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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109186/interleukin-1-as-a-mediator-of-fatigue-in-disease-a-narrative-review
#1
REVIEW
Megan E Roerink, Marieke E van der Schaaf, Charles A Dinarello, Hans Knoop, Jos W M van der Meer
Fatigue is commonly reported in a variety of illnesses, and it has major impact on quality of life. Previously, it was thought that fatigue originates in the skeletal muscles, leading to cessation of activity. However, more recently, it has become clear that the brain is the central regulator of fatigue perception. It has been suggested that pro-inflammatory cytokines, especially interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1α) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), play a prominent role in the development of central fatigue, and several studies have been performed to elucidate the connection between inflammation and these central processes...
January 21, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103799/comparative-rna-seq-based-transcriptomic-analysis-of-bud-dormancy-in-grape
#2
Muhammad Khalil-Ur-Rehman, Long Sun, Chun-Xia Li, Muhammad Faheem, Wu Wang, Jian-Min Tao
BACKGROUND: Bud dormancy is an important biological phenomenon of perennial plants that enables them to survive under harsh environmental circumstances. Grape (Vitis vinifera) is one of the most grown fruit crop worldwide; however, underlying mechanisms involved in grape bud dormancy are not yet clear. This work was aimed to explore the underlying molecular mechanism regulating bud dormancy in grape. RESULTS: We have performed transcriptome and differential transcript expression analyses of "Shine Muscat" grape buds using the Illumina RNA-seq system...
January 19, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102546/ataluren-and-similar-compounds-specific-therapies-for-premature-termination-codon-class-i-mutations-for-cystic-fibrosis
#3
REVIEW
Aisha A Aslam, Colin Higgins, Ian P Sinha, Kevin W Southern
BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis is a common life-shortening genetic disorder in the Caucasian population (less common in other ethnic groups) caused by the mutation of a single gene that codes for the production of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator protein. This protein coordinates the transport of salt (and bicarbonate) across cell surfaces and the mutation most notably affects the airways. In the lungs of people with cystic fibrosis, defective protein results in a dehydrated surface liquid and compromised mucociliary clearance...
January 19, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101712/herbicides-and-trace-metals-in-urban-waters-in-melbourne-australia-2011-12-concentrations-and-potential-impact
#4
Mayumi Allinson, Pei Zhang, AnhDuyen Bui, Jackie H Myers, Vincent Pettigrove, Gavin Rose, Scott A Salzman, Robert Walters, Graeme Allinson
Urban stormwater samples were collected from five aquatic systems in Melbourne, Australia, on six occasions between October 2011 and March 2012 and tested for 30 herbicides and 14 trace metals. Nineteen different herbicides were observed in one or more water samples from the five sites; chemicals observed at more than 40% of sites were simazine (100%), MCPA (83%), diuron (63%) and atrazine (53%). Using the toxicity unit (TU) concept to assess potential risk to aquatic ecosystems, none of the detected herbicides were considered to pose an individual, group or collective short-term risk to fish or zooplankton in the waters studied...
January 19, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100849/the-role-genes-encoding-of-killer-cell-immunoglobulin-like-receptors-kirs-and-their-ligands-in-susceptibility-to-and-progression-of-hiv-infection
#5
Olga Błachowicz, Katarzyna Zwolińska
NK cells are a part of the innate antiviral response. Their activity is regulated by signals from the surface receptors. Some of them, known as killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs), determine the quality and intensity of the immunological response, together with their ligands (HLA class I). KIR genes are very polymorphic, and this is reflected in the NK activity modulation. The stimulation of NK cells, especially in the early stages of the infection, can reduce the transmission of HIV or slow down the progression of infection...
December 31, 2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099848/biophysical-attributes-of-cpg-presentation-control-tlr9-signaling-to-differentially-polarize-systemic-immune-responses
#6
Jardin A Leleux, Pallab Pradhan, Krishnendu Roy
It is currently unknown whether and how mammalian pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs) respond to biophysical patterns of pathogen-associated molecular danger signals. Using synthetic pathogen-like particles (PLPs) that mimic physical properties of bacteria or large viruses, we have discovered that the quality and quantity of Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) signaling by CpG in mouse dendritic cells (mDCs) are uniquely dependent on biophysical attributes; specifically, the surface density of CpG and size of the presenting PLP...
