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Sexuality and cardiovascular disease

Joo Yong Lee, Kang Su Cho
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The use of 5-alpha reductase inhibitors (5ARIs) for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and other diseases has been proposed and studied. However, the controversy about its benefits and harms for other diseases has persisted. In this review, we will discuss the newly identified effects of 5ARIs based on recently published studies. RECENT FINDINGS: These drugs are currently recommended in clinical guidelines for BPH. However, the reporting of adverse effects, including sexual dysfunction as well as neurologic, endocrine, and cardiovascular effects, have been controversial...
March 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Urology
Stéphanie Bossé, Bianca D'Antono, Tobias Stalder
OBJECTIVE: Childhood trauma has been associated with greater psychological and physical morbidity, including a greater risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD). This may partially reflect trauma-induced disturbances in how stress is later perceived and regulated. This study evaluated the associations of childhood trauma with perceived stress and hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) in a large sample of adults with coronary artery disease (CAD) and in non-CVD patients suffering from other non-fatal illnesses...
March 8, 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
Zewen Chen, Lei Wang, Jun Ke, DaLiao Xiao
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies and experimental studies have demonstrated that intrauterine adverse environment increases the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in adulthood. However, whether an individual develops a cardiovascular dysfunctional phenotype may depend on genetic background, age, and sex. METHODS: In this review, we summarize some of the recent experimental animal studies in the developmental programming of adult CVD with an emphasis on sex differences and the potential role of estrogen in mediating sexual dimorphism...
March 1, 2018: Current Vascular Pharmacology
Steven G Chrysant, George S Chrysant
Many studies have shown that low testosterone (T) levels have been associated with increased risk for cardiovascular (CV) events, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and strokes. In contrast, many other studies have demonstrated that normal T levels or the normalization of low T levels with testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) is associated with decreased incidence of CV events, T2DM, and strokes, besides improving sexual function and the quality of life. However, recent studies have indicated that TRT could lead to increased incidence of CV events and strokes...
February 26, 2018: Hospital Practice (Minneapolis)
Cristina Mondello, Elvira Ventura Spagnolo, Luigi Cardia, Orazio Ventura Spagnolo, Patrizia Gualniera, Antonina Argo
The most common cause of sudden death during sexual intercourse in adults is heart disease, and it is usually the male, whereas the death of the woman is unusual. Generally, in these cases, death occurs as a result of cardiovascular disease. The authors report an unusual case of the sudden death of a young woman during sexual intercourse. The post-mortem investigations (autopsy, cardiac nuclear magnetic resonance and cardiac histology) demonstrated a previously undiagnosed arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy...
January 1, 2018: Medico-legal Journal
Laurène Leclair-Visonneau, Laurent Magy, Christelle Volteau, Thomas Clairembault, Séverine Le Dily, Cécile Préterre, Arnaud Peyre, Philippe Damier, Michel Neunlist, Yann Péréon, Pascal Derkinderen
Dysautonomic symptoms are frequent non-motor complaints in patients with Parkinson's disease. Numerous neuropathological studies have shown that Lewy bodies and neurites, the pathological hallmarks of Parkinson's disease, are widely distributed throughout the peripheral autonomic nervous systems and across end organs. However, few investigations integrally explored the symptoms and physiology of dysautonomia in Parkinson's disease. We, therefore, performed a comprehensive evaluation of the autonomic function in a prospective group of 45 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Neurology
Dariusz Kałka, Romuald Zdrojowy, Krzysztof Womperski, Jana Gebala, Ryszard Smoliński, Alicja Dulanowska, Karolina Stolarczyk, Jakub Dulanowski, Witold Pilecki, Lesław Rusiecki
BACKGROUND: Modifiable risk factors contribute to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and erectile dysfunction (ED). We aimed to compare the knowledge about the contribution of modifiable risk factors to the pathogenesis of CVD and ED. The impact of patients' having modifiable risk factors on the awareness of their negative influence on the development of CVD and ED was examined. METHODS: To this multicenter cohort study, we included 417 patients with CHD who had been hospitalized in the cardiology or cardiac surgery department during the previous six weeks and underwent cardiac rehabilitation in one of the five centers...
