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Sex and cardiovascular disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334012/challenges-of-developing-a-cardiovascular-risk-calculator-for-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis
#1
Cynthia S Crowson, Silvia Rollefstad, George D Kitas, Piet L C M van Riel, Sherine E Gabriel, Anne Grete Semb
OBJECTIVE: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk calculators designed for use in the general population do not accurately predict the risk of CVD among patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), who are at increased risk of CVD. The process of developing risk prediction models involves numerous issues. Our goal was to develop a CVD risk calculator for patients with RA. METHODS: Thirteen cohorts of patients with RA originating from 10 different countries (UK, Norway, Netherlands, USA, Sweden, Greece, South Africa, Spain, Canada and Mexico) were combined...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333708/cost-effectiveness-of-antihypertensive-medication-exploring-race-and-sex-differences-using-data-from-the-reasons-for-geographic-and-racial-differences-in-stroke-study
#2
Gabriel S Tajeu, Stephen Mennemeyer, Nir Menachemi, Robert Weech-Maldonado, Meredith Kilgore
BACKGROUND: Antihypertensive medication decreases risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events in adults with hypertension. Although black adults have higher prevalence of hypertension and worse CVD outcomes compared with whites, limited attention has been given to the cost-effectiveness of antihypertensive medication for blacks. OBJECTIVE: To compare the cost-effectiveness of antihypertensive medication treatment versus no-treatment in white and black adults. RESEARCH DESIGN: We constructed a State Transition Model to assess the costs and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) associated with either antihypertensive medication treatment or no-treatment using data from the REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study and published literature...
March 22, 2017: Medical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332718/lower-risk-for-cardiovascular-mortality-for-patients-with-root-filled-teeth-in-a-finnish-population
#3
J H Meurman, S-J Janket, M Surakka, E A Jackson, L K Ackerson, H R Fakhri, S Chogle, A Walls
AIM: To investigate the relationship of radiographic evidence of root filled teeth to cardiovascular outcomes. METHODOLOGY: Baseline data for 506 subjects including 256 angiographically verified heart disease patients and 250 matched cardiologically healthy controls participating in the Kuopio Oral Health and Heart study were collected in 1995-1996. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortalities were accrued until May 31(st) 2015 and appended to the baseline data. Mortality status data were obtained from the Finnish National Death Register where all mortality cases and the causes of death are compiled for all Finnish citizens...
March 23, 2017: International Endodontic Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332507/blood-pressure-trajectories-in-relation-to-cardiovascular-mortality-the-rancho-bernardo-study
#4
S M A J Tielemans, J M Geleijnse, G A Laughlin, H C Boshuizen, E Barrett-Connor, D Kromhout
The added value of blood pressure (BP) trajectories for predicting cardiovascular disease (CVD) is currently unknown. We investigated the association of systolic BP (SBP) trajectories with CVD and all-cause mortality and compared these associations with those of average SBP, taking antihypertensive medication into account. Data from 762 participants of the Rancho Bernardo Study were used. SBP from five examinations (maximum) from 1984 to 2002 was used; mortality data were obtained from 2002 to 2013. SBP trajectories were derived using group-based trajectory modelling...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Human Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331842/estimation-of-burden-of-ischemic-heart-diseases-in-isfahan-iran-2014-using-incompleteness-and-misclassification-adjustment-models
#5
Mehran Shams-Beyranvand, Farshad Farzadfar, Shohreh Naderimagham, Maryam Tirani, Mohammad Reza Maracy
BACKGROUND: Over the past decade, cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) have been the leading cause of death in the world. Ischemic heart diseases (IHDs) are the main form of CVDs and are the most important single cause of death around the world. This study aimed to estimate the burden of IHDs in the city of Isfahan by calculating disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). METHODS: This population-based study was conducted on the population living in the city of Isfahan in 2014...