January 17, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090761/modest-overexpression-of-foxo-maintains-cardiac-proteostasis-and-ameliorates-age-associated-functional-decline
#7
Anna C Blice-Baum, Alexander C Zambon, Gaurav Kaushik, Meera C Viswanathan, Adam J Engler, Rolf Bodmer, Anthony Cammarato
Heart performance declines with age. Impaired protein quality control (PQC), due to reduced ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) activity, autophagic function, and/or chaperone-mediated protein refolding, contributes to cardiac deterioration. The transcription factor FOXO participates in regulating genes involved in PQC, senescence, and numerous other processes. Here, a comprehensive approach, involving molecular genetics, novel assays to probe insect cardiac physiology, and bioinformatics, was utilized to investigate the influence of heart-restricted manipulation of dFOXO expression in the rapidly aging Drosophila melanogaster model...
February 2017: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088344/design-control-considerations-for-biologic-device-combination-products
#8
Dave Anderson, Roger Liu, J Anand Subramony, Jon Cammack
Combination products are therapeutic and diagnostic medical products that combine drugs, devices, and/or biological products with one another. Historically, biologics development involved identifying efficacious doses administered to patients intravenously or perhaps by a syringe. Until fairly recently, there has been limited focus on developing an accompanying medical device, such as a prefilled syringe or auto-injector, to enable easy and more efficient delivery. For the last several years, and looking forward, where there may be little to distinguish biologics medicines with relatively similar efficacy profiles, the biotechnology market is beginning to differentiate products by patient-focused, biologic-device based combination products...
January 11, 2017: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079384/hypoxia-and-h2o2-dual-sensitive-vesicles-for-enhanced-glucose-responsive-insulin-delivery
#9
Jicheng Yu, Chenggen Qian, Yuqi Zhang, Zheng Cui, Yong Zhu, Qundong Shen, Frances S Ligler, John B Buse, Zhen Gu
A glucose-responsive closed-loop insulin delivery system mimicking pancreas activity without long-term side effect has the potential to improve diabetic patients' health and quality of life. Here, we developed a novel glucose-responsive insulin delivery device using a painless microneedle-array patch containing insulin-loaded vesicles. Formed by self-assembly of hypoxia and H2O2 dual-sensitive diblock copolymer, the glucose-responsive polymersome-based vesicles (d-GRPs) can disassociate and subsequently release insulin triggered by H2O2 and hypoxia generated during glucose oxidation catalyzed by glucose specific enzyme...
January 12, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073472/the-interaction-between-cyanobacteria-and-zooplankton-in-a-more-eutrophic-world
#10
REVIEW
Kemal Ali Ger, Pablo Urrutia-Cordero, Paul C Frost, Lars-Anders Hansson, Orlando Sarnelle, Alan E Wilson, Miquel Lürling
As blooms of cyanobacteria expand and intensify in freshwater systems globally, there is increasing interest in their ecological effects. In addition to being public health hazards, cyanobacteria have long been considered a poor quality food for key zooplankton grazers that link phytoplankton to higher trophic levels. While past laboratory studies have found negative effects of nutritional constraints and defensive traits (i.e., toxicity and colonial or filamentous morphology) on the fitness of large generalist grazers (i...
April 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072659/effects-of-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-on-the-cognitive-control-of-emotion-potential-antidepressant-mechanisms
#11
Crystal Lantrip, Faith M Gunning, Laura Flashman, Robert M Roth, Paul E Holtzheimer
Depression negatively impacts quality of life and is associated with high mortality rates. Recent research has demonstrated that improvement in depression symptoms with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) may involve changes in the cognitive control network, a regulatory system modulating the function of cognitive and emotional systems, composed of the DLPFC, dorsal anterior cingulate, and posterior parietal cortices. Transcranial magnetic stimulation to the DLPFC node of the cognitive control network may have antidepressant efficacy via direct effects on cognitive control processes involved in emotion regulation...
January 9, 2017: Journal of ECT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069866/trim-proteins-and-diseases
#12
REVIEW
Masashi Watