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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786589/bacterial-factors-of-cariogenicity-literature-review
#1
Mariia O Faustova, Maiia M Ananieva, Yaroslav O Basarab, Oksana V Dobrobolska, Iryna M Vovk, Galina A Loban'
OBJECTIVE: Introduction: According to the 2003 WHO report, dental caries affects from 60% to 90% of school-age children and adults that makes it one of the most common diseases worldwide. The aim was to systematize data about the modern conception of plaque formation and role of microorganisms in its development. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: Biblosemantic, 50 medical literature sources were systematically reviewed as the material for the research...
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784891/predicting-physical-activity-behavior-in-african-american-females-using-multi-theory-model
#2
Traci Hayes, Vinayak K Nahar, Manoj Sharma
BACKGROUND: Despite physical activity having several benefits, a considerable number of Americans do not engage in sufficient exercise. Among the high-risk groups are African American women. A recent theory, multi theory model (MTM) for health behavior change can be used to develop effective interventions. The objective of this research was to test MTM in its ability to predict physical activity behavior in African American women. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional study...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Research in Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784670/cancer-as-a-social-dysfunction-why-cancer-research-needs-new-thinking
#3
Kenneth J Pienta, Robert Axelrod
The incidence and mortality for many cancers continues to rise. As such, critical action is needed on many fronts to reshape how a society thinks, discusses, and fights cancer especially as the population grows and ages. Cancer can be described as a broken social contract which requires different conceptual frameworks such as game theory. To this end, it is our hope that this perspective will catalyze a discussion to rethink the way we approach, communicate, and fund cancer research - thinking of cancer as a broken social contract is only one example...
May 21, 2018: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783883/relocation-and-network-turnover-in-later-life-how-distance-moved-and-functional-health-are-linked-to-a-changing-social-convoy
#4
Philip J Badawy, Markus H Schafer, Haosen Sun
Life-course transitions among older adults often produce a reshuffling of social network members. Moving is a common experience for U.S. seniors, but relatively little is known about how core networks change amid the relocation process. Drawing on longitudinal data from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project, the present study examines how late-life moving is associated with changes to network size and the loss and gain of particular network members. We find that when older adults undertake a long-distance move, they tend to add more family to their core network-yet this is moderated by their initial level of functional health...
January 1, 2018: Research on Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782585/exploring-transformations-in-caribbean-indigenous-social-networks-through-visibility-studies-the-case-of-late-pre-colonial-landscapes-in-east-guadeloupe-french-west-indies
#5
Tom Brughmans, Maaike S de Waal, Corinne L Hofman, Ulrik Brandes
This paper presents a study of the visual properties of natural and Amerindian cultural landscapes in late pre-colonial East-Guadeloupe and of how these visual properties affected social interactions. Through a review of descriptive and formal visibility studies in Caribbean archaeology, it reveals that the ability of visual properties to affect past human behaviour is frequently evoked but the more complex of these hypotheses are rarely studied formally. To explore such complex hypotheses, the current study applies a range of techniques: total viewsheds, cumulative viewsheds, visual neighbourhood configurations and visibility networks...
2018: Journal of archaeological method and theory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782305/tatami-mats-a-source-of-pitted-keratolysis-in-a-martial-arts-athlete
#6
Anamaria Balić, Zrinka Bukvić Mokos, Branka Marinović, Daniela Ledić Drvar
Dear Editor, Pitted keratolysis (PK), also known as keratosis plantaris sulcatum, is a non-inflammatory, bacterial, superficial cutaneous infection, characterized by many discrete superficial crateriform ''pits'' and erosions in the thickly keratinized skin of the weight-bearing regions of the soles of the feet (1). The disease often goes unnoticed by the patient, but when it is noticed it is because of the unbearable malodor and hyperhidrosis of the feet, which are socially unacceptable and cause great anxiety to many of the patients...
April 2018: Acta Dermatovenerologica Croatica: ADC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781642/effects-of-aging-and-text-stimulus-quality-on-the-word-frequency-effect-during-chinese-reading
#7
Jingxin Wang, Lin Li, Sha Li, Fang Xie, Simon P Liversedge, Kevin B Paterson
Age-related reading difficulty is well established for alphabetic languages. Compared to young adults (18-30 years), older adults (65+ years) read more slowly, make more and longer fixations, make more regressions, and produce larger word-frequency effects. However, whether similar effects are observed for nonalphabetic languages like Chinese remains to be determined. In particular, recent research has suggested Chinese readers experience age-related reading difficulty but do not produce age differences in the word-frequency effect...
