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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343261/stress-processes-linking-parent-child-disconnection-to-disease-risk-in-young-adulthood-amplification-by-genotype
#1
Dayoung Bae, Kandauda A S Wickrama
Previous studies have documented that early stressful family relationships influence subsequent stressful life circumstances and health outcomes over the life course. Less is known, however, about whether stressful parent-child relationships increase the influence of proximal stressors on youth health operating as a stress-sensitizing life context, and individual genetic variations have effects on these developmental processes. Informed by life course stress process theory, which focuses on the proliferation, accumulation, and interactions of stressors over the life course as health risks, we examined whether (a) parent-child disconnection influences the occurrence of stressful life events in young adulthood, (b) parent-child disconnection potentiates the impact of stressful life events on young adults' health, or (c) potential health impact is intensified further by individual genotype...
March 25, 2017: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340516/markers-of-dietary-protein-intake-are-associated-with-successful-weight-loss-in-the-pounds-lost-trial
#2
G A Bray, D H Ryan, W Johnson, C M Champagne, C M Johnson, J Rood, D A Williamson, F M Sacks
To assess the association of markers for dietary protein intake, measures of dietary adherence and demographic variables with weight loss in the POUNDS Lost study over the first 6 months and again between 6 and 24 months using data from those who completed each period. This is a secondary analysis of pooled data on completers assigned to one of four diets: 65%C/15%P/20%F (AP/LF), 55%C/25%P/20%F (HP/LF), 45%C/15%P/40%F (AP/HF) or 35%C/25%P40%F (HP/HF) in the POUNDS Lost study. Urinary nitrogen excretion, dietary adherence measured by 24-h recall and attendance at sessions, age (above and below 50 years), gender, race/ethnicity and activity by pedometry were analysed...
March 24, 2017: Clinical Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340383/infant-helping-in-the-first-year-of-life-parents-recollection-of-infants-earliest-prosocial-behaviors
#3
Stuart I Hammond, Elizabeth Al-Jbouri, Victoria Edwards, Laura E Feltham
Prosocial behavior is widely thought to emerge early in the second year of life. This paper presents evidence that helping emerges early in the first year of life. Parents of 80 children asked to recollect the earliest instance of their child helping recalled help in two contexts: chores (e.g., cleaning up) and care and self-care (e.g., feeding and dressing). A subset of parents recalled helping even before eight months of age, most often in the context of self-care tasks. The presence of helping this early in the lifespan is situated in recent research, and its implications for current theories of early prosocial behavior are discussed...
March 21, 2017: Infant Behavior & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340346/the-upsides-and-downsides-of-organelle-interconnectivity
#4
REVIEW
Daniel E Gottschling, Thomas Nyström
Interconnectivity and feedback control are hallmarks of biological systems. This includes communication between organelles, which allows them to function and adapt to changing cellular environments. While the specific mechanisms for all communications remain opaque, unraveling the wiring of organelle networks is critical to understand how biological systems are built and why they might collapse, as occurs in aging. A comprehensive understanding of all the routes involved in inter-organelle communication is still lacking, but important themes are beginning to emerge, primarily in budding yeast...
March 23, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339382/menopausal-symptom-relief-and-side-effects-experienced-by-women-using-compounded-bioidentical-hormone-replacement-therapy-and-synthetic-conjugated-equine-estrogen-and-or-progestin-hormone-replacement-therapy-part-2
#5
Laura J Deleruyelle
The use of compounded bioidentical hormone replacement therapy by menopausal women has become a popular alternative to traditional synthetic conjugated equine estrogen and progestin hormone replacement therapy due to safety concerns raised by recent studies. However, due to the lack of randomized, large-scale trials to evaluate the efficacy and side-effect profile of compounded bioidentical hormone replacement therapy many healthcare providers are reluctant to prescribe such therapy. The purpose of this study was to compare women's menopausal symptom relief and side effects experienced when using compounded bioidentical hormone replacement therapy and traditional hormone replacement therapy...
November 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339370/menopausal-symptom-relief-and-side-effects-experienced-by-women-using-bioidentical-hormone-replacement-therapy-and-synthetic-conjugated-equine-estrogen-and-or-progestin-hormone-replacement-therapy-part-1
#6
Laura J Deleruyelle
The use of compounded bioidentical hormone replacement therapy by menopausal women has become a popular alternative to traditional synthetic conjugated equine estrogen and progestin hormone replacement therapy due to safety concerns raised by recent studies. However, due to the lack of randomized, large-scale trials to evaluate the efficacy and side-effect profile of compounded bioidentical hormone replacement therapy many healthcare providers are reluctant to prescribe such therapy. The purpose of this study was to compare women's menopausal symptom relief and side effects experienced when using compounded bioidentical hormone replacement therapy and traditional hormone replacement therapy...
