chondrocytes (hACs), human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and their co-cultures with a hAC/hMSC ratio of 20/80. These hydrogels were prepared with vinyl ether acrylate-functionalized PVA (PVA-VEA) and thiolated PVA-VEA (PVA-VEA-SH) via Michael-type addition reaction. The rheology tests determined the gelation of the hydrogels was controlled within 2-7 min dependent on the polymer concentrations...
December 6, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209748/monitoring-cytochrome-p450-activity-in-living-hepatocytes-by-chromogenic-substrates-in-response-to-drug-treatment-or-during-cell-maturation
#8
Jannick Theobald, Xinlai Cheng, Ali Ghanem, Haristi Gaitantzi, Guangqi Song, Edda Klipp, Judith Wodke, Holger Becker, Ralf Mrowka, Katja Breitkopf-Heinlein, Steven Dooley, Stefan Wölfl
The metabolic activity of hepatocytes is a central prerequisite for drug activity and a key element in drug-drug interaction. This central role in metabolism largely depends on the activity of the cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzyme family, which is not only dependent on liver cell maturation but is also controlled in response to drug and chemical exposure. Here, we report the use of VividDye fluorogenic CYP450 substrates to directly measure and continuously monitor metabolic activity in living hepatocytes. We observed time- and dose-dependent correlation in response to established and putative CYP450 inducers acting through the aryl hydrocarbon receptor and drug combinations...
December 5, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209739/hepatocarcinogenesis-and-li-rads
#9
Kazim H Narsinh, Jennifer Cui, Demetri Papadatos, Claude B Sirlin, Cynthia S Santillan
Hepatocarcinogenesis is a multi-step process characterized by progressive cellular and molecular dedifferentiation of hepatocytes and culminating in the emergence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Knowledge of hepatocarcinogenesis is important because familiarity with the associated imaging features can lead to improved diagnosis of HCC at its early stages. The article reviews the alterations that accumulate leading to HCC result in abnormal imaging features, many of which are included in LI-RADS v2017 as major and ancillary features...
December 5, 2017: Abdominal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209735/atypical-lipomatous-tumor-of-the-hand-with-transformation-to-dedifferentiated-liposarcoma-a-case-report
#10
Daniel C Ramirez, Sinchun Hwang, Edward A Athanasian, Lu Wang, Meera Hameed
Atypical lipomatous tumor/well-differentiated liposarcoma is the most common sarcoma of soft tissue in adults. We describe the clinical, radiologic, and pathologic features of an atypical lipomatous tumor arising within the soft tissue of the left hand of a 68-year-old female that underwent transformation to dedifferentiated liposarcoma and eventually metastasized. At initial presentation, imaging demonstrated an extensively calcified fatty soft tissue mass with displacement of the digits. Following biopsy and staged debulking, the patient subsequently developed local recurrence, dedifferentiation, and widespread metastases to the lungs, pancreas, bone, and soft tissues...
December 5, 2017: Skeletal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208279/collagen-alginate-as-bioink-for-three-dimensional-3d-cell-printing-based-cartilage-tissue-engineering
#11
Xingchen Yang, Zhenhui Lu, Huayu Wu, Wei Li, Li Zheng, Jinmin Zhao
Articular cartilage repair is still a huge challenge for researchers and clinicians. 3D bioprinting could be an innovative technology for cartilage tissue engineering. In this study, we used collagen type I (COL) or agarose (AG) mixed with sodium alginate (SA) to serve as 3D bioprinting bioinks and incorporated chondrocytes to construct in vitro 3D printed cartilage tissue. Swelling ratio, mechanical properties, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), cell viability and cytoskeleton, biochemistry analysis and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) were performed to investigate the function of different bioinks in 3D printing cartilage tissue engineering applications...
February 1, 2018: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207069/stimulation-of-chondrocytes-and-chondroinduced-mesenchymal-stem-cells-by-osteoinduced-mesenchymal-stem-cells-under-a-fluid-flow-stimulus-on-an-integrated-microfluidic-device
#12
Xuanwen Bao, Zhongyu Li, Hui Liu, Ke Feng, Fangchao Yin, Hongjing Li, Jianhua Qin
The aim of the present study was to investigate the stimulation of osteoinduced mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into chondrogenically predifferentiated MSCs and chondrocytes in a mechanical environment. A novel two‑layer microfluidic chip was used to mimic the interstitial flow in the superficial zones of articular cartilage. The morphology, proliferation rate and the expression of collagen I, collagen II and aggrecan of chondrocytes and chondro‑MSCs were investigated. The results revealed that the cells in the bottom layer were influenced by the top layer's osteoinduced MSCs and the bottom layer's shear flow...
November 24, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203573/mechanisms-of-%C3%AE-cell-dedifferentiation-in-diabetes-recent-findings-and-future-research-directions
#13
Mohammed Bensellam, Jean-Christophe Jonas, D Ross Laybutt
Like all the cells of an organism, pancreatic β-cells originate from embryonic stem cells through a complex cellular process termed differentiation. Differentiation involves the coordinated and tightly controlled activation/repression of specific effectors and gene clusters in a time-dependent fashion thereby giving rise to particular morphological and functional cellular features. Interestingly, cellular differentiation is not a unidirectional process. Indeed, growing evidence suggests that under certain conditions, mature β-cells can lose, to various degrees, their differentiated phenotype and cellular identity and regress to a less differentiated or a precursor-like state...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203187/paratesticular-liposarcoma-masquerading-as-an-inguinal-hernia
#14
Kerry L Thomas, Ricardo J Gonzalez, Evita Henderson-Jackson, Jamie T Caracciolo
A man with left scrotal swelling felt to represent inguinal hernia underwent CT scan for reported bleeding after prostate biopsy. CT scan revealed a 15 cm extratesticular left scrotal mass containing both fat and soft tissue components, raising concern for dedifferentiated liposarcoma. At surgery and pathology, the mass was separate from the left testis, epididymis, and spermatic cord. Histopathologic findings were consistent with paratesticular dedifferentiated liposarcoma.
