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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169069/anti-inflammatory-agents-in-peripheral-arterial-disease
#1
REVIEW
Alexios S Antonopoulos, Evi Papanikolaou, Georgia Vogiatzi, Evangelos Oikonomou, Dimitris Tousoulis
Inflammation is pivotally involved in coronary and peripheral atherosclerotic disease. This established concept is based on both experimental animal models of vascular inflammation and Mendelian randomization studies demonstrating a causal relationship between pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g. interleukin-6) and cardiovascular disease risk. More recently, the reduction of cardiovascular events by use of an interleukin-1β inhibitor (canakinumab) has revived interest in the use of anti-inflammatory agents for the treatment of atherosclerotic disease, including peripheral arterial disease...
November 20, 2017: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168448/a-competitive-enzyme-linked-immunosorbent-assay-for-rapid-detection-of-antibodies-against-trichinella-spiralis-and-t-britovi-one-test-for-humans-and-swine
#2
M Gnjatovic, A Gruden-Movsesijan, N Miladinovic-Tasic, N Ilic, S Vasilev, J Cvetkovic, Lj Sofronic-Milosavljevic
Infection with parasites from the Trichinella genus occurs in many vertebrates but disease only occurs in humans (trichinellosis). Humans are infected after the consumption of raw or undercooked meat from infected wild or domestic animals (usually swine or horses). Using the monoclonal antibody (mAb) 7C2C5, specific for an epitope unique to the muscle larvae of the genus Trichinella, we have developed a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA) that enables the rapid detection of Trichinella-specific antibodies in sera originating from two different host species (human, swine) infected with either Trichinella spiralis or Trichinella britovi...
November 23, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167572/anti-psl-targeting-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-biofilms-for-neutrophil-mediated-disruption
#3
Valerie A Ray, Preston J Hill, Kendall C Stover, Sashwati Roy, Chandan K Sen, Li Yu, Daniel J Wozniak, Antonio DiGiandomenico
Bacterial biofilms are recalcitrant to antibiotic therapy and a major cause of persistent and recurrent infections. New antibody-based therapies may offer potential to target biofilm specific components for host-cell mediated bacterial clearance. For Pseudomonas aeruginosa, human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) targeting the Psl biofilm exopolysaccharide exhibit protective activity against planktonic bacteria in acute infection models. However, anti-Psl mAb activity against P. aeruginosa biofilms is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that anti-Psl mAbs targeting three distinct Psl epitopes exhibit stratified binding in mature in vitro biofilms and bind Psl within the context of a chronic biofilm infection...
November 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167497/development-and-validation-of-scfv-conjugated-affinity-silk-protein-for-specific-detection-of-carcinoembryonic-antigen
#4
Mitsuru Sato, Hiroshi Kitani, Katsura Kojima
The production costs for monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) utilized in medical diagnostic kits are inevitably high because the MAbs are mostly obtained from hybridoma cell culture. Here, we report the development and validation of a novel affinity silk protein produced by transgenic silkworm technology as a possible alternative diagnostic tool for cancers. We generated a transgenic silkworm expressing a cDNA construct containing fibroin L-chain fused to a single-chain variable fragment (scFv) derived from a MAb against carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)...
