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Sexuality and cardiovascular disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526997/nafld-as-a-sexual-dimorphic-disease-role-of-gender-and-reproductive-status-in-the-development-and-progression-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-inherent-cardiovascular-risk
#1
REVIEW
Stefano Ballestri, Fabio Nascimbeni, Enrica Baldelli, Alessandra Marrazzo, Dante Romagnoli, Amedeo Lonardo
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) spans steatosis through nonalcoholic steatohepatis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) associated with striking systemic features and excess cardiovascular and liver-related mortality. The pathogenesis of NAFLD is complex and multifactorial. Endocrine derangements are closely linked with dysmetabolic traits. For example, in animal and human studies, female sex is protected from dysmetabolism thanks to young individuals' ability to partition fatty acids towards ketone body production rather than very low density lipoprotein (VLDL)-triacylglycerol, and to sex-specific browning of white adipose tissue...
May 19, 2017: Advances in Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513399/reducing-health-inequalities-for-people-with-serious-mental-illness
#2
Nutmeg Hallett, Helen Rees
People with serious mental illness (SMI) are at risk of dying many years earlier than the general population. Providing an effective, cost-efficient healthcare service requires a holistic approach, and improving the physical health of people with SMI should be integral to all healthcare roles. It is important for nurses to identify and understand the barriers that people with SMI may experience when accessing physical healthcare. A range of factors contribute to reduced life expectancy, including lifestyle factors, symptoms of mental illness and the side effects of medications...
May 17, 2017: Nursing Standard
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511258/management-of-autonomic-dysfunction-in-parkinson-s-disease
#3
Ronald F Pfeiffer
Autonomic dysfunction is a frequent and important nonmotor feature of Parkinson's disease (PD). Autonomic dysfunction in PD spans a broad clinical spectrum. Cardiovascular dysfunction is characterized most prominently by orthostatic hypotension. Gastrointestinal dysfunction can involve virtually all levels of the gastrointestinal tract. Urinary dysfunction can entail either too frequent voiding or difficulty voiding. Sexual dysfunction is frequent and frustrating for both the patient and the partner. Alterations in sweating and body temperature are not widely recognized, but often are present...
April 2017: Seminars in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506796/from-head-to-toe-sex-and-gender-differences-in-the-treatment-of-ischemic-cerebral-disease
#4
REVIEW
Lorenzo Falsetti, Giovanna Viticchi, Laura Buratti, Clotilde Balucani, Alberto M Marra, Mauro Silvestrini
Stroke is a major cause of mortality and morbidity, particularly in the older ages. Women have a longer life expectancy and are more likely to experience stroke than men. Interestingly, the increased risk of ischemic stroke in women seems to be independent from age or classical cardiovascular risk factors. Notwithstanding the fact that stroke outcomes and survival are usually poorer in women, current evidence suggests that thrombolysis, antiplatelet and anticoagulant therapies are more beneficial in women than in men...
May 12, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499519/association-between-sexual-problems-and-relationship-satisfaction-among-people-with-cardiovascular-disease
#5
Molly Byrne, Patrick Murphy, Maureen D'Eath, Sally Doherty, Tiny Jaarsma
BACKGROUND: Relationship satisfaction is generally positively correlated with sexual satisfaction, but this relation has been poorly examined in people with cardiovascular disease who are at increased risk of sexual problems compared with the general population. AIM: To document reported changes to sex after a diagnosis of cardiac disease and determine whether there is an association between sexual function and relationship satisfaction. METHODS: Semistructured telephone interviews focused on relationship satisfaction and sexual problems were conducted with 201 people with cardiovascular disease who were currently in a sexual relationship with one main partner and were recruited from six hospital cardiac rehabilitation centers in Ireland...
May 2017: Journal of Sexual Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497912/testosterone-replacement-therapy-long-term-safety-and-efficacy
#6
REVIEW
Giovanni Corona, Alessandra Sforza, Mario Maggi
Recent position statements and guidelines have raised the distinction between a true and false, age-related hypogonadism (HG) or late-onset hypogonadism (LOH). The former is the consequence of congenital or acquired "organic" damage of the brain centers or of the testis. The latter is mainly secondary to age-related comorbidities and does not require testosterone (T) therapy (TTh). In addition, concerns related to cardiovascular (CV) safety have further increased the scepticism related to TTh. In this paper, we reviewed the available evidence supporting the efficacy of TTh in non-organic HG and its long term safety...
April 30, 2017: World Journal of Men's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424375/mitochondria-a-central-target-for-sex-differences-in-pathologies
#7
REVIEW
Renée Ventura-Clapier, Maryline Moulin, Jérôme Piquereau, Christophe Lemaire, Mathias Mericskay, Vladimir Veksler, Anne Garnier
It is increasingly acknowledged that a sex and gender specificity affects the occurrence, development, and consequence of a plethora of pathologies. Mitochondria are considered as the powerhouse of the cell because they produce the majority of energy-rich phosphate bonds in the form of adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) but they also participate in many other functions like steroid hormone synthesis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, ionic regulation, and cell death. Adequate cellular energy supply and survival depend on mitochondrial life cycle, a process involving mitochondrial biogenesis, dynamics, and quality control via mitophagy...