December 1, 2017: Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202474/adhfe1-is-a-breast-cancer-oncogene-and-induces-metabolic-reprogramming
#15
Prachi Mishra, Wei Tang, Vasanta Putluri, Tiffany H Dorsey, Feng Jin, Fang Wang, Donewei Zhu, Lauren Amable, Tao Deng, Shaofei Zhang, J Keith Killian, Yonghong Wang, Tsion Z Minas, Harry G Yfantis, Dong H Lee, Arun Sreekumar, Michael Bustin, Wei Liu, Nagireddy Putluri, Stefan Ambs
Metabolic reprogramming in breast tumors is linked to increases in putative oncogenic metabolites that may contribute to malignant transformation. We previously showed that accumulation of the oncometabolite, 2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG), in breast tumors was associated with MYC signaling, but not with isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutations, suggesting a distinct mechanism for increased 2HG in breast cancer. Here, we determined that D-2HG is the predominant enantiomer in human breast tumors and show that the D-2HG-producing mitochondrial enzyme, alcohol dehydrogenase, iron-containing protein 1 (ADHFE1), is a breast cancer oncogene that decreases patient survival...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200741/enzyme-inhibitors-cause-multiple-effects-on-accumulation-of-monoterpene-indole-alkaloids-in-catharanthus-roseus-cambial-meristematic-cell-cultures
#16
Zhou Pengfei, Zhu Jianhua, Yu Rongmin, Zi Jiachen
Background: Enzyme inhibitors have been used for the clarification of biosynthesis of natural products. Catharanthus roseus cambial meristematic cell (CMC) culture has been established and proved to be a better monoterpeneindole alkaloid (MIA) producer than C. roseus dedifferentiated cell (DDC) culture. However, little is known about the inter-relationship of the MIA-biosynthetic genes with respect to their transcription. Objective: To clarify effects of alteration of one gene transcription on transcript levels of another genes in MIA-biosynthetic pathway, and how the accumulation of MIAs in CMCs are influenced by the alteration of their biosynthetic gene transcript levels...
October 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197696/small-rna-differential-expression-and-regulation-in-tuxpe%C3%A3-o-maize-embryogenic-callus-induction-and-establishment
#17
Naholi D Alejandri-Ramírez, Elva C Chávez-Hernández, Jose L Contreras-Guerra, Jose L Reyes, Tzvetanka D Dinkova
Somatic embryogenesis represents an alternative developmental process used to achieve genetic transformation and to approach key questions in maize development. It is known that embryogenic callus induction and plant regeneration are accompanied by microRNA expression changes. However, small RNA (sRNA) populations have not been explored during the proliferative callus subculture establishment and their impact on maintaining the dedifferentiated status and embryogenic potential is far from being completely understood...
November 30, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190285/the-interplay-of-uv-and-cutaneous-papillomavirus-infection-in-skin-cancer-development
#18
Daniel Hasche, Sonja Stephan, Ilona Braspenning-Wesch, Julita Mikulec, Martina Niebler, Hermann-Josef Gröne, Christa Flechtenmacher, Baki Akgül, Frank Rösl, Sabrina E Vinzón
Cutaneous human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are considered as cofactors for non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) development, especially in association with UVB. Extensively studied transgenic mouse models failed to mimic all aspects of virus-host interactions starting from primary infection to the appearance of a tumor. Using the natural model Mastomys coucha, which reflects the human situation in many aspects, we provide the first evidence that only UVB and Mastomys natalensis papillomavirus (MnPV) infection strongly promote NMSC formation...
November 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187480/clinical-efficacy-of-carbon-ion-radiotherapy-for-unresectable-chondrosarcomas
#19
Reiko Imai, Tadashi Kamada, Nobuhito Araki
BACKGROUND: Carbon ion radiotherapy has precise dose distribution and high biological effectiveness and is likely a promising therapy for patients with sarcomas. We evaluated the outcomes of carbon ion radiotherapy in patients with unresectable chondrosarcomas. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 75 tumors in 73 patients treated with carbon ion radiotherapy was performed. There were 26 spinal, 38 pelvic, and 11 other types of tumors. Seventy conventional and five dedifferentiated chondrosarcomas were treated in 69 and four patients, respectively...
December 2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184870/a-retroperitoneal-dedifferentiated-liposarcoma-mimicking-an-ovarian-tumor
#20
Hyojin Kim, Taewon Jeong, Yeongho Lee, Gyeonga Kim, Sanggi Hong, Sukyung Beck, Jeongbeom Mun, Kyongjin Kim, Myeongjin Ju
A 74-year-old postmenopausal woman visited our gynecology clinic complaining of a palpable abdominal mass. Physical and radiological evaluation indicated that the mass exhibited features of a left ovarian neoplasm showing heterogeneous enhancement. Surgical resection was performed to confirm this suspicion. During surgery, a mass was observed only in the left ovary with no invasive growth, but adhesions to the surrounding peritoneum were seen. Given the patient's age, large mass size, and accompanying uterine myoma and right ovarian cyst, total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy was performed...
November 2017: Obstetrics & Gynecology Science
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