November 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167344/comparison-of-the-efficacy-of-n9-neuraminidase-specific-monoclonal-antibodies-against-influenza-a-h7n9-virus-infection
#5
Hongquan Wan, Li Qi, Jin Gao, Laura K Couzens, Lianlian Jiang, Yamei Gao, Zong-Mei Sheng, Sharon Fong, Megan Hahn, Surender Khurana, Jeffery K Taubenberger, Maryna C Eichelberger
The fifth wave of A(H7N9) virus infection in China from 2016 to 2017 caused great concern due to the large number of individuals infected, the isolation of drug-resistant viruses and emergence of highly pathogenic strains. Antibodies against neuraminidase (NA) provide added benefit to hemagglutinin-specific immunity and may be an important contributor to the effectiveness of A(H7N9) vaccines. We generated a panel of mouse monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to identify antigenic domains on NA of the novel A(H7N9) virus and compared their functional properties...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167342/antibodies-directed-towards-neuraminidase-n1-control-disease-in-a-mouse-model-of-influenza
#6
E R Job, M Schotsaert, L I Ibañez, A Smet, T Ysenbaert, K Roose, M Dai, C A M de Haan, H Kleanthous, T U Vogel, X Saelens
There is increasing evidence to suggest that antibodies directed towards influenza A virus (IAV) neuraminidase (NA) are an important correlate of protection against influenza in humans. Moreover, the potential of NA-specific antibodies to provide broader protection than conventional hemagglutinin (HA) antibodies has been recognized. Herein, we describe the isolation of two monoclonal antibodies, N1-7D3 and N1-C4, directed towards the N1 NA. N1-7D3 binds to a conserved linear epitope in the membrane distal, carboxy-terminal part of the NA and reacted with the NA of seasonal H1N1 isolates ranging from 1977 till 2007 the 2009 H1N1pdm virus as well as A/Vietnam/1194/04 (H5N1)...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167197/rare-pfcsp-c-terminal-antibodies-induced-by-live-sporozoite-vaccination-are-ineffective-against-malaria-infection
#7
Stephen W Scally, Rajagopal Murugan, Alexandre Bosch, Gianna Triller, Giulia Costa, Benjamin Mordmüller, Peter G Kremsner, B Kim Lee Sim, Stephen L Hoffman, Elena A Levashina, Hedda Wardemann, Jean-Philippe Julien
Antibodies against the central repeat of the Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) circumsporozoite protein (CSP) inhibit parasite activity and correlate with protection from malaria. However, the humoral response to the PfCSP C terminus (C-PfCSP) is less well characterized. Here, we describe B cell responses to C-PfCSP from European donors who underwent immunization with live Pf sporozoites (PfSPZ Challenge) under chloroquine prophylaxis (PfSPZ-CVac), and were protected against controlled human malaria infection. Out of 215 PfCSP-reactive monoclonal antibodies, only two unique antibodies were specific for C-PfCSP, highlighting the rare occurrence of C-PfCSP-reactive B cells in PfSPZ-CVac-induced protective immunity...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166841/noninvasive-optical-and-nuclear-imaging-of-staphylococcus-specific-infection-with-a-human-monoclonal-antibody-based-probe
#8
Francisco Romero Pastrana, John M Thompson, Marjolein Heuker, Hedzer Hoekstra, Carly A Dillen, Roger V Ortines, Alyssa G Ashbaugh, Julie E Pickett, Matthijs D Linssen, Nicholas M Bernthal, Kevin P Francis, Girbe Buist, Marleen van Oosten, Gooitzen M van Dam, Daniel L J Thorek, Lloyd S Miller, Jan Maarten van Dijl
Staphylococcus aureus infections are a major threat in healthcare, requiring adequate early-stage diagnosis and treatment. This calls for novel diagnostic tools that allow noninvasive in vivo detection of staphylococci. Here we performed a preclinical study to investigate a novel fully-human monoclonal antibody 1D9 that specifically targets the immunodominant staphylococcal antigen A (IsaA). We show that 1D9 binds invariantly to S. aureus cells and may further target other staphylococcal species. Importantly, using a human post-mortem implant model and an in vivo murine skin infection model, preclinical feasibility was demonstrated for 1D9 labeled with the near-infrared fluorophore IRDye800CW to be applied for direct optical imaging of in vivo S...
