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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144539/model-based-evaluation-of-proximal-sodium-reabsorption-through-sglt2-in-health-and-diabetes-and-the-effect-of-inhibition-with-canagliflozin
#1
Jessica A Brady, K Melissa Hallow
Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) reduce glucose levels in diabetes by inhibiting renal glucose reabsorption in the proximal tubule (PT), resulting in urinary glucose excretion. A recent large cardiovascular outcomes trial suggested that the SGLT2i empagliflozin may also decrease risk of renal dysfunction. Because sodium (Na) and glucose reabsorption are coupled through SGLT2, it is hypothesized that the renal benefits may be derived from lowering Na reabsorption in the PT, which would lead to favorable renal hemodynamic changes...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143147/-esc-guidelines-2017-on-peripheral-arterial-diseases-summary-of-the-most-important-recommendations-and-innovations
#2
C Espinola-Klein
The current European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guidelines on peripheral arterial diseases include recommendations on diagnostics and treatment of atherosclerotic manifestations in peripheral arteries. Because of the high coincidence of atherosclerosis in different arterial territories, screening for other atherosclerotic lesions is necessary in patients with clinical symptoms in one vascular bed. Consistent treatment of cardiovascular risk factors is important in all patients with peripheral atherosclerosis...
November 15, 2017: Herz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142986/cardiac-autonomic-neuropathy-predicts-all-cause-and-cardiovascular-mortality-in-patients-with-end-stage-renal-failure-a%C3%A2-5-year-prospective-study
#3
Dimitrios Doulgerakis, Ioannis Moyssakis, Chris J Kapelios, Ioanna Eleftheriadou, Stamatia Chorepsima, Spyridon Michail, Nikolaos Tentolouris
Introduction: Chronic renal disease is associated with increased cardiovascular (CV) mortality. Cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN) is predictive of mortality for diseases that affect the autonomic nervous system. We prospectively evaluated the prognostic value of indexes of left ventricular (LV) function and CAN in all-cause and CV mortality of patients with end-stage renal failure (ESRF). Methods: A total of 133 patients with ESRF were recruited. LV function was evaluated by echocardiography, whereas cardiac autonomic function was assessed using the battery of the 4 standardized tests proposed by Ewing...
July 2017: KI Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141990/rna-sequencing-of-drosophila-melanogaster-head-tissue-on-high-sugar-and-high-fat-diets
#4
Wayne Hemphill, Osvaldo Rivera, Matthew Talbert
Obesity has been shown to increase risk for cardiovascular disease and type-2 diabetes. In addition, it has been implicated in aggravation of neurological conditions such as Alzheimer's. In the model organism Drosophila melanogaster, a physiological state mimicking diet-induced obesity can be induced by subjecting fruit flies to a solid medium disproportionately higher in sugar than protein or that has been supplemented with a rich source of saturated fat. These flies can exhibit increased circulating glucose levels, increased triglyceride content, insulin-like peptide resistance, and behavior indicative of neurological decline...
November 15, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141041/effects-of-a-mixed-berry-beverage-on-cognitive-functions-and-cardiometabolic-risk-markers-a-randomized-cross-over-study-in-healthy-older-adults
#5
Anne Nilsson, Ilkka Salo, Merichel Plaza, Inger Björck
BACKGROUND: Berries and associated bioactive compounds, e.g. polyphenols and dietary fibre (DF), may have beneficial implications with respect to the metabolic syndrome, including also cognitive functions. The aim of this study was to evaluate effects on cognitive functions and cardiometabolic risk markers of 5 wk intervention with a mixture of berries, in healthy humans. METHODS: Forty healthy subjects between 50-70 years old were provided a berry beverage based on a mixture of berries (150g blueberries, 50g blackcurrant, 50g elderberry, 50g lingonberries, 50g strawberry, and 100g tomatoes) or a control beverage, daily during 5 weeks in a randomized crossover design...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140602/the-cardiovascular-safety-of-long-acting-insulin-analogues-in-type-2-diabetes-is-there-a-better-basal-insulin
#6
Chia-Hsuin Chang, Lee-Ming Chuang
In 2008, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration requested that all new type 2 anti-diabetic drugs, including long-acting insulin analogues, need to be rigorously examined to preclude undesirable cardiovascular risks. The Outcome Reduction with an Initial Glargine Intervention (ORIGIN) trial is the first trial to provide conclusive evidence of the cardiovascular safety of insulin glargine. A total of 12,537 people with cardiovascular risk factors plus impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, or type 2 diabetes were randomized to receive insulin glargine or standard care...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140125/diabetes-area-patent-participation-analysis-part-ii-years-2011-2016
#7
Markus Boehm, Matthew Crawford, Jamie E Moscovitz, Philip A Carpino
Diabetes is a metabolic disease characterized by elevated levels of plasma glucose. When untreated, diabetes increases the risk of developing co-morbidities such as cardiovascular disease. Several drugs, often used as part of combination therapies, have been approved to treat the disease, but these drugs will eventually fail to effectively control blood glucose levels, at which point insulin replacement therapy is required. A medical need exists for new anti-diabetic drugs that exhibit good efficacy with improved safety/toleration profiles and can be added on top of existing therapies, or that can provide additional benefits beyond glucose lowering such as pancreatic beta (β)-cell protection...