September 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338037/psychological-approaches-to-behaviour-for-improving-plaque-control
#7
Brett Duane
Data sourcesThe Cochrane Oral Health Groups Trial Register, Medline, Embase and PsycINFO.Study selectionRandomised controlled trials (RCTs), controlled clinical trials (CCTs), cohort studies or case-control studies were considered. Only studies in patients aged 18 or older with pre-existing periodontal disease and clearly stating a psychological model or theory had been used were included. Studies exploring smoking cessation were not included.Data extraction and synthesisAll data were collected by a single author using pre-decided parameters...
March 2017: Evidence-based Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337159/hey-teacher-don-t-leave-them-kids-alone-action-is-better-for-memory-than-reading
#8
Mathieu Hainselin, Laurence Picard, Patrick Manolli, Sophie Vankerkore-Candas, Béatrice Bourdin
There is no consensus on how the enactment effect (EE), although it is robust, enhances memory. Researchers are currently investigating the cognitive processes underlying this effect, mostly during adulthood; the link between EE and crucial function identified in adulthood such as episodic memory and binding process remains elusive. Therefore, this study aims to verify the existence of EE in 6-10 years old and assess cognitive functions potentially linked to this effect in order to shed light on the mechanisms underlying the EE during childhood...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337156/lack-of-evidence-that-neural-empathic-responses-are-blunted-in-excessive-users-of-violent-video-games-an-fmri-study
#9
Gregor R Szycik, Bahram Mohammadi, Thomas F Münte, Bert T Te Wildt
The use of violent video games has been often linked to increase of aggressive behavior. According to the General Aggression Model, one of the central mechanisms for this aggressiveness inducing impact is an emotional desensitization process resulting from long lasting repeated violent game playing. This desensitization should evidence itself in a lack of empathy. Recent research has focused primarily on acute, short term impact of violent media use but only little is known about long term effects. In this study 15 excessive users of violent games and control subjects matched for age and education viewed pictures depicting emotional and neutral situations with and without social interaction while fMRI activations were obtained...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337021/different-drugs-for-bad-bugs-antivirulence-strategies-in-the-age-of-antibiotic-resistance
#10
REVIEW
Seth W Dickey, Gordon Y C Cheung, Michael Otto
The rapid evolution and dissemination of antibiotic resistance among bacterial pathogens are outpacing the development of new antibiotics, but antivirulence agents provide an alternative. These agents can circumvent antibiotic resistance by disarming pathogens of virulence factors that facilitate human disease while leaving bacterial growth pathways - the target of traditional antibiotics - intact. Either as stand-alone medications or together with antibiotics, these drugs are intended to treat bacterial infections in a largely pathogen-specific manner...
March 24, 2017: Nature Reviews. Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336355/estimated-hiv-inter-test-interval-among-people-at-high-risk-for-hiv-infection-in-the-u-s
#11
Qian An, Ruiguang Song, Teresa J Finlayson, Cyprian Wejnert, Gabriela Paz-Bailey
INTRODUCTION: Knowing the HIV testing frequency and its temporal changes are central to evaluate public adherence to HIV testing recommendations and performance of HIV prevention programs. This study intended to estimate the mean HIV inter-test interval (ITI) and monitor its trends among men who have sex with men (MSM); people who inject drugs (PWID); and high-risk heterosexuals (HRH). METHODS: Using National HIV Behavioral Surveillance data collected during 2008-2015, this analysis estimated the mean HIV ITI for each year by race/ethnicity and age among MSM, PWID, and HRH who reported the most recent HIV test date...
March 20, 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335519/translating-developmental-origins-improving-the-health-of-women-and-their-children-using-a-sustainable-approach-to-behaviour-change
#12
Mary Barker, Janis Baird, Tannaze Tinati, Christina Vogel, Sofia Strömmer, Taylor Rose, Rufia Begum, Megan Jarman, Jenny Davies, Sue Thompson, Liz Taylor, Hazel Inskip, Cyrus Cooper, Don Nutbeam, Wendy Lawrence
Theories of the developmental origins of health and disease imply that optimising the growth and development of babies is an essential route to improving the health of populations. A key factor in the growth of babies is the nutritional status of their mothers. Since women from more disadvantaged backgrounds have poorer quality diets and the worst pregnancy outcomes, they need to be a particular focus. The behavioural sciences have made a substantial contribution to the development of interventions to support dietary changes in disadvantaged women...