2017: Journal of Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331532/vitamin-d-a-possible-modifying-factor-linking-obesity-to-vascular-calcification-in-hemodialysis-patients
#6
Jwa-Kyung Kim, Mi Jin Park, Young Rim Song, Hyung Jik Kim, Sung Gyun Kim
BACKGROUND: Obesity is a risk factor for increased cardiovascular disease. Whether vitamin D deficiency modifies this association is unclear. Here, we examined the association of obesity and vitamin D deficiency with vascular calcification score (VCS) in incident end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 213 ESRD patients. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels below 10 ng/mL, and obesity was defined as a percentage of body fat (PBF) higher than the sex-specific median value in the cohort (>26...
2017: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330658/nonobstructive-coronary-artery-disease-by-coronary-ct-angiography-improves%C3%A2-risk-stratification-and-allocation%C3%A2-of-statin%C3%A2-therapy
#7
Hamed Emami, Richard A P Takx, Thomas Mayrhofer, Sumbal Janjua, Jakob Park, Amit Pursnani, Ahmed Tawakol, Michael T Lu, Maros Ferencik, Udo Hoffmann
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine prognostic value of nonobstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) events and to determine whether incorporation of this information into the pooled cohort equation reclassifies recommendations for statin therapy as defined by the 2013 guidelines for cholesterol management of the American College of Cardiology and American Heart Association (ACC/AHA). BACKGROUND: Detection of nonobstructive CAD by coronary computed tomography angiography may improve risk stratification and permit individualized and more appropriate allocation of statin therapy...
March 10, 2017: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330589/ethnicity-and-excess-mortality-in-severe-mental-illness-a-cohort-study
#8
Jayati Das-Munshi, Chin-Kuo Chang, Rina Dutta, Craig Morgan, James Nazroo, Robert Stewart, Martin J Prince
BACKGROUND: Excess mortality in severe mental illness (defined here as schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorders, and bipolar affective disorders) is well described, but little is known about this inequality in ethnic minorities. We aimed to estimate excess mortality for people with severe mental illness for five ethnic groups (white British, black Caribbean, black African, south Asian, and Irish) and to assess the association of ethnicity with mortality risk. METHODS: We conducted a longitudinal cohort study of individuals with a valid diagnosis of severe mental illness between Jan 1, 2007, and Dec 31, 2014, from the case registry of the South London and Maudsley Trust (London, UK)...
March 16, 2017: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330412/early-asymmetric-cardio-cerebral-causality-and-outcome-after-severe-traumatic-brain-injury
#9
Lei Gao, Peter Smieleweski, Marek Czosnyka, Ari Ercole
The brain and heart are two vital systems in health and disease, increasingly recognised as a complex, interdependent network with constant information flow in both directions. After severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), the causal, directed interactions between the brain, heart and autonomic nervous system have not been well established. Novel methods are needed to probe unmeasured, potentially prognostic information in complex biological networks that are not revealed via traditional means. In this study, we examined potential bi-directional causality between intracranial pressure (ICP), mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) and its relationship to mortality in a 24-hour period early after TBI...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329361/sex-hormones-affect-outcome-in-arrhythmogenic-right-ventricular-cardiomyopathy-dysplasia-from-a-stem-cell-derived-cardiomyocyte-based-model-to-clinical-biomarkers-of-disease-outcome
#10
Deniz Akdis, Ardan M Saguner, Khooshbu Shah, Chuanyu Wei, Argelia Medeiros-Domingo, Arnold von Eckardstein, Thomas F Lüscher, Corinna Brunckhorst, H S Vincent Chen, Firat Duru
Aims: Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy/dysplasia (ARVC/D) is characterized by fibrofatty infiltration of the myocardium and ventricular arrhythmias that may lead to sudden cardiac death. It has been observed that male patients develop the disease earlier and present with more severe phenotypes as compared to females. Thus, we hypothesized that serum levels of sex hormones may contribute to major arrhythmic cardiovascular events (MACE) in patients with ARVC/D. Methods and results: The serum levels of five sex hormones, sex hormone-binding globulin, high sensitivity troponin T, pro-brain natriuretic peptide, cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin, and glucose were measured in 54 ARVC/D patients (72% male)...