November 15, 2017: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138200/assessing-the-consequences-of-gestational-diabetes-mellitus-on-offspring-s-cardiovascular-health-mysweetheart-cohort-study-protocol-switzerland
#8
Stefano Di Bernardo, Yvan Mivelaz, Adina Mihaela Epure, Yvan Vial, Umberto Simeoni, Pascal Bovet, Sandrine Estoppey Younes, Arnaud Chiolero, Nicole Sekarski
INTRODUCTION: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a state of glucose intolerance with onset during pregnancy. GDM carries prenatal and perinatal risks as well as long-term risks for the mother and her child. GDM may be involved in the foetal programming of long-term cardiovascular health. However, evidence is sparse and the effect of GDM on cardiovascular health is unknown. To address these issues, we will conduct MySweetHeart Cohort study. The objectives are to assess the effect of GDM on offspring's cardiovascular health early in life by using surrogate markers of cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis...
November 14, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137039/association-of-metabolic-syndrome-and-its-components-with-all-cause-and-cardiovascular-mortality-in-the-elderly-a-meta-analysis-of-prospective-cohort-studies
#9
Sang-Yhun Ju, June-Young Lee, Do-Hoon Kim
There is increasing evidence regarding the relationship between metabolic syndrome and mortality. However, previous research examining metabolic syndrome and mortality in older populations has produced mixed results. In addition, there is a clear need to identify and manage individual components of metabolic syndrome to decrease cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. In this meta-analysis, we searched the MEDLINE databases using PubMed, Cochrane Library, and EMBASE databases. Based on 20 prospective cohort studies, metabolic syndrome was associated with a higher risk of all-cause mortality [relative risk (RR), 1...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135691/control-of-intestinal-lipoprotein-secretion-by-dietary-carbohydrates
#10
Priska Stahel, Changting Xiao, Gary F Lewis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Dyslipidemia is a major risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD). Lipoproteins secreted by the intestine can contribute to dyslipidemia and may increase risk for CVD. This review focuses on how dietary carbohydrates can impact the production of chylomicrons, thereby influencing plasma concentrations of triglycerides and lipoproteins. RECENT FINDINGS: Hypercaloric diets high in monosaccharides can exacerbate postprandial triglyceride concentration...
November 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134488/impact-of-clinical-pharmacists-intervention-on-management-of-hyperglycemia-in%C3%A2-pregnancy-in-jordan
#11
Razan Adnan Batta, Violet Kasabri, Amal Akour, Dana Hyassat, Abla Albsoul-Younes
Background and objective Hyperglycemia in pregnancy is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and postpartum (PP) diabetes. This study aimed to assess the impact of the clinical pharmacist-assisted program (CPAP) of optimizing drug therapy and intensive education on main management outcome measures of patient knowledge about diabetes, Quality of life (QoL) as measured by SF-36 including maternal complications, fasting plasma glucose (FPG) control, and HbA1c. Method This is a randomized controlled study. Pregnant (20-28 weeks) patients with hyperglycemia received CPAP (n = 51) as compared with conventional management (n = 34)...
November 14, 2017: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133707/impact-of-transsphenoidal-surgery-on-asymptomatic-cardiomyopathy-in-patients-with-acromegaly-a-single-blinded-study
#12
Anirudh Srinivasan, Ajay Bahl, Hemant Bhagat, Pinaki Dutta, Ashutosh Rai, Jagtar S Devgun, Rupinder Kaur, Kanchan Kumar Mukherjee
BACKGROUND: Patients with acromegaly have 2-3 times the expected mortality rates primarily due to cardiovascular risks. Echocardiographic studies showing improvement of cardiac function following transsphenoidal surgery (TSS) are limited. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All patients with acromegaly underwent preoperative echocardiography and tissue Doppler (Philips i33, 3D ECHO) for assessment of cardiac indices. In the prospective group of patients, echocardiography was repeated after 6 months of surgery...
November 2017: Neurology India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133607/cardiovascular-outcomes-and-risks-after-initiation-of-a-sodium-glucose-co-transporter-2-inhibitor-results-from-the-easel-population-based-cohort-study
#13
Jacob A Udell, Zhong Yuan, Toni Rush, Nicholas M Sicignano, Michael Galitz, Norman Rosenthal
Background : Clinical trials have shown cardiovascular benefits and potential risks from sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i). Trials may have limited ability to address individual endpoints or safety concerns. Methods : We performed a population-based cohort study among type 2 diabetes patients with established cardiovascular disease newly initiated on antihyperglycemic agents (AHAs) within the US Department of Defense Military Health System between 4/1/2013 and 12/31/2016. Incidence rates, hazard ratios (HRs), and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for time to first composite endpoint of all-cause mortality (ACM) and hospitalization for heart failure (HHF) event, major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE; defined as ACM, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and nonfatal stroke), and individual endpoints were evaluated using conditional Cox models comparing new SGLT2i users with other AHAs...