November 23, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165857/isolation-of-phage-display-library-derived-scfv-antibody-specific-to-listeria-monocytogenes-by-a-novel-immobilized-method
#9
Nguyen Xuan-Hung, Thu-Le Trinh, Huong Thi-Bich Vu, Huan Quang Le, Anh To Kim
AIMS: To select Listeria monocytogenes specific scFv antibodies from a phage display library by a novel simple and cost-effective immobilization method. METHODS AND RESULTS: Light Expanded Clay Aggregate (LECA) was used as biomass support matrix for biopanning of a phage display library to select Listeria monocytogenes specific scFv antibody. Four rounds of positive selection against LECA-immobilized L. monocytogenes and an additional subtractive panning against L...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164954/a-systematic-review-of-ustekinumab-in-the-treatment-of-atopic-dermatitis
#10
Yunlei Pan, Lina Xu, Jianjun Qiao, Hong Fang
Ustekinumab is a human monoclonal IgG1 antibody targeting the p40 subunit shared by IL-12 and IL-23. We reviewed the published literature by searching from PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science and ClinicalTrial.gov to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ustekinumab in the treatment of AD. Ten studies including eight cases and two RCT, comprising 107 patients, were included in the systematic review. Analysis all studies, a total of 58 patients (54.2%) gained an effective treatment with little adverse events. Ustekinumab is a well-tolerated and safe treatment with no significant difference in effect from placebo in patients with AD...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Dermatological Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164268/mapping-of-the-binding-sites-of-human-diamine-oxidase-dao-monoclonal-antibodies
#11
Hubert G Schwelberger, Johannes Feurle, Gunnar Houen
OBJECTIVE: Recently we characterized five mouse monoclonal antibodies that allow the specific and sensitive detection of human diamine oxidase (DAO). To understand differences in binding characteristics and recognition of enzyme variants, we mapped the antibody binding sites. METHODS: Fragments of human DAO were expressed as glutathione-S-transferase fusion proteins that were used for testing antibody binding on immunoblots. Combined information from species cross-reactivity, sequence comparison and binding site-prediction software were used to localize the epitope recognized by each antibody...
November 21, 2017: Inflammation Research: Official Journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164232/mast-cell-derived-tryptase-in-geographic-atrophy
#12
D Scott McLeod, Imran Bhutto, Malia M Edwards, Manasee Gedam, Rajkumar Baldeosingh, Gerard A Lutty
Purpose: Our previous study demonstrated significantly more degranulating mast cells (MCs) in choroids from subjects with age-related macular degeneration compared to aged controls. This study examined the immunolocalization of tryptase, the most abundant MC secretory granule-derived serine protease, in aged control eyes and eyes with geographic atrophy (GA). Methods: Postmortem human eyes with and without GA were obtained from the National Disease Research Interchange...
November 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163822/structural-basis-of-the-therapeutic-anti-pd-l1-antibody-atezolizumab
#13
Fei Zhang, Xiaoqiang Qi, Xiaoxiao Wang, Diyang Wei, Jiawei Wu, Lingling Feng, Haiyan Cai, Yugang Wang, Naiyan Zeng, Ting Xu, Aiwu Zhou, Ying Zheng
Monoclonal antibodies targeting PD-1/PD-L1 signaling pathway have achieved unprecedented success in cancer treatment over the last few years. Atezolizumab is the first PD-L1 monoclonal antibody approved by US FDA for cancer therapy; however the molecular basis of atezolizumab in blocking PD-1/PD-L1 interaction is not fully understood. Here we have solved the crystal structure of PD-L1/atezolizumab complex at 2.9 angstrom resolution. The structure shows that atezolizumab binds the front beta-sheet of PD-L1 through three CDR loops from the heavy chain and one CDR loop from the light chain...
