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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934557/a-safety-evaluation-of-empagliflozin-plus-linagliptin-for-treating-type-2-diabetes
#1
Baptist Gallwitz
Dipeptidyl-peptidase-IV inhibitors (DPP-4i) and sodium-glucose-transporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT-2i) are oral antidiabetic drugs that improve glycemic parameters and possess a very low intrinsic hypoglycemia risk and favorable cardiovascular data. Areas covered: An overview on the clinical studies investigating the combination therapy with the DPP-4i linagliptin and the SGLT-2i empagliflozin is given. The clinical evidence for the efficacy and safety of free combinations as well as for their fixed dose combinations is presented...
September 21, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931567/sex-differences-in-risk-factor-management-of-coronary-heart-disease-across-three-regions
#2
Min Zhao, Ilonca Vaartjes, Ian Graham, Diederick Grobbee, Wilko Spiering, Kerstin Klipstein-Grobusch, Mark Woodward, Sanne Ae Peters
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether there are sex differences in risk factor management of patients with established coronary heart disease (CHD), and to assess demographic variations of any potential sex differences. METHODS: Patients with CHD were recruited from Europe, Asia, and the Middle East between 2012-2013. Adherence to guideline-recommended treatment and lifestyle targets was assessed and summarised as a Cardiovascular Health Index Score (CHIS). Age-adjusted regression models were used to estimate odds ratios for women versus men in risk factor management...
September 20, 2017: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931072/high-prevalence-of-non-dipping-blood-pressure-and-vascular-stiffness-in-hiv-infected-south-africans-on-antiretrovirals
#3
M S Borkum, J M Heckmann, K Manning, J A Dave, N S Levitt, B L Rayner, N Wearne
BACKGROUND: HIV-infected individuals are at increased risk of tissue inflammation and accelerated vascular aging ('inflamm-aging'). Abnormal diurnal blood pressure (BP) rhythms such as non-dipping may contribute to an increased risk of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events in HIV infected individuals. However, little data exists on ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) and measures of vascular stiffness in the black African HIV infected population. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional analysis of otherwise well, HIV infected outpatients on ART for >5 years...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929097/integrated-clinical-decision-support-systems-promote-absolute-cardiovascular-risk-assessment-an-important-primary-prevention-measure-in-aboriginal-and-torres-strait-islander-primary-health-care
#4
Veronica Matthews, Christopher P Burgess, Christine Connors, Elizabeth Moore, David Peiris, David Scrimgeour, Sandra C Thompson, Sarah Larkins, Ross Bailie
BACKGROUND: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians experience a greater burden of disease compared to non-Indigenous Australians. Around one-fifth of the health disparity is caused by cardiovascular disease (CVD). Despite the importance of absolute cardiovascular risk assessment (CVRA) as a screening and early intervention tool, few studies have reported its use within the Australian Indigenous primary health care (PHC) sector. This study utilizes data from a large-scale quality improvement program to examine variation in documented CVRA as a primary prevention strategy for individuals without prior CVD across four Australian jurisdictions...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927706/cardiovascular-safety-and-efficacy-of-the-pcsk9-inhibitor-evolocumab-in-patients-with-and-without-diabetes-and-the-effect-of-evolocumab-on-glycaemia-and-risk-of-new-onset-diabetes-a-prespecified-analysis-of-the-fourier-randomised-controlled-trial
#5
Marc S Sabatine, Lawrence A Leiter, Stephen D Wiviott, Robert P Giugliano, Prakash Deedwania, Gaetano M De Ferrari, Sabina A Murphy, Julia F Kuder, Ioanna Gouni-Berthold, Basil S Lewis, Yehuda Handelsman, Armando Lira Pineda, Narimon Honarpour, Anthony C Keech, Peter S Sever, Terje R Pedersen
BACKGROUND: The proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitor evolocumab reduced LDL cholesterol and cardiovascular events in the FOURIER trial. In this prespecified analysis of FOURIER, we investigated the efficacy and safety of evolocumab by diabetes status and the effect of evolocumab on glycaemia and risk of developing diabetes. METHODS: FOURIER was a randomised trial of evolocumab (140 mg every 2 weeks or 420 mg once per month) versus placebo in 27 564 patients with atherosclerotic disease who were on statin therapy, followed up for a median of 2·2 years...
