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Li Xie, Liqin Chen, Pan Gu, Lanlan Wei, Xuejun Kang
The extraction and analysis of catecholamine neurotransmitters in biological fluids is of great importance in assessing nervous system function and related diseases, but their precise measurement is still a challenge. Many protocols have been described for neurotransmitter measurement by a variety of instruments, including high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). However, there are shortcomings, such as complicated operation or hard-to-detect multiple targets, which cannot be avoided, and presently, the dominant analysis technique is still HPLC coupled with sensitive electrochemical or fluorimetric detection, due to its high sensitivity and good selectivity...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Ariel Finkielsztein, Lorraine Mascarenhas, Veronika Butin-Israeli, Ronen Sumagin
Polymorphonuclear neutrophil-derived microparticles (PMN)-MPs) are lipid bilayer, spherical microvesicles with sizes ranging from 50-1,000 nm in diameter. MPs are a newly evolving, important part of cell-to-cell communication and signaling machinery. Because of their size and the nature of their release, until recently MP existence was overlooked. However, with improved technology and analytical methods their function in health and disease is now emerging. The protocols presented here are aimed at isolating and characterizing PMN-MPs by flow cytometry and immunoblotting...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Hoda Fathali, Johan Dunevall, Soodabeh Majdi, Ann-Sofie Cans
Amperometry recording of cells subjected to osmotic shock show that secretory cells respond to this physical stress by reducing the exocytosis activity and the amount of neurotransmitter released from vesicles in single exocytosis events. It has been suggested that the reduction in neurotransmitters expelled is due to alterations in membrane biophysical properties when cells shrink in response to osmotic stress and with assumptions made that secretory vesicles in the cell cytoplasm are not affected by extracellular osmotic stress...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Ron J Smith
BACKGROUND: Siege, a process of political domination aimed at isolating an entire population, is a unique threat to health-care provision. The aim of this study was to qualitatively examine the effects of the Israeli siege on the practices and systems that underlie health in the Gaza Strip. METHODS: Data were from participant observation between 2009 and 2017, including 20 interviews with doctors and health administrators in non-governmental organisations (NGO), government, and UN sectors...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Angélique Rousseau, Stéphanie La Carbona, Aurélien Dumètre, Lucy J Robertson, Gilles Gargala, Sandie Escotte-Binet, Loïc Favennec, Isabelle Villena, Cédric Gérard, Dominique Aubert
Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp. and Toxoplasma gondii are protozoan parasites that have been highlighted as emerging foodborne pathogens by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the World Health Organization. According to the European Food Safety Authority, 4786 foodborne and waterborne outbreaks were reported in Europe in 2016, of which 0.4% were attributed to parasites including Cryptosporidium, Giardia and Trichinella. Until 2016, no standardized methods were available to detect Giardia, Cryptosporidium and Toxoplasma (oo)cysts in food...
2018: Parasite: Journal de la Société Française de Parasitologie
Hayley Treloar Padovano, Robert Miranda
OBJECTIVE: The present study used youth's in vivo reports of subjective responses to cannabis while smoking in their natural environments to identify real-world mechanisms of topiramate treatment for cannabis misuse. METHOD: Participants were 40 cannabis users (≥ twice weekly in past 30 days), ages 15-24 years (47.5% female), with at least one cannabis use episode during the final 3 weeks of a 6-week, randomized clinical trial. Youth reported subjective "high" while smoking, stimulation, sedation, stress, craving, and grams of marijuana used in the natural environment via wireless electronic devices...
March 2018: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
Kevin A Hallgren, Adam D Wilson, Katie Witkiewitz
OBJECTIVE: Interest in studying mechanisms of behavior change (MOBCs) in substance use disorder (SUD) treatments has grown considerably in the past two decades. Much of this work has focused on identifying which variables statistically mediate the effect of SUD treatments on clinical outcomes. However, a fuller conceptualization of MOBCs will require greater understanding of questions that extend beyond traditional mediation analysis, including better understanding of when MOBCs change during treatment, when they are most critical to aiding the initiation or maintenance of change, and how MOBCs themselves arise as a function of treatment processes...