November 13, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133604/canagliflozin-for-primary-and-secondary-prevention-of-cardiovascular-events-results-from-the-canvas-program-canagliflozin-cardiovascular-assessment-study
#14
Kenneth W Mahaffey, Bruce Neal, Vlado Perkovic, Dick de Zeeuw, Greg Fulcher, Ngozi Erondu, Wayne Shaw, Elisa Fabbrini, Tao Sun, Qiang Li, Mehul Desai, David R Matthews
BACKGROUND : Canagliflozin is a sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor that significantly reduces the composite of cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and elevated cardiovascular risk. The comparative effects among participants with and without a history of cardiovascular disease (secondary versus primary prevention) were prespecified for evaluation. METHODS : The CANVAS Program (Canagliflozin Cardiovascular Assessment Study) randomly assigned 10 142 participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus to canagliflozin or placebo...
November 13, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133603/canagliflozin-cui-bono
#15
Matthew A Cavender, Mikhail Kosiborod
Cardiovascular disease accounts for the majority of excess deaths seen in patients with Type 2 diabetes (T2D).(1) Thus, in order to improve outcomes in this population, clinicians should focus on therapies that decrease the risk of subsequent cardiovascular events. Over the last two years, randomized controlled clinical trials have identified several agents that decrease cardiovascular events in patients with T2D with or at high risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) - effects likely unrelated to glucose-lowering, the indication for which they were originally developed...
November 13, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133602/cardiovascular-outcomes-and-safety-of-empagliflozin-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-and-peripheral-artery-disease-a-subanalysis-of-empa-reg-outcome
#16
Subodh Verma, C David Mazer, Mohammed Al-Omran, Silvio E Inzucchi, David Fitchett, Uwe Hehnke, Jyothis T George, Bernard Zinman
Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is one of the most common cardiovascular complications in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)(1) and is a predictor of cardiovascular death.(2) Interventions that reduce cardiovascular complications in this patient population are urgently required. In the EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial, the sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor empagliflozin reduced the risk of cardiovascular death by 38% (hazard ratio [HR], 0.62; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.49-0.77]) and hospitalization for heart failure (HHF) by 35% (HR, 0...
November 13, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132553/dysregulation-of-glucose-metabolism-since-young-adulthood-increases-the-risk-of-cardiovascular-diseases-in-patients-with-bipolar-disorder
#17
Pao-Huan Chen, Yen-Kuang Lin, Chi-Kang Chang, Shuo-Ju Chiang, Shang-Ying Tsai
Aging patients with bipolar disorder (BD) are at a high risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). However, few studies have directly examined the association between metabolic risks and CVDs in patients with BD across the lifespan. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine lifetime metabolic risk factors for CVDs in patients with BD. We recruited BD-I patients who were more than 50 years old and had had at least one psychiatric hospitalization. Patients who had a cardiologist-confirmed CVD diagnosis (ICD-9 code 401-414) were assigned to the case group...
December 2017: Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132438/framingham-risk-score-for-estimation-of-10-years-of-cardiovascular-diseases-risk-in-patients-with-metabolic-syndrome
#18
Leila Jahangiry, Mahdieh Abbasalizad Farhangi, Fatemeh Rezaei
BACKGROUND: There are a few studies evaluating the predictive value of Framingham risk score (FRS) for cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk assessment in patients with metabolic syndrome in Iran. Because of the emerging high prevalence of CVD among Iranian population, it is important to predict its risk among populations with potential predictive tools. Therefore, the aim of the current study is to evaluate the FRS and its determinants in patients with metabolic syndrome. METHODS: In the current cross-sectional study, 160 patients with metabolic syndrome diagnosed according to the National Cholesterol Education Adult Treatment Panel (ATP) III criteria were enrolled...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131857/internal-tissue-references-for-18fluorodeoxyglucose-vascular-inflammation-imaging-implications-for-cardiovascular-risk-stratification-and-clinical-trials
#19
Mark A Ahlman, Davis M Vigneault, Veit Sandfort, Roberto Maass-Moreno, Jenny Dave, Ahmed Sadek, Marissa B Mallek, Mariana A F Selwaness, Peter Herscovitch, Nehal N Mehta, David A Bluemke
INTRODUCTION: 18Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) uptake in the artery wall correlates with active inflammation. However, in part due to the low spatial resolution of PET, variation in the apparent arterial wall signal may be influenced by variation in blood FDG activity that cannot be fully corrected for using typical normalization strategies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of the current common methods to normalize for blood activity and to investigate alternative methods for more accurate quantification of vascular inflammation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130708/-association-between-birth-weight-and-cardiometabolic-risk-factors-in-children-of-bucaramanga-colombia
#20
Edna Magaly Gamboa Delgado, Yully Andrea Rangel-Díaz, Yareni Yunuen Gutiérrez-Gómez
BACKGROUND: Birth weight could be a medium-term risk factor in the development of overweight and obesity and a long-term risk factor of cardio-metabolic diseases. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between birth weight and cardio-metabolic risk factors in children from Bucaramanga, Colombia. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 1,282 children between five and eleven years of age in Bucaramanga. Dependent variables: arterial hypertension, arterial prehypertension, overweight/obesity, glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia...
October 24, 2017: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
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