March 20, 2017: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334379/influence-of-different-hazelnut-cultivars-on-some-demographic-characteristics-of-the-filbert-aphid-hemiptera-aphididae
#13
Ali Güncan, Ebru Gümüs
The filbert aphid Myzocallis coryli (Goeze) is a serious pest of hazelnut in North America, Italy, Spain, and Turkey. To evaluate the resistance of hazelnut to this insect, aphids were reared on five major cultivars ('Tombul,' 'Palaz,' 'Çakıldak,' 'Foşa,' and 'Mincane') under laboratory conditions. The developmental times of preadult and adult stages, total longevity, reproduction, and life table parameters were analyzed according to age-stage, two-sex life table theory, in which the stage differentiation and variable developmental rates among individuals could be described...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333505/competing-cues-older-adults-rely-on-knowledge-in-the-face-of-fluency
#14
Nadia M Brashier, Sharda Umanath, Roberto Cabeza, Elizabeth J Marsh
Consumers regularly encounter repeated false claims in political and marketing campaigns, but very little empirical work addresses their impact among older adults. Repeated statements feel easier to process, and thus more truthful, than new ones (i.e., illusory truth). When judging truth, older adults' accumulated general knowledge may offset this perception of fluency. In two experiments, participants read statements that contradicted information stored in memory; a post-experimental knowledge check confirmed what individual participants knew...
March 23, 2017: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329869/50-years-of-cognitive-aging-theory
#15
Nicole D Anderson, Fergus I M Craik
Objectives: The objectives of this Introduction to the Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences special issue on "50 Years of Cognitive Aging Theory" are to provide a brief overview of cognitive aging research prior to 1965 and to highlight significant developments in cognitive aging theory over the last 50 years. Method: Historical and recent theories of cognitive aging were reviewed, with a particular focus on those not directly covered by the articles included in this special issue...
December 9, 2016: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329864/age-differences-in-cognitive-and-affective-theory-of-mind-concurrent-contributions-of-neurocognitive-performance-sex-and-pulse-pressure
#16
Ashley L Fischer, Norm O'Rourke, Wendy Loken Thornton
Objectives: Theory of mind (ToM) allows us to detect and make inferences about cognitive and affective mental states. Mixed findings exist regarding (a) age differences in cognitive and affective ToM and (b) what mechanisms may underlie changes in the two components. We addressed these questions by examining the unique and joint contributions of neurocognitive performance, pulse pressure (PP), and biological sex to age differences in cognitive and affective ToM. Method: We tested 86 young and 85 older adults on standardized measures of neurocognitive performance and ToM...
August 7, 2016: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329861/varying-appraisals-of-elder-mistreatment-among-victims-findings-from-a-population-based-study
#17
David Burnes, Mark S Lachs, Denise Burnette, Karl Pillemer
Objectives: Prior elder mistreatment (EM) research has not examined subjective assessments of problem seriousness from the perspective of victims. This study sought to describe the variation in appraisals of perceived EM seriousness among victims of emotional abuse, physical abuse, and neglect and to examine factors that influence varying appraisals using neutralization theory. Methods: Data came from a subsample of EM victims (n = 191) drawn from a representative, population-based study (n = 4,156) of community-dwelling, cognitively intact older adults in New York State...
March 6, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329860/modeling-intraindividual-dynamics-using-stochastic-differential-equations-age-differences-in-affect-regulation
#18
Julie Wood, Zita Oravecz, Nina Vogel, Lizbeth Benson, Sy-Miin Chow, Pamela Cole, David E Conroy, Aaron L Pincus, Nilam Ram
Objectives: Life-span theories of aging suggest improvements and decrements in individuals' ability to regulate affect. Dynamic process models, with intensive longitudinal data, provide new opportunities to articulate specific theories about individual differences in intraindividual dynamics. This paper illustrates a method for operationalizing affect dynamics using a multilevel stochastic differential equation (SDE) model, and examines how those dynamics differ with age and trait-level tendencies to deploy emotion regulation strategies (reappraisal and suppression)...
March 2, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329825/socioeconomic-status-and-physical-functioning-a-longitudinal-study-of-older-chinese-people
#19
Lei Yang, Hanna Konttinen, Pekka Martikainen, Karri Silventoinen
Objectives: We aimed to assess the longitudinal associations of socioeconomic status and physical functioning using a large population-based survey data in China. Method: We used four waves of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (2002-2011). Physical functioning was assessed by activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) measures. Socioeconomic status was assessed using educational attainment, occupational status, household income, financial resources, and access to health services...
February 16, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329799/a-theory-of-relational-ageism-a-discourse-analysis-of-the-2015-white-house-conference-on-aging
#20
Tracey L Gendron, Jennifer Inker, Elizabeth Ayn Welleford
Purpose: The widespread use of ageist language is generally accepted as commonplace and routine in most cultures and settings. In order to disrupt ageism, we must examine the use of ageist language and sentiments among those on the front line of providing advocacy, services, and policy for older adults; the professional culture of the aging services network. The recorded video segments from the sixth White House Conference on Aging (WHCOA) provided a unique opportunity to examine discourse used by professionals and appointed representatives in the field of aging within a professional sociocultural context...
January 24, 2017: Gerontologist
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