May 21, 2018: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780687/the-intention-to-use-hiv-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-prep-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-switzerland-testing-an-extended-explanatory-model-drawing-on-the-unified-theory-of-acceptance-and-use-of-technology-utaut
#8
Sibylle Nideröst, Daniel Gredig, Benedikt Hassler, Franziska Uggowitzer, Patrick Weber
Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the intention to use pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) when available and to identify predictors of the intention to use PrEP among men who have sex with men (MSM) living in Switzerland. The theoretical model drew on the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology and considered additional variables related specifically to PrEP, HIV protection and the resources of MSM. Subject and methods: For data collection, we used an anonymous, standardized self-administered online questionnaire...
2018: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779433/age-differences-in-the-neural-response-to-negative-feedback
#9
Holly J Bowen, Cheryl L Grady, Julia Spaniol
Affective processing is one domain that remains relatively intact in healthy aging. Investigations into the neural responses associated with reward anticipation have revealed that older and younger adults recruit the same midbrain reward regions, but other evidence suggests this recruitment may differ depending on the valence (gain, loss) of the incentive cue. The goal of the current study was to examine functional covariance during gain and loss feedback in younger and healthy older adults. A group of 15 older adults (mean age = 68...
May 21, 2018: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777472/circumscribed-interests-and-attention-in-autism-the-role-of-biological-sex
#10
Clare Harrop, Desiree Jones, Shuting Zheng, Sallie Nowell, Brian A Boyd, Noah Sasson
Recent studies suggest that circumscribed interests (CI) in females with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) may align more closely with interests reported in typical female development than those typically reported for ASD males. We used eye-tracking to quantify attention to arrays containing combinations of male, female and neutral images in elementary-aged males and females with and without ASD. A number of condition × sex effects emerged, with both groups attending to images that corresponded with interests typically associated with their biological sex...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774584/-i-can-see-fine-patient-knowledge-of-eye-care
#11
Elizabeth L Irving, Alisa M Sivak, Marlee M Spafford
PURPOSE: To learn more about the perceptions and attitudes toward eye care of members of the public - in particular, their knowledge of the purpose, components and providers of eye examinations, their ability to self-monitor ocular status and their awareness of major sight threatening eye conditions. METHODS: This study used the qualitative research strategy, grounded theory. Participants were recruited via poster and social media. Two researchers, one with optometric knowledge and one without, moderated seven 60- to 90-min, semi-structured focus group discussions, which were audiotaped and transcribed...
May 17, 2018: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773688/understanding-patients-perceptions-of-asthma-control-a-qualitative-study
#12
Natalie Bidad, Neil Barnes, Chris Griffiths, Rob Horne
Asthma control is suboptimal for many sufferers despite the existence of effective treatments. Patients' self-management is influenced by their perceptions of asthma and its treatment. This study explored sufferers' perceptions of asthma control and their influence on self-management behaviours.Participants (n=42) recruited from primary and secondary care asthma clinics in London each underwent a qualitative interview exploring perceptions and experiences of asthma control. Purposive sampling ensured variation in disease severity, degree of asthma control, age and socioeconomic status...
May 17, 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772799/income-and-self-rated-mental-health-diminished-returns-for-high-income-black-americans
#13
Shervin Assari, Lisa M Lapeyrouse, Harold W Neighbors
Background: The minorities' diminished return theory suggests that socioeconomic position (SEP) generates smaller health gains for racial/ethnic minorities compared to Whites. The current study was a Black⁻White comparison of the association between household income and self-rated mental health (SRMH). Methods: This cross-sectional study used data from the 2017 State of the State Survey (SOSS). With representative sampling, the SOSS generates results that are generalizable to the state of Michigan. This study included 881 adults, ( n = 92) Black and ( n = 782) White...
May 17, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771880/-anti-vegf-therapy-for-diabetic-macular-edema-from-theory-to-clinical-practice
#14
A Zh Fursova, N V Chubar, M S Tarasov, I F Niculich, M A Vasilyeva, O G Gusarevich
PURPOSE: To evaluate clinical effectiveness of aflibercept therapy for patients with diabetic macular edema (DME) - both naïve to the drug and unresponsive to previous anti-VEGF treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 127 patients (127 eyes) divided into two groups. The first group consisted of 100 primary DME patients (100 eyes) with mean age of 68.48±2.56 years and average disease duration of 12.50±7.85 years. The second group comprised 27 patients (27 eyes) with resistant macular edema who had received three or more 0...