March 2018: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
Kenneth B Bader
Histotripsy is a form of therapeutic ultrasound that liquefies tissue mechanically via acoustic cavitation. Bubble expansion is paramount in the efficacy of histotripsy therapy, and the cavitation dynamics are strongly influenced by the medium elasticity. In this study, an analytic model to predict histotripsy-induced bubble expansion in a fluid was extended to include the effects of medium elasticity. Good agreement was observed between the predictions of the analytic model and numerical computations utilizing highly nonlinear excitations (shock-scattering histotripsy) and purely tensile pulses (microtripsy)...
March 19, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Christian Baeumer, Martin Janson, Beate Timmermann, Jörg Wulff
AIM: To assess if apertures shall be mounted upstream or downstream of a range shifting block if these field-shaping devices are combined with the pencil-beam scanning delivery technique (PBS). The lateral dose fall-off served as a benchmark parameter. Both options realizing PBS-with-apertures were compared to the uniform scanning mode. We also evaluated the difference regarding the out-of-field dose caused by interactions of protons in beam-shaping devices.
 Methods: The potential benefit of the downstream configuration over the upstream configuration was estimated analytically...
March 19, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Jackie M Poos, Lize C Jiskoot, Janne M Papma, John C van Swieten, Esther van den Berg
OBJECTIVES: A meta-analysis of the extent, nature and pattern of memory performance in behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD). Multiple observational studies have challenged the relative sparing of memory in bvFTD as stated in the current diagnostic criteria. METHODS: We performed a meta-analytic review covering the period 1967 to February 2017 of case-control studies on episodic memory in bvFTD versus control participants (16 studies, 383 patients, 603 control participants), and patients with bvFTD versus those with Alzheimer's disease (AD) (20 studies, 452 bvFTD, 874 AD)...
March 19, 2018: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
Anne Liveng, Heidi Myglegård Andersen, Sine Lehn-Christiansen
Health promotion constitutes a complex field of study, as it addresses multifaceted problems and involves a range of methods and theories. Students in the field of health promotion can find this challenging. To raise their level of reflexivity and support learning we have developed the "context model," which is presented in this article. The model provides a framework for the analysis of health-promotion initiatives, employing eight perspectives each intertwined with the others. It is based on the assumption that health and health inequities are contextual and that the theoretically inspired understanding of contexts is central for health promoters...
February 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
Alan J Bergmann, Gary L Points, Richard P Scott, Glenn Wilson, Kim A Anderson
With hundreds of thousands of chemicals in the environment, effective monitoring requires high-throughput analytical techniques. This paper presents a quantitative screening method for 1550 chemicals based on statistical modeling of responses with identification and integration performed using deconvolution reporting software. The method was evaluated with representative environmental samples. We tested biological extracts, low-density polyethylene, and silicone passive sampling devices spiked with known concentrations of 196 representative chemicals...
March 19, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Carolin Huhn
Glyphosate is the world's most heavily applied herbicide. Worldwide, re-approval processes by authorities are ongoing, accompanied by intense public and political discussions on its possible carcinogenic effects. Further aspects involve human dietary exposure, its fate in the environment, and its impact on ecosystems. Many of these aspects are not yet fully understood. In many instances, the analytical strategies developed and applied so far have strong limitations, given the challenging physicochemical characteristics of glyphosate and its metabolites...
March 19, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Tammy Toscos, Maria Carpenter, Mindy Flanagan, Kislaya Kunjan, Bradley N Doebbeling
Background: Despite health care access challenges among underserved populations, patients, providers, and staff at community health clinics (CHCs) have developed practices to overcome limited access. These "positive deviant" practices translate into organizational policies to improve health care access and patient experience. Objective: To identify effective practices to improve access to health care for low-income, uninsured or underinsured, and minority adults and their families...