September 14, 2017: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923811/coronary-artery-calcium-progression-is-associated-with-cardiovascular-events-among-asymptomatic-individuals-from-the-north-texas-primary-care-practice-based-research-network-nortex-pbrn
#6
Roberto Cardarelli, Alexandria Hall, Wade Rankin
BACKGROUND: Although incidental coronary artery calcium (CAC) has been established as a surrogate measure for atherosclerotic plaque burden, little is known about its progression and the associated risks. This study looks at the association of select cardiovascular risk factors with the progression of CAC over a 2-year period and the relationship between CAC progression and experiencing a composite cardiovascular disease (CVD) event. METHODS: Repeated CAC measurements were obtained for 311 asymptomatic participants aged >44 years, who were recruited from a collaborative network of primary care clinics...
September 2017: Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine: JABFM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923331/effects-of-low-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol-on-coronary-artery-calcification-progression-according-to-high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol-levels
#7
Da Young Lee, Ji Hyun Kim, Se Eun Park, Cheol-Young Park, Ki-Won Oh, Sung-Woo Park, Eun-Jung Rhee, Won-Young Lee
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Previous studies reported that many patients are at high risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) despite achieving recommended low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. Therefore, we investigated whether the association between LDL-C and the risk for incident CVD differed according to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels using coronary artery calcium score (CACS) progression as a surrogate marker for predicting CVD. METHODS: We investigated 2132 Korean men in a health screening program, in which CACS was measured at baseline and after 4 years...
April 2017: Archives of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923179/drugs-and-hyperglycemia-a-practical-guide
#8
REVIEW
Vandana Jain, Ronak Kumar Patel, Zaureen Kapadia, Sneha Galiveeti, Maryann Banerji, Lisel Hope
Drug-induced diabetes is one of the factors contributing to the increasing incidence of diabetes worldwide. This review considers the frequency, pathogenesis and treatment of drug-induced diabetes. Drugs that induce diabetes include hormonal therapy, especially glucocorticoids and androgen blockers, cardiovascular drugs, especially statins, beta-blockers and diuretics, antipsychotics, especially clozapine, olanzapine and quetiapine, antiretrovirals (protease inhibitors and non-reverse transcriptase inhibitors - NRTIs) and other drugs (mechanistic target of rapamycin inhibitors -mTORs, post organ transplantation drugs, tyrosine kinase inhibitors and interferon-alpha)...
October 2017: Maturitas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921598/association-of-serum-osteocalcin-levels-with-major-adverse-cardiovascular-events-a-4-4-year-retrospective-cohort-study
#9
Xueli Zhang, Yun Shen, Yiting Xu, Qin Xiong, Zhigang Lu, Xiaojing Ma, Yuqian Bao, Weiping Jia
We investigated whether the serum osteocalcin levels at baseline were associated with the incidence of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in a population-based retrospective cohort study of Chinese subjects. Coronary angiography was used to diagnose coronary artery disease (CAD). Survival curves were analyzed by performing log-rank tests with Kaplan-Meier figures. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression was performed to identify the association of serum osteocalcin levels with the incidence of MACE...
September 16, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920863/white-matter-microstructure-and-cognitive-decline-in-metabolic-syndrome-a-review-of-diffusion-tensor-imaging
#10
REVIEW
Freddy J Alfaro, Anna Gavrieli, Patricia Saade, Vasileios-Arsenios Lioutas, Jagriti Upadhyay, Vera Novak
Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors defined by the presence of abdominal obesity, glucose intolerance, hypertension and/or dyslipidemia. It is a major public health epidemic worldwide, and a known risk factor for the development of cognitive dysfunction and dementia. Several studies have demonstrated a positive association between the presence of metabolic syndrome and worse cognitive outcomes, however, evidence of brain structure pathology is limited. Diffusion tensor imaging has offered new opportunities to detect microstructural white matter changes in metabolic syndrome, and a possibility to detect associations between functional and structural abnormalities...