May 1, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398632/prenatal-and-postnatal-assessment-in-rabbits-with-evacetrapib-a-cholesteryl-ester-transfer-protein-inhibitor
#8
William J Breslin, Kim G Hilbish, Ellen A Cannady, Tammy L Edwards
BACKGROUND: Evacetrapib, a potent and selective inhibitor of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), was under development for the treatment of cardiovascular (CV) disease. The purpose of this pre-postnatal study in rabbits was to evaluate the effects of evacetrapib on pregnancy, parturition, and lactation of the maternal animals and on the growth, viability, development, and reproductive performance of the first filial (F1) offspring. The rabbit is considered a relevant species for toxicity testing with evacetrapib as it demonstrates significant CETP expression, whereas mice and rats do not express significant levels of CETP...
April 17, 2017: Birth Defects Res
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398024/gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-analogues-for-the-prevention-of-chemotherapy-induced-premature-ovarian-failure-in-breast-cancer-patients
#9
Benedetta Conte, Lucia Del Mastro
Since the survival of patients with cancer has significantly improved, chemotherapy-related premature ovarian failure (POF) in young cancer survivors has become a major issue in oncology. POF is associated with several health-related negative consequences, including menopausal symptoms, increased risk of cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis, sexual disfunction, and infertility1-5. According to the major international guidelines, embryo/oocyte cryopreservation are the standard procedures for fertility preservation in young cancer women6,7...
April 10, 2017: Minerva Ginecologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371025/treatment-response-to-sildenafil-in-men-with-erectile-dysfunction-relative-to-concomitant-comorbidities-and-age
#10
Irwin Goldstein, Vera Stecher, Martin Carlsson
AIM: To evaluate treatment response in men with erectile dysfunction (ED) and concomitant comorbidities. METHODS: Data were pooled from 42 placebo-controlled, flexible-dose sildenafil trials. In most trials, the sildenafil dose was 50 mg, taken ~1 hour before sexual activity but not more than once daily, with adjustment to 100 or 25 mg as needed. The overall population (N=9413) was stratified by age (<45, 46-64, ≥65 years). Treatment response was defined as a minimal clinically important difference (MCID) from baseline in the International Index of Erectile Function-Erectile Function (IIEF-EF) domain score of >2, >5 and >7 for men with mild, moderate and severe ED at baseline, respectively, or an IIEF-EF domain score ≥26 (no ED) at end-point...
March 2017: International Journal of Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341581/the-graham-jackson-memorial-lecture-issm-2016-the-man-who-knew-too-much-time-to-recognize-erectile-dysfunction-and-low-testosterone-as-independent-risk-factors-for-cardiovascular-disease
#11
REVIEW
Geoffrey Hackett
INTRODUCTION: Graham Jackson introduced the concept that erectile dysfunction (ED) is a marker for undiagnosed cardiovascular (CV) disease and future events. In the Princeton 3 guidelines, he recognized the important impact of testosterone deficiency (TD) on all-cause and CV mortality. Recent evidence suggests that testosterone therapy to target levels and for sufficient duration decreases CV events. Unfortunately, this had a modest impact on CV disease management because ED is not incorporated into current risk calculators...
March 21, 2017: Sexual Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320892/sepiapterin-reductase-gene-disrupted-mice-suffer-from-hypertension-with-fluctuation-and-bradycardia
#12
Chiho Sumi-Ichinose, Yui Suganuma, Taiki Kano, Noriko Ihira, Hiroko Nomura, Kazuhisa Ikemoto, Tadayoshi Hata, Setsuko Katoh, Hiroshi Ichinose, Kazunao Kondo
(6R)-l-erythro-5,6,7,8-Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is an essential cofactor for monoamine and nitric oxide (NO) production. Sepiapterin reductase (SPR) catalyzes the final step in BH4 biosynthesis. We analyzed the cardiovascular function of adult Spr gene-disrupted (Spr(-/-)) mice for the first time. After weaning, Spr(-/-) mice suffered from hypertension with fluctuation and bradycardia, while the monoamine contents in these mice were less than 10% of those in the wild-type mice as a result of BH4 depletion...
March 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304393/the-effects-of-oestrogens-and-their-receptors-on-cardiometabolic-health
#13
REVIEW
Eugenia Morselli, Roberta S Santos, Alfredo Criollo, Michael D Nelson, Biff F Palmer, Deborah J Clegg
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the leading causes of mortality in developed countries. The incidence of CVD is sexually dimorphic, and research has focused on the contribution of sex steroids to the development and progression of the cardiometabolic syndrome, which is defined as a clustering of interrelated risk factors that promote the development of atherosclerosis (which can lead to CVD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Data are inconclusive as to how sex steroids and their respective receptors increase or suppress the risk of developing the cardiometabolic syndrome and thus CVD...