February 18, 2017: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329253/a-modified-healthy-aging-index-and-its-association-with-mortality-the-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-survey-1999-2002
#11
Chenkai Wu, Ellen Smit, Jason L Sanders, Anne B Newman, Michelle C Odden
Background: Comorbidity indices that are based on clinically recognized disease do not capture the full spectrum of health. The Healthy Aging Index (HAI) was recently developed to describe a wider range of health and disease across multiple organ systems. We characterized the distribution of a modified HAI (mHAI) by sociodemographics in a representative sample of the U.S. population. We also examined the association of the mHAI with mortality across individuals with different levels of clinically recognizable comorbidities...
January 20, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329228/gender-differences-in-the-effects-of-cardiovascular-drugs
#12
J Tamargo, G Rosano, W Thomas, J Duarte, A Niessner, J C Kaski, C Cecconi, H Drexel, K Kjeldsen, G Savarese, C Torp-Pedersen, D Atar, B S Lewis, S Agewall
Although sex-specific differences in cardiovascular medicine are well-known, the exact influences of sex on the effect of cardiovascular drugs remain unclear. Women and men differ in body composition and physiology (hormonal influences during the menstrual cycle, menopause and pregnancy) and they present differences in drug pharmacokinetics (absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion) and pharmacodynamics, so that is not rare that they may respond differently to cardiovascular drugs. Furthermore, women are also less often treated with evidence-based drugs thereby preventing optimization of therapeutics for women of all ages, experience more relevant adverse drug reactions than men, and remain under-represented in most clinical trials...
February 28, 2017: European Heart Journal. Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329057/coronary-artery-calcification-and-risk-of-cardiovascular-disease-and-death-among-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#13
Jing Chen, Matthew J Budoff, Muredach P Reilly, Wei Yang, Sylvia E Rosas, Mahboob Rahman, Xiaoming Zhang, Jason A Roy, Eva Lustigova, Lisa Nessel, Virginia Ford, Dominic Raj, Anna C Porter, Elsayed Z Soliman, Jackson T Wright, Myles Wolf, Jiang He
Importance: Coronary artery calcification (CAC) is highly prevalent in dialysis-naive patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, there are sparse data on the association of CAC with subsequent risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in this population. Objective: To study the prospective association of CAC with risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality among dialysis-naive patients with CKD. Design, Setting, and Participants: The prospective Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort study recruited adults with an estimated glomerular filtration rate of 20 to 70 mL/min/1...
March 22, 2017: JAMA Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327105/association-of-physical-activity-on-body-composition-cardiometabolic-risk-factors-and-prevalence-of-cardiovascular-disease-in-the-korean-population-from-the-fifth-korea-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-survey-2008-2011
#14
Gwang-Sil Kim, Eui Im, Ji-Hyuck Rhee
BACKGROUND: Data regarding associations among physical activity (PA) level, body composition, and prevalence of cardiovascular diseases in Asian populations are rare. METHODS: The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) was utilized to estimate PA levels and analyze the association of PA level with various body composition parameters and the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases by using data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2008 to 2011...
March 21, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326830/do-statin-users-adhere-to-a-healthy-diet-and-lifestyle-the-australian-diabetes-obesity-and-lifestyle-study
#15
Simran Johal, Kris M Jamsen, J Simon Bell, Kevin P Mc Namara, Dianna J Magliano, Danny Liew, Taliesin E Ryan-Atwood, Claire Anderson, Jenni Ilomäki
Background Lifestyle and dietary advice typically precedes or accompanies the prescription of statin medications. However, evidence for adherence to this advice is sparse. The objective was to compare saturated fat intake, exercise, alcohol consumption and smoking between statin users and non-users in Australia. Methods Data were analysed for 4614 participants aged ≥37 years in the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle study in 2011-2012. Statin use, smoking status and physical activity were self-reported...