October 27, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163543/interleukin-6-present-in-inflammatory-ascites-from-advanced-epithelial-ovarian-cancer-patients-promotes-tumor-necrosis-factor-receptor-2-expressing-regulatory-t-cells
#14
Nirmala Chandralega Kampan, Mutsa Tatenda Madondo, Orla M McNally, Andrew N Stephens, Michael A Quinn, Magdalena Plebanski
Background: Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) remains a highly lethal gynecological malignancy. Ascites, an accumulation of peritoneal fluid present in one-third of patients at presentation, is linked to poor prognosis. High levels of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in ascites are correlated with tumor progression and reduced survival. Malignant ascites harbors high levels of Tregs expressing the tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 (TNFR2), as well as pro-inflammatory factors such as interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163536/drug-hypersensitivity-and-anaphylaxis-in-cancer-and-chronic-inflammatory-diseases-the-role-of-desensitizations
#15
REVIEW
Mariana Castells
Drug allergy is a rising problem in the twenty-first century which affects all populations and races, children, and adults, and for which the recognition, diagnosis, management, and treatment is still not well standardized. Classical and new chemotherapy drugs, monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs), and small molecules to treat cancer and chronic inflammatory diseases are aimed at improving quality of life and life expectancy of patients, but an increasing number of reactions including anaphylaxis precludes their use in targeted populations...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163523/interleukin-5-mediates-parasite-induced-protection-against-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-association-with-induction-of-antigen-specific-cd4-cd25-t-regulatory-cells
#16
Giang T Tran, Paul L Wilcox, Lindsay A Dent, Catherine M Robinson, Nicole Carter, Nirupama D Verma, Bruce M Hall, Suzanne J Hodgkinson
Objective: To examine if the protective effect of parasite infection on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) was due to interleukin (IL)-5, a cytokine produced by a type-2 response that induces eosinophilia. We hypothesize that, in parasite infections, IL-5 also promotes expansion of antigen-specific T regulatory cells that control autoimmunity. Methods: Nippostrongylus brasiliensis larvae were used to infect Lewis rats prior to induction of EAE by myelin basic protein...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163518/mixed-signals-co-stimulation-in-invariant-natural-killer-t-cell-mediated-cancer-immunotherapy
#17
REVIEW
Susannah C Shissler, Michael S Lee, Tonya J Webb
Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells are an integral component of the immune system and play an important role in antitumor immunity. Upon activation, iNKT cells can directly kill malignant cells as well as rapidly produce cytokines that stimulate other immune cells, making them a front line defense against tumorigenesis. Unfortunately, iNKT cell number and activity are reduced in multiple cancer types. This anergy is often associated with upregulation of co-inhibitory markers such as programmed death-1...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163515/nanobody-based-delivery-systems-for-diagnosis-and-targeted-tumor-therapy
#18
REVIEW
Yaozhong Hu, Changxiao Liu, Serge Muyldermans
The development of innovative targeted therapeutic approaches are expected to surpass the efficacy of current forms of treatments and cause less damage to healthy cells surrounding the tumor site. Since the first development of targeting agents from hybridoma's, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have been employed to inhibit tumor growth and proliferation directly or to deliver effector molecules to tumor cells. However, the full potential of such a delivery strategy is hampered by the size of mAbs, which will obstruct the targeted delivery system to access the tumor tissue...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163501/herceptin-enhances-the-antitumor-effect-of-natural-killer-cells-on-breast-cancer-cells-expressing-human-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-2
#19
Xiao Tian, Feng Wei, Limei Wang, Wenwen Yu, Naining Zhang, Xinwei Zhang, Ying Han, Jinpu Yu, Xiubao Ren
Optimal adoptive cell therapy (ACT) should contribute to effective cancer treatment. The unique ability of natural killer (NK) cells to kill cancer cells independent of major histocompatibility requirement makes them suitable as ACT tools. Herceptin, an antihuman epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (anti-HER2) monoclonal antibody, is used to treat HER2(+) breast cancer. However, it has limited effectiveness and possible severe cardiotoxicity. Given that Herceptin may increase the cytotoxicity of lymphocytes, we explored the possible augmentation of NK cell cytotoxicity against HER2(+) breast cancer cells by Herceptin...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163468/the-role-of-natural-antibodies-to-cc-chemokine-receptor-5-in-hiv-infection
#20
REVIEW
Assunta Venuti, Claudia Pastori, Lucia Lopalco
The CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) is responsible for immune and inflammatory responses by mediation of chemotactic activity in leukocytes, although it is expressed on different cell types. It has been shown to act as co-receptor for the human and simian immunodeficiency viruses (HIV-1, HIV-2, and SIV). Natural reactive antibodies (Abs) recognizing first loop (ECL1) of CCR5 have been detected in several pools of immunoglobulins from healthy donors and from several cohorts of either HIV-exposed but uninfected subjects (ESN) or HIV-infected individuals who control disease progression (LTNP) as well...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
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