February 20, 2018: Aging Male: the Official Journal of the International Society for the Study of the Aging Male
Maureen D'Eath, Molly Byrne, Patrick Murphy, Tiny Jaarsma, Jenny McSharry, Andrew W Murphy, Sally Doherty, Chris Noone, Dympna Casey
BACKGROUND: International guidelines recommend sexual assessment and counseling be offered to all patients with cardiovascular disease during cardiac rehabilitation. However, sexual problems are infrequently addressed. The Cardiac Health and Relationship Management and Sexuality (CHARMS) intervention is a complex, multilevel intervention designed to increase the provision of sexual counseling in cardiac rehabilitation. It was piloted in 2 cardiac rehabilitation centers to assess the acceptability and feasibility of the intervention and to inform and refine a definitive cluster randomized controlled trial protocol...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing
Gabriel Adan Araújo Leite, Marciana Sanabria, Marilia Martins Cavariani, Janete Aparecida Anselmo-Franci, Patrícia Fernanda Felipe Pinheiro, Raquel Fantin Domeniconi, Wilma De Grava Kempinas
The increase of obesity, bad eating habits and the lack of physical exercises are highly related to dyslipidemias. Rosuvastatin is a lipid-lowering drug and has been indicated to prevent cardiovascular diseases and to treat dyslipidemias due to its higher efficiency to reduce serum cholesterol concentrations. This study aimed to evaluate the reproductive adverse effects on sexual maturity due to rosuvastatin exposure in juvenile male rats during prepuberty. Three groups were randomly formed with newly weaned rats: control, whose rats received saline solution 0...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
Steven D Brooks, Stan Hileman, Paul D Chantler, Samantha Milde, Kent C Lemaster, Stephanie Frisbee, J Kevin Shoemaker, Dwayne N Jackson, Jefferson C Frisbee
The increasing prevalence and severity of clinical depression is strongly correlated with vascular disease risk, creating a comorbid condition with poor outcomes, although demonstrating a sexual disparity where females are at lower risk than males for subsequent cardiovascular events. To determine potential mechanisms responsible for this protection against stress/depression-induced vasculopathy in females, we exposed male and female ({plus minus}ovariectomy) rats to the unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) model for 8 weeks and determined depressive symptom severity, vascular reactivity in aortic rings (AR) and ex vivo middle cerebral arteries (MCA), and determined the profile of major metabolites regulating vascular tone...
February 16, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Margaret A Mouat, James L J Coleman, Nicola J Smith
Cardiovascular disease remains the largest cause of mortality worldwide and there is a clear gender gap in disease occurrence: men are predisposed to earlier onset of cardiovascular disease, including atherosclerosis and hypertension, than are women. Oestrogen may be a driving factor for female-specific cardioprotection, though androgens and sex chromosomes are also likely to contribute to sexual dimorphism in the cardiovascular system. Many G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-mediated processes are involved in cardiovascular homeostasis and some exhibit clear sex-divergence...
February 16, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
Ruwei Ou, Yanbing Hou, Wei Song, Qianqian Wei, Yongping Chen, Bei Cao, Xiaoqin Yuan, Huifang Shang
Background The number of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients with disease duration of more than 20 years (long disease duration PD, LPD) is on the rise. Objectives This study aims to describe the clinical profiles and the quality of life (QoL) of LPD patients from a cohort of the Chinese population. Methods We compared 71 LPD subjects to 60 PD patients who died less than 20 years after the onset of PD (control PD, CPD). A regression model was constructed to assess the determinants for 20 years survival and the QoL of LPD patients...
February 15, 2018: Neurological Research
Daniel Pérez-Cremades, Ana Mompeón, Xavier Vidal-Gómez, Carlos Hermenegildo, Susana Novella
The beneficial effects of estrogen on the cardiovascular system have been reported extensively. In fact, the incidence of cardiovascular diseases in women is lower than in age-matched men during their fertile stage of life, a benefit that disappears after menopause. These sex-related differences point to sexual hormones, mainly estrogen, as possible cardiovascular protective factors. The regulation of vascular function by estrogen is mainly related to the maintenance of normal endothelial function and is mediated by both direct and indirect gene transcription through the activity of specific estrogen receptors...