January 2018: Health Services Research and Managerial Epidemiology
Suman Lahiry, Christopher Levi, Joosup Kim, Dominique A Cadilhac, Andrew Searles
Background: In regional and rural Australia, patients experiencing ischemic stroke do not have equitable access to an intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). Although thrombolysis with tPA is a clinically proven and cost-effective treatment for eligible stroke patients, there are few economic evaluations on pre-hospital triage interventions to improve access to tPA. Aim: To describe the potential cost-effectiveness of the pre-hospital acute stroke triage (PAST) protocol implemented to provide priority transfer of appropriate patients from smaller hospitals to a primary stroke center (PSC) in regional New South Wales, Australia...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Namita Mohindra, Zafar Neyaz, Vinita Agrawal, Gaurav Agarwal, Prabhakar Mishra
Context: Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is a new development in mammography technology which reduces the effect of overlapping tissue. Aims: The aim is to interrogate whether addition of DBT to digital mammography (DM) helps in better characterization of mammographic abnormalities in breast cancer patients in general and in different breast compositions. Settings and Design: Retrospective, analytical cross-sectional study. Subjects and Methods: Mammographic findings in 164 patients with 170 pathologically proven lesions were evaluated by using first DM alone and thereafter with addition of DBT to DM...
January 2018: International Journal of Applied and Basic Medical Research
Boy Braaf, Sabine Donner, Ahhyun S Nam, Brett E Bouma, Benjamin J Vakoc
Complex differential variance (CDV) provides phase-sensitive angiographic imaging for optical coherence tomography (OCT) with immunity to phase-instabilities of the imaging system and small-scale axial bulk motion. However, like all angiographic methods, measurement noise can result in erroneous indications of blood flow that confuse the interpretation of angiographic images. In this paper, a modified CDV algorithm that corrects for this noise-bias is presented. This is achieved by normalizing the CDV signal by analytically derived upper and lower limits...
February 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Feng Xue, Shaojun Shi, Zhenzhen Zhang, Cheng Xu, Jianxin Zheng, Tian Qin, Zhiyu Qian, Xiaoyu Zhao, Ying Tong, Lei Xia, Qiang Xia
Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) serves a primary function in metastasis and recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In the present study, in order to evaluate the analytical performance and clinical value of the liquid biopsy-based platform, a novel integrated subtraction enrichment and immunostaining-fluorescence in situ hybridization (iFISH® ) platform was applied to analyze CTCs in patients with HCC undergoing liver transplantation (LT). In total, 30 patients with HCC undergoing LT and 10 healthy volunteers were enrolled...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Xie-An Yu, John Teye Azietaku, Jin Li, Hui Wang, Fang Zheng, Jia Hao, Yan-Xu Chang
Ardisia japonica is a well-known traditional Chinese medicinal herb used as a diuretic, for treating cough and for stopping uterine bleeding. A simple, sensitive, and reliable LC-MS/MS method was developed to determine six active compounds in rat plasma and this method was further applied to the pharmacokinetic study of these compounds after oral administration of Ardisia japonica extract. Acetonitrile was used to precipitate the protein in the plasma samples. Using acetonitrile and formic acid aqueous solution (0...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Mary Anne Nurmi, Corey S Mackenzie, Kerstin Roger, Kristin Reynolds, James Urquhart
Although participating in community social programming is associated with positive physical and mental health outcomes for older adults, older men participate less often than women. Men's Sheds is a community programme used primarily by older men that originated in Australia and is well established there. The goal of the current study was to explore men's perceptions of the need for Men's Sheds and issues concerning access to them in Canada, a country with a small but growing Men's Sheds movement. We conducted focus groups with 64 men aged 55 years and older, including Men's Sheds members and men from the community who were unfamiliar with this programme, and analysed the data using the framework analytic approach...
April 2018: Ageing and Society
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