June 2017: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289399/auditory-and-vestibular-evoked-potentials-correlate-with-motor-and-non-motor-features-of-parkinson-s-disease
#14
Ali Soliman Shalash, Dalia Mohamed Hassan, Hanan Hani Elrassas, Mohamed Mosaad Salama, Edna Méndez-Hernández, José M Salas-Pacheco, Oscar Arias-Carrión
Degeneration of several brainstem nuclei has been long related to motor and non-motor symptoms (NMSs) of Parkinson's disease (PD). Nevertheless, due to technical issues, there are only a few studies that correlate that association. Brainstem auditory-evoked potential (BAEP) and vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) responses represent a valuable tool for brainstem assessment. Here, we investigated the abnormalities of BAEPs, ocular VEMPs (oVEMPs), and cervical VEMPs (cVEMPs) in patients with PD and its correlation to the motor and NMSs...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279969/sex-hormones-and-sex-chromosomes-cause-sex-differences-in-the-development-of-cardiovascular-diseases
#15
REVIEW
Arthur P Arnold, Lisa A Cassis, Mansoureh Eghbali, Karen Reue, Kathryn Sandberg
This review summarizes recent evidence concerning hormonal and sex chromosome effects in obesity, atherosclerosis, aneurysms, ischemia/reperfusion injury, and hypertension. Cardiovascular diseases occur and progress differently in the 2 sexes, because biological factors differing between the sexes have sex-specific protective and harmful effects. By comparing the 2 sexes directly, and breaking down sex into its component parts, one can discover sex-biasing protective mechanisms that might be targeted in the clinic...
May 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275418/sex-differences-of-the-natriuretic-peptide-polymorphism-associated-with-angiographic-coronary-atherosclerosis
#16
Terry Y Li, M Yat Tse, Stephen C Pang, Catherine S McLellan, Will D King, Amer M Johri
BACKGROUND: Polymorphisms within natriuretic peptide (NP) genes have been associated with clinical outcomes for cardiovascular disease (CVD), but no previous study has compared the effect of these polymorphisms between men and women. This study aimed to investigate the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in key genes of the NP system and coronary angiographic outcomes, with the focus on the sexual dimorphism in the effects of these SNPs. METHODS: Patients undergoing clinically indicated coronary angiography (n = 513, 328 men and 185 women) were consented and genotyped for NPPA rs5065, NPPB rs198389 and NPR2 rs10758325...
February 2017: Cardiology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272943/a-systematic-review-of-cardiovascular-disease-in-sexual-minorities
#17
Billy A Caceres, Abraham Brody, Rachel E Luscombe, Jillian E Primiano, Peter Marusca, Edward M Sitts, Deborah Chyun
BACKGROUND: Mental health and HIV disparities are well documented among sexual minorities, but there is a dearth of research on other chronic conditions. Cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death worldwide. Although sexual minorities have high rates of several modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease (including stress, tobacco use, and alcohol consumption), there is a paucity of research in this area. OBJECTIVES: In this systematic review, we synthesized and critiqued the existing evidence on cardiovascular disease among sexual minority adults...
April 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267892/the-great-opportunity-of-the-andrological-patient-cardiovascular-and-metabolic-risk-assessment-and-prevention
#18
C Foresta, A Ferlin, A Lenzi, P Montorsi
Andrologists, cardiologists and diabetologists (and general practitioners) have the great opportunity to collaborate and find shared clinical workup for the benefit of a large number of men. Several evidence established a link between erectile dysfunction (ED), cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. Not only these conditions share many risk factors and pathophysiological mechanisms but also an emerging paradigm indicates that ED is, in fact, an independent marker of cardiovascular disease risk, CV events and CV mortality...
May 2017: Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261282/sexual-health-of-male-cardiac-patients-present-status-and-expectations-of-patients-with-coronary-heart-disease
#19
Dariusz Kałka, Łukasz Karpiński, Jana Gebala, Lesław Rusiecki, Anna Biełous-Wilk, Ewa S Krauz, Magdalena Piłot, Krzysztof Womperski, Małgorzata Rusiecka, Witold Pilecki
INTRODUCTION: Due to the pathogenetic association between erectile disorders and cardiovascular diseases, cardiologists consult many patients with erectile dysfunction (ED). The aim of the study was to evaluate sexual function in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) and the use of sexual knowledge in cardiology practice, both current use and that expected by patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: One thousand one hundred and thirty-six patients (average age: 60.73 ±9...
March 1, 2017: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217448/erectile-dysfunction-metabolic-syndrome-and-cardiovascular-risks-facts-and-controversies
#20
REVIEW
Edward Sanchez, Alexander W Pastuszak, Mohit Khera
Erectile dysfunction (ED) is the most common male sexual dysfunction, and shares many risk factors with systemic conditions including cardiovascular disease (CVD) and the metabolic syndrome (MetS). ED is considered to be an independent risk factor for CVD and can be a harbinger of future cardiovascular events. Given this relationship, each encounter for ED should be viewed by healthcare providers as an opportunity to screen for CVD and other comorbid conditions, including the MetS, that can significantly affect a man's overall health...
February 2017: Translational Andrology and Urology
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