September 8, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920721/-changes-in-carbohydrate-metabolism-after-kidney-transplantation-and-their-effects-on-cardiovascular-risk
#11
Bernadett Borda, Edit Szederkényi, Zoltán Hódi, Aurél Ottlakán, Viktor Szabó, György Lázár
INTRODUCTION: Cardiovascular disease is the major cause of deaths after transplantation, with diabetes mellitus being the main risk factor in development. AIM: The aim of our study was to assess the prevalence of new onset diabetes mellitus in connection with the cardiovascular risk predicted by the HEART Score. METHOD: 44 patients were involved in our study; after overview of baseline data, OGTT was performed, followed by patient classification into the following groups: normal, impaired fasting glucose/impaired glucose tolerance, and new onset diabetes mellitus...
September 2017: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920012/comparative-effectiveness-for-glycemic-control-in-older-adults-with-diabetes
#12
Michael Quartuccio, Brian Buta, Rita R Kalyani
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review and summarize the current data for comparative effectiveness of glycemic control in older adults. RECENT FINDINGS: In the last several years, professional societies have released guidelines for glycemic control in older adults, generally recommending individualized HbA1c goals. However, recent observational studies demonstrate that many older adults remain aggressively managed and are at increased risk of hypoglycemia. Large randomized trials of older adults with diabetes have failed to show cardiovascular benefit from intensive glycemic control and show only minimal microvascular benefit...
September 2017: Current Geriatrics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918829/awareness-of-individual-cardiovascular-risk-factors-and-self-perception-of-cardiovascular-risk-in-women
#13
Jean-Jacques Monsuez, Tai Pham, Nicole Karam, Laurence Amar, Corinne Chicheportiche-Ayache, Philippe Menasché, Michel Desnos, Paul Dardel, Isabelle Weill
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) self-perception by women may be inaccurate. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A questionnaire was completed anonymously Online by women who self-reported their personal CVRF levels including age, weight, contraceptive use, menopausal status, smoking, diet and physical activities. Self-perceived risk was matched to actual cardiovascular risk according to the Framingham score. RESULTS: Among 5,240 young and middle-aged women with a high educational level, knowledge of personal CVRFs increased with age, from 51-90% for blood pressure (BP), 22-45% for blood glucose and 15-47% for blood cholesterol levels, between 30 and 65 years, respectively...
September 2017: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918342/the-potential-effect-of-ultra-long-insulin-degludec-on-glycemic-variability
#14
REVIEW
M Rodacki, R M Carvalho, L Zajdenverg
Despite the therapeutic advances in the treatment of diabetes, metabolic control instability due to glycemic variability (GV) is frequently observed in patients with diabetes on intensive insulin therapy and is associated with hyperglycemic peaks and hypoglycemic episodes. Hyperglycemia associated with GV has been implicated in the development of chronic complications due to its pro-oxidative consequences. On the other hand, hypoglycemia can be associated with increased cardiovascular risk secondarily to adrenergic activation...
June 30, 2017: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917545/effects-of-acarbose-on-cardiovascular-and-diabetes-outcomes-in-patients-with-coronary-heart-disease-and-impaired-glucose-tolerance-ace-a-randomised-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#15
Rury R Holman, Ruth L Coleman, Juliana C N Chan, Jean-Louis Chiasson, Huimei Feng, Junbo Ge, Hertzel C Gerstein, Richard Gray, Yong Huo, Zhihui Lang, John J McMurray, Lars Rydén, Stefan Schröder, Yihong Sun, Michael J Theodorakis, Michal Tendera, Lynne Tucker, Jaakko Tuomilehto, Yidong Wei, Wenying Yang, Duolao Wang, Dayi Hu, Changyu Pan
BACKGROUND: The effect of the α-glucosidase inhibitor acarbose on cardiovascular outcomes in patients with coronary heart disease and impaired glucose tolerance is unknown. We aimed to assess whether acarbose could reduce the frequency of cardiovascular events in Chinese patients with established coronary heart disease and impaired glucose tolerance, and whether the incidence of type 2 diabetes could be reduced. METHODS: The Acarbose Cardiovascular Evaluation (ACE) trial was a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 4 trial, with patients recruited from 176 hospital outpatient clinics in China...