April 2017: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326296/association-between-sarcopenic-obesity-and-metabolic-syndrome-in-postmenopausal-women-a-cross-sectional-study-based-on-the-korean-national-health-and-nutritional-examination-surveys-from-2008-to-2011
#16
Sun-Young Kang, Gyeong Eun Lim, Yang Keun Kim, Hye Won Kim, Kayoung Lee, Tae-Jin Park, Jinseung Kim
BACKGROUND: Menopause contributes to an increase in visceral fat mass and a decrease in muscle protein synthesis. Therefore, we performed this study to examine their relationship how effect the changes of body composition as obesity and sarcopenia on metabolic syndrome (MS) as a predictor of cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal women. METHODS: Using data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) from 2008 to 2011, we estimated that 4,183 postmenopausal women underwent dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scans...
February 2017: Journal of Bone Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325919/sex-differences-in-the-clinical-features-risk-factors-and-outcomes-of-intracerebral-hemorrhage-a-large-hospital-based-stroke-registry-in-china
#17
Yonghong Xing, Zhongping An, Xianghui Zhang, Ning Yu, Wenjuan Zhao, Xianjia Ning, Jinghua Wang
Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is common in China. However, the sex differences in clinical features, risk factors, and outcomes of ICH remain controversial. Between 2005 and 2014, we recruited patients with primary ICH in Tianjin, China, and evaluated sex differences in clinical features, risk factors, and outcomes at 3, 12, and 36 months after ICH. The 1,325 patients included 897 men (67.7%) and 428 women (32.3%). The mean age at ICH onset was younger among men (59.14 years) than among women (63.12 years, P < 0...
March 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324675/arterial-stiffness-in-hiv-infected-youth-and-associations-with-hiv-related-variables
#18
Allison Ross Eckard, Paolo Raggi, Joshua H Ruff, Mary Ann O'Riordan, Julia C Rosebush, Danielle Labbato, Julie E Daniels, Monika Uribe-Leitz, Christopher T Longencker, Grace A McComsey
Children and young adults infected with HIV are at elevated risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, scarce data exist on the utility of non-invasive methods to diagnose subclinical CVD, such as pulse wave velocity (PWV), a non-invasive measure of arterial stiffness. The objectives of this study were to assess the relationship of carotid-femoral PWV with subclinical atherosclerosis measured by carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), compare measurements to healthy controls, and evaluate variables associated with PWV in HIV-infected youth...
March 21, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324025/clinical-and-genetic-features-of-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-and-renal-glycosuria
#19
Siqian Gong, Jiandong Guo, Xueyao Han, Meng Li, Lingli Zhou, Xiaoling Cai, Yu Zhu, Yingying Luo, Simin Zhang, Xianghai Zhou, Yumin Ma, Linong Ji
Context: A sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, which increases urinary glucose excretion, was recently reported to decrease blood glucose levels and deaths among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and established cardiovascular disease. Mutations in SLC5A2 and HNF1A are associated with renal glycosuria, but their contributions to renal glycosuria in patients with T2DM are not well understood. Objective: To assess the clinical features of T2DM patients with renal glycosuria and those with low urinary glucose excretion (LUGE) and identify variants in the coding regions of SLC5A2 and HNF1A in patients with renal glycosuria and T2DM...
January 26, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323967/all-cause-mortality-in-patients-with-diabetes-under-treatment-with-dapagliflozin-a-population-based-open-cohort-study-in-thin-database
#20
Konstantinos A Toulis, Brian H Willis, Tom Marshall, Balachadran Kumarendran, Krishna Gokhale, Sandip Ghosh, G Neil Thomas, Kar Keung Cheng, Parth Narendran, Wasim Hanif, Krishnarajah Nirantharakumar
Context: Empagliflozin was found to decrease mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and a prior cardiovascular (CVD) event. Objectives: To establish whether these benefits can be replicated in a real-world setting, should be expected with the use of dapagliflozin, and apply to T2DM patients at low risk of CVD. Design: General Practice, population-based, retrospective cohort study (January 2013-September 2015). Setting: The Health Improvement Network Database (THIN)...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
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