February 6, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Lisa Smeester, Rebecca C Fry
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs) via drinking water represents a significant global public health threat with chronic exposure associated with cancer, skin lesions, neurological impairment, and cardiovascular diseases. Particularly susceptible populations include the developing fetus and young children. This review summarizes some of the critical studies of the long-term health effects and underlying biological mechanisms related to developmental exposure to arsenic...
February 6, 2018: Current Environmental Health Reports
Jordon D Bosse, Raeann G Leblanc, Kasey Jackman, Ragnhildur I Bjarnadottir
Individuals in lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender communities experience several disparities in physical and mental health (eg, cardiovascular disease and depression), as well as difficulty accessing care that is compassionate and relevant to their unique needs. Access to care is compromised in part due to inadequate information systems that fail to capture identity data. Beginning in January 2018, meaningful use criteria dictate that electronic health records have the capability to collect data related to sexual orientation and gender identity of patients...
February 5, 2018: Computers, Informatics, Nursing: CIN
Katrina M Mirabito Colafella, Kate M Denton
Although intrinsic mechanisms that regulate arterial blood pressure (BP) are similar in men and women, marked variations exist at the molecular, cellular and tissue levels. These physiological disparities between the sexes likely contribute to differences in disease onset, susceptibility, prevalence and treatment responses. Key systems that are important in the development of hypertension and cardiovascular disease (CVD), including the sympathetic nervous system, the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and the immune system, are differentially activated in males and females...
January 30, 2018: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
Ennio Giulio Favalli, Martina Biggioggero, Chiara Crotti, Andrea Becciolini, Maria Gabriella Raimondo, Pier Luigi Meroni
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic and progressive autoimmune disease more common in women than men (3:1). Although sex-based differences may play a complex role in promoting an autoimmune dysfunction, to date the comprehensive knowledge of the link between sex and RA is still partially lacking. Furthermore, males and females have been demonstrated to differently deal with their chronic pathologies, modifying the perceived sex-based burden of disease. Gender medicine is a newly approach focusing on the impact of gender differences on human physiology, pathophysiology, and clinical features of diseases, analyzing the complex interrelation and integration of sex and psychological and cultural behavior...
January 26, 2018: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
Takeshi Mori, Takahiro Tsuge
We use best-worst scaling to assess two types of concern levels of the adverse consequences of smoking in China. While the smoking cessation policy has worked well in Taiwan, more than 1 million people in mainland China are estimated to die every year from tobacco use. This study compares the preferences of Chinese individuals in the two jurisdictions (mainland versus Taiwan) and explores the possibility of information-based interventions. The relative importance of 13 adverse effects was assessed by conducting a web-based survey on a sample of 480 Chinese participants...
December 2017: SSM—Population Health
Lezhou Wu, Randy L Sell, Alexis M Roth, Seth L Welles
BACKGROUND: Little is known about cardiovascular health disparities for lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB) persons and whether these disparities are mediated by mental health disorders due to sexual minority stress. We hypothesize LGB identity is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and that major depressive disorder (MDD) and generalized anxiety disorders (GAD) may mediate this association. METHODS: The National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions is a longitudinal, nationally-representative study of non-institutionalized U...
January 9, 2018: Preventive Medicine
Leonardo F Fontenelle, Julliana N Quintas, Murat Yücel
Many of the currently available treatments for obsessive-compulsive and related disorders (OCRDs) such as pharmacotherapy augmentation strategies, partial hospitalization programs, deep brain stimulation, and neurosurgery are efficacious for individuals suffering from more severe forms of these conditions. Unfortunately, the application of these treatments in milder forms of illness and subclinical samples, which affect a substantial portion of the population, is not justifiable by their costs (e.g. cognitive-behavioral therapy) and/or potential for side effects (serotonin-reuptake inhibitors associated sexual side effects)...
January 4, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
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