2018: Vestnik Oftalmologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771819/sharing-as-a-model-for-understanding-division
#15
Alexa Ellis, Xiaosu Hu, Craig E Smith, Pamela E Davis-Kean, Ioulia Kovelman
Emerging research suggests that children's ability to divide is the best predictor of later arithmetic development. Although division is typically taught around grade 3, children much younger than this practice division when sharing and allocating resources (e.g. sharing food). To test the hypothesis that social sharing abilities are linked to the emergence of complex numerical division abilities, we examined sharing and division abilities in adults and children. The first study used functional near infrared spectroscopy to examine the neurocognitive bases of division in adults (N=28; age range: 18-23 years) during a task that evaluated their judgment of proportions in the context of sharing, as well as traditional numerical division tasks...
May 16, 2018: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771308/what-do-older-people-do-when-sitting-and-why-implications-for-decreasing-sedentary-behavior
#16
Victoria J Palmer, Cindy M Gray, Claire F Fitzsimons, Nanette Mutrie, Sally Wyke, Ian J Deary, Geoff Der, Sebastien F M Chastin, Dawn A Skelton
Background and Objectives: Sitting less can reduce older adults' risk of ill health and disability. Effective sedentary behavior interventions require greater understanding of what older adults do when sitting (and not sitting), and why. This study compares the types, context, and role of sitting activities in the daily lives of older men and women who sit more or less than average. Research Design and Methods: Semistructured interviews with 44 older men and women of different ages, socioeconomic status, and objectively measured sedentary behavior were analyzed using social practice theory to explore the multifactorial, inter-relational influences on their sedentary behavior...
May 15, 2018: Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768993/levels-of-coercive-control-differentiate-between-groups-of-victims-of-intimate-partner-violence-in-colombia
#17
Ana L Jaramillo-Sierra, Luz A Carvajal-Villalobos
The authors used Johnson's typology of intimate partner violence (IPV) to examine groupings of women experiencing physical violence within their intimate relationships according to coercive control levels. Analyses were conducted using data from the 2010 Colombian Demographic and Health Survey. In particular, the authors used a subsample of 12,237 ever-married (or cohabitating) women between the ages of 14 and 49 years, who reported at least one experience of physical violence. Exploratory and confirmatory cluster analyses demonstrated a good fit for a two-cluster solution based on coercive-control levels...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767850/forest-aging-disturbance-and-the-carbon-cycle
#18
REVIEW
Peter S Curtis, Christopher M Gough
Contents Summary I. Introduction II. Forest aging and carbon storage III. Successional trends of NEP in northern deciduous forests IV. Mechanisms sustaining NEP in aging deciduous forests Acknowledgements References SUMMARY: Large areas of forestland in temperate North America, as well as in other parts of the world, are growing older and will soon transition into middle and then late successional stages exceeding 100 yr in age. These ecosystems have been important regional carbon sinks as they recovered from prior anthropogenic and natural disturbance, but their future sink strength, or annual rate of carbon storage, is in question...
May 16, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766459/cognitive-functioning-in-chiari-malformation-type-i-without-posterior-fossa-surgery
#19
Maitane García, Esther Lázaro, Juan Francisco López-Paz, Oscar Martínez, Manuel Pérez, Sarah Berrocoso, Mohammad Al-Rashaida, Imanol Amayra
Chiari Malformation type I (CM-I) is a neurological disorder characterized by a displacement of the cerebellar tonsils through the foramen magnum into the spinal canal. Most research has focused on physical symptomatology but few studies include neuropsychological examinations. Moreover, although current research highlights the involvement of the cerebellum on higher cognitive functions, little is known about cognitive consequences associated with CM-I. The aim of this study is to analyze cognitive functioning between 39 CM-I patients and 39 healthy controls, matched by gender, age and years of education...
May 15, 2018: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765344/centeredness-theory-understanding-and-measuring-well-being-across-core-life-domains
#20
Zephyr T Bloch-Jorgensen, Patrick J Cilione, William W H Yeung, Justine M Gatt
Background: Centeredness Theory (CT) is proposed as a new mental health paradigm that focuses on well-being at a systems-level, across the core life domains of the self, the family unit, relationships, community, and work. The current studies aimed to validate the psychometric properties of a new scale that measures CT against existing well-being and mental health measures. Methods: Study 1 included 488 anonymous online respondents (46% females, 28% males, 25% unknown with median age between 31 and 35 years) across 38 countries who completed the CT scale...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
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