September 12, 2017: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915786/nutrition-in-primary-and-secondary-prevention-of-cardiovascular-risk-in-the-continental-and-mediterranean-regions-of-croatia
#16
Jozica Sikic, Mira Stipcevic, Hrvoje Vrazic, Jasna Cerkez Habek, Eduard Margetic, Dario Gulin
BACKGROUND: The aim of this observational study was to evaluate the effect of Mediterranean and continental nutrition on cardiovascular risk in patients with acute and chronic coronary heart disease in Croatia. METHODS: The study included 1284 patients who were hospitalized in a 28-month period due to acute or chronic ischaemic heart disease in hospitals across Croatia. An individual questionnaire was prepared which enabled recording of various cardiovascular risk factors...
September 16, 2017: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913602/devoting-attention-to-glucose-variability-and-hypoglycaemia-in-type-2-diabetes
#17
EDITORIAL
Martin K Rutter
In the Trial Comparing Cardiovascular Safety of Insulin Degludec vs Insulin Glargine in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes at High Risk of Cardiovascular Events (DEVOTE), insulin degludec was non-inferior to insulin glargine in terms of cardiovascular events and mortality. However, there were lower rates of severe hypoglycaemia with insulin degludec. DEVOTE investigators now extend these findings by presenting the results of two observational epidemiological analyses based on trial data. In the first of these analyses (DEVOTE 2), Zinman et al (Diabetologia DOI: 10...
September 15, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913579/association-between-fto-gene-polymorphisms-and-hdl-cholesterol-concentration-may-cause-higher-risk-of-cardiovascular-disease-in-patients-with-acromegaly
#18
Aleksandra Franczak, Katarzyna Kolačkov, Aleksandra Jawiarczyk-Przybyłowska, Marek Bolanowski
INTRODUCTION: Cardiovascular diseases are main cause of morbidity and mortality in acromegaly. Polymorphisms of FTO gene are associated with obesity and increased risk of CVD (independently of BMI). Aim of this study was to investigate the allele frequencies of two FTO gene polymorphisms: rs9939609 and rs9930506 in patients with acromegaly and to examine the association of FTO gene polymorphisms with BMI and selected metabolic parameters. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Identification of two single nucleotide polymorphisms of FTO gene was carried out in 51 patients with acromegaly using the minisequencing method...
September 14, 2017: Pituitary
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913575/day-to-day-fasting-glycaemic-variability-in-devote-associations-with-severe-hypoglycaemia-and-cardiovascular-outcomes-devote-2
#19
Bernard Zinman, Steven P Marso, Neil R Poulter, Scott S Emerson, Thomas R Pieber, Richard E Pratley, Martin Lange, Kirstine Brown-Frandsen, Alan Moses, Ann Marie Ocampo Francisco, Jesper Barner Lekdorf, Kajsa Kvist, John B Buse
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The Trial Comparing Cardiovascular Safety of Insulin Degludec vs Insulin Glargine in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes at High Risk of Cardiovascular Events (DEVOTE) was a double-blind, randomised, event-driven, treat-to-target prospective trial comparing the cardiovascular safety of insulin degludec with that of insulin glargine U100 (100 units/ml) in patients with type 2 diabetes at high risk of cardiovascular events. This paper reports a secondary analysis investigating associations of day-to-day fasting glycaemic variability (pre-breakfast self-measured blood glucose [SMBG]) with severe hypoglycaemia and cardiovascular outcomes...
September 15, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913361/insulin-resistance-predicts-atherogenic-lipoprotein-profile-in-nondiabetic-subjects
#20
Flávia De C Cartolano, Gabriela D Dias, Maria C P de Freitas, Antônio M Figueiredo Neto, Nágila R T Damasceno
BACKGROUND: Atherogenic diabetes is associated with an increased cardiovascular risk and mortality in diabetic individuals; however, the impact of insulin resistance (IR) in lipid metabolism in preclinical stages is generally underreported. For that, we evaluated the capacity of IR to predict an atherogenic lipid subfraction profile. METHODS: Complete clinical evaluation and biochemical analysis (lipid, glucose profile, LDL, and HDL subfractions and LDL phenotype and size) were performed in 181 patients...
2017: Journal of Diabetes Research
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