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Tatjana Taubitz, Laura-Pia Steinbrenner, Alexander V Tschulakow, Antje Biesemeier, Sylvie Julien-Schraermeyer, Ulrich Schraermeyer
PURPOSE: Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) drugs are used to treat neovascular eye diseases. Some of these drugs contain Fc fragments (Fc), but it is unknown how their mode of action is influenced by Fc. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of Fc on rat eyes after intravitreal injection. METHODS: Eighteen Long-Evans rats were intravitreally injected with sterile, biotin-labeled rat Fc (9.1 μg in 5 μl PBS). For control, 5 μl PBS was injected in another nine rats...
October 17, 2016: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
A Krigel, M Berdugo, E Picard, R Levy-Boukris, I Jaadane, L Jonet, M Dernigoghossian, C Andrieu-Soler, A Torriglia, F Behar-Cohen
To save energy, the European directives from the Eco-design of Energy Using Products (2005/32/CE) has recommended the replacement of incandescent lamps by more economic devices such as Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs). However, the emission spectrum of these devices is enriched in blue radiations, known to be potentially dangerous to the retina. Recent studies showed that light exposure contribute to the onset of early stages of Age related macular degeneration (AMD). Here, we investigate, in albinos and pigmented rats, the effects of different exposure protocols...
October 14, 2016: Neuroscience
Jie Li, Yanli Zhang, Xianhui Cai, Qingqing Xia, Jingmeng Chen, Yi Liao, Zuguo Liu, Yalin Wu
Effective clearance of all-trans-retinal (atRAL) from retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells is important for avoiding its cytotoxicity. However, the metabolism of atRAL in RPE cells is poorly clarified. The present study was designed to analyze metabolic products of atRAL and to compare the cytotoxicity of atRAL versus its derivative all-trans-retinal dimer (atRAL-dimer) in human RPE cells. We found that all-trans-retinol (atROL) and a mixture of atRAL condensation metabolites including atRAL-dimer and A2E were generated after incubating RPE cells with atRAL for 6h, and the amount of atRAL-dimer was significantly higher than that of A2E...
October 14, 2016: Toxicology
George Taylor-Walker, Savannah A Lynn, Eloise Keeling, Rosie Munday, David A Johnston, Anton Page, Jennifer A Scott, Srini Goverdhan, Andrew J Lotery, J Arjuna Ratnayaka
Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) is a common, irreversible blinding condition that leads to the loss of central vision. AMD has a complex aetiology with both genetic as well as environmental risks factors, and share many similarities with Alzheimer's disease. Recent findings have contributed significantly to unravelling its genetic architecture that is yet to be matched by molecular insights. Studies are made more challenging by observations that aged and AMD retinas accumulate the highly pathogenic Alzheimer's-related Amyloid beta (Aβ) group of peptides, for which there appears to be no clear genetic basis...
October 14, 2016: Experimental Eye Research
R Gallego-Pinazo, R Dolz-Marco, M Andreu-Fenoll, J Farrés, L Monclús
OBJECTIVE: To analyse the functional recovery using a pro re nata (PRN) dosing strategy with intravitreal injections of ranibizumab for patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD). MATERIAL AND METHODS: An observational, retrospective, single-centre study, was conducted on patients with neovascular AMD managed with a PRN strategy with ranibizumab, and were followed-up for a minimum of 18 months. Sociodemographic and clinical data were collected from medical records...
October 14, 2016: Archivos de la Sociedad Española de Oftalmología
Yuehong Tong, Tal Ben Ami, Sungmin Hong, Rainer Heintzmann, Guido Gerig, Zsolt Ablonczy, Christine A Curcio, Thomas Ach, R Theodore Smith
PURPOSE: To elucidate the molecular pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and interpretation of fundus autofluorescence imaging, the authors identified spectral autofluorescence characteristics of drusen and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) in donor eyes with AMD. METHODS: Macular RPE/Bruch membrane flat mounts were prepared from 5 donor eyes with AMD. In 12 locations (1-3 per eye), hyperspectral autofluorescence images in 10-nm-wavelength steps were acquired at 2 excitation wavelengths (λex 436, 480 nm)...
September 30, 2016: Retina
W Ammari, S Harrath, S Mbarek, A Mahmoud, W Chebbi, R Messaoud, M Khairallah
OBJECTIVE: To study socio-demographic characteristics and main causes related to visual impairment (VI) as a function of age bracket and to analyze their trends over time in the district of Mahdia. METHOD: A retrospective review was performed on 1487 cases of visual impairment registered with the social authorities in Mahdia, between 1980 and 2013. The social, demographic, vision exam findings and causes were ascertained and analyzed in an SPSS database. Incidence rates of VI and blindness due to various causes were calculated based on the demographic data from the NSI to estimate the time trends using the general linear regression model and Spearman correlation...
October 13, 2016: Journal Français D'ophtalmologie
Siti Nurjaliah Muhammad, Faradiella Mohd Kusin, Mohd Syakirin Md Zahar, Ferdaus Mohamat Yusuff, Normala Halimoon
Passive bioremediation of metal- and sulfate-containing acid mine drainage (AMD) has been investigated in a batch study. Multiple substrates were used in the AMD remediation using spent mushroom compost (SMC), limestone, activated sludge (AS), and woodchips (WC) under anoxic conditions suitable for bacterial sulfate reduction (BSR). Limestones used were of crushed limestone (CLS) and uncrushed limestone, provided at two different ratios in mixed substrates treatment and varied by the proportion of SMC and limestone...
October 17, 2016: Environmental Technology
Liliana Lefticariu, Stephen R Sutton, Kelly S Bender, Mihai Lefticariu, Martin Pentrak, Joseph W Stucki
Pollutants in acid mine drainage (AMD) are usually sequestered in neoformed nano- and micro-scale particles (nNP) through precipitation, co-precipitation, and sorption. Subsequent biogeochemical processes may control nNP stability and thus long-term contaminant immobilization. Mineralogical, chemical, and microbiological data collected from sediments accumulated over a six-year period in a coal-mine AMD treatment system were used to identify the pathways of contaminant dynamics. We present evidence that detrital nano- and micron-scale particles (dNP), composed mostly of clay minerals originating from the partial weathering of coal-mine waste, mediated biogeochemical processes that catalyzed AMD contaminant (1) immobilization by facilitating heterogeneous nucleation and growth of nNP in oxic zones, and (2) remobilization by promoting phase transformation and reductive dissolution of nNP in anoxic zones...
October 13, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Masayuki Ohnaka, Yoshimi Nagai, Kenichiro Sho, Katsuaki Miki, Motoki Kimura, Tomoyuki Chihara, Kanji Takahashi
PURPOSE: To evaluate a modified treat-and-extend (TAE) regimen of intravitreal aflibercept injection (IAI) for treatment-naïve patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD). METHODS: Thirty-six eyes (36 patients) treated with the modified TAE regimen were evaluated at 12 months retrospectively. The modified TAE regimen consisted of three steps: 1) an induction phase, during which patients were treated with ≥ 3-monthly IAIs until exudative activity disappeared, 2) an observation phase, during which patients were monitored until exudative activity appeared, and 3) a TAE phase, for which the initial treatment interval was determined based on the disease recurrence interval, followed by treatment intervals changing by 2 weeks...
October 14, 2016: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
Jörg T Regula, Peter Lundh von Leithner, Richard Foxton, Veluchamy A Barathi, Chui Ming Gemmy Cheung, Sai Bo Bo Tun, Yeo Sia Wey, Daiju Iwata, Miroslav Dostalek, Jörg Moelleken, Kay G Stubenrauch, Everson Nogoceke, Gabriella Widmer, Pamela Strassburger, Michael J Koss, Christian Klein, David T Shima, Guido Hartmann
Anti-angiogenic therapies using biological molecules that neutralize vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) have revolutionized treatment of retinal vascular diseases including age-related macular degeneration (AMD). This study reports preclinical assessment of a strategy to enhance anti-VEGF-A monotherapy efficacy by targeting both VEGF-A and angiopoietin-2 (ANG-2), a factor strongly upregulated in vitreous fluids of patients with retinal vascular disease and exerting some of its activities in concert with VEGF-A...
October 14, 2016: EMBO Molecular Medicine
Adam Wylęgała, Sławomir Teper, Dariusz Dobrowolski, Edward Wylęgała
BACKGROUND: Retinal vascular diseases are one of the most common causes of blindness in the developed world. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography (OCT-A) is a new noninvasive method that uses several algorithms to detect blood movement. This enables the creation of high-resolution vascular images with contrast depicting motionless tissue. METHODS: This review presents the results of articles relevant to age-related macular degeneration (AMD), diabetic retinopathy (DR), and OCT-A...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Katja Hatz, Ulrike Schneider, Bernhard Henrich, Beatrice Braun, Stefan Sacu, Christian Prünte
PURPOSE: To evaluate retreatment indications/morphologic responses to ranibizumab monotherapy and combination with verteporfin photodynamic therapy (PDT). METHODS: A total of 40 patients received 3 monthly intravitreal ranibizumab 0.3 mg injections combined with either PDT or sham PDT at baseline (1:1) followed by as-needed ranibizumab based on predetermined vision/anatomical criteria. RESULTS: Retreatment criteria were visual acuity (VA) loss (59%/58%), central retinal thickness (CRT) increase (27%/26%), or both (14%/16%)...
October 13, 2016: European Journal of Ophthalmology
Rachel E Patzer, Sudeshna Paul, Laura Plantinga, Jennifer Gander, Leighann Sauls, Jenna Krisher, Laura L Mulloy, Eric M Gibney, Teri Browne, Carlos F Zayas, William M McClellan, Kimberly Jacob Arriola, Stephen O Pastan
Georgia has the lowest kidney transplant rates in the United States and substantial racial disparities in transplantation. We determined the effectiveness of a multicomponent intervention to increase referral of patients on dialysis for transplant evaluation in the Reducing Disparities in Access to kidNey Transplantation Community Study (RaDIANT), a randomized, dialysis facility-based, controlled trial involving >9000 patients receiving dialysis from 134 dialysis facilities in Georgia. In December of 2013, we selected dialysis facilities with either low transplant referral or racial disparity in referral...
October 13, 2016: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
Micah Amd, Bryan Roche
According to the literature on emotional dissonance, information that is emotionally incongruous with self-concepts can produce feelings of unease. At a process level, this suggests that embedding such information in newly formed relational structures would have little effect on their a priori emotive properties. Alternatively, an instrumental account of symbolic relations (e.g., Dymond & Roche, 2013) highlights the importance of contextualized stimulus-stimulus relations, where the structure of a relational series is key in determining the function of its elements...
October 13, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Ahmet Elbay, Omer Faruk Ozer, Julide Canan Umurhan Akkan, Ugur Celik, Işıl Kutlutürk, Arif Koytak, Hakan Ozdemir
PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to calculate serum total oxidant status (TOS), total antioxidant status (TAS), and dynamic thiol-disulphide (T-D) homeostasis in patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and compare the results with healthy individuals. METHODS: Thirty-three exudative AMD patients and 33 healthy controls were included in this case-control study. Participants' serum TAS and TOS levels were measured. In addition, total thiol (TT), native thiol (NT), and disulphide (DS) concentrations were assessed using a novel automated method of measurement...
October 12, 2016: International Ophthalmology
R Krishnan Kutty, William Samuel, Kaifa Boyce, Aswini Cherukuri, Todd Duncan, Cynthia Jaworski, Chandrasekharam N Nagineni, T Michael Redmond
PURPOSE: Proinflammatory cytokines interferon gamma (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) secreted by infiltrating lymphocytes or macrophages may play a role in triggering RPE dysfunction associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Binding of these proinflammatory cytokines to their specific receptors residing on the RPE cell surface can activate signaling pathways that, in turn, may dysregulate cellular gene expression. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-1β have an adverse effect on the expression of genes essential for RPE function, employing the RPE cell line ARPE-19 as a model system...
2016: Molecular Vision
Ko Un Shin, Su Jeong Song, Jeong Hun Bae, Mi Yeon Lee
AIMS: The aim of this paper was to develop a risk prediction model for the progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in Koreans using systemic and environmental factors. METHODS: The study sample included 10,890 individuals 50 years of age or older; 318 (2.92%) presented with early AMD findings in baseline examinations. Re-examinations were performed in 157 (49.37%) who were followed up for 4.4 years. The multivariate analysis of covariates included demographic and environmental factors...
October 13, 2016: Ophthalmic Research
Kyung-Hoon Shin, Tae Gon Lee, Jae Hui Kim, Jong Woo Kim, Chul Gu Kim, Dong Won Lee, Jung Il Han, Young Ju Lew, Han Joo Cho
PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy of intravitreal aflibercept monotherapy in submacular hemorrhage (SMH) secondary to wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD). METHODS: This study included 25 eyes in 25 patients with SMH involving the fovea secondary to wet-AMD. All patients were treated with three consecutive monthly intravitreal aflibercept (2.0 mg/0.05 mL) injections, followed by as-needed reinjection. They were followed for at least 6 months. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), central foveal thickness (CFT), and area of SMH were measured at diagnosis, as well as at 3 and 6 months after treatment initiation...
October 2016: Korean Journal of Ophthalmology: KJO
Min-Yen Hsu, Yu-Chien Hung, De-Kuang Hwang, Shang-Chi Lin, Keng-Hung Lin, Chun-Yuan Wang, Hin-Yeung Choi, Yu-Ping Wang, Chao-Min Cheng
Intraocular vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels play an important role in the pathogenesis of blindness-related diseases, such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Here, we aimed to develop a paper-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (P-ELISA) to analyze the suppression of aqueous VEGF concentrations following intravitreal injection (IVI) of anti-VEGF antibody (bevacizumab or ranibizumab). A total of 25 eyes with wet AMD, one with myopic neovascularization, and one with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy were enrolled in this study...
October 11, 2016: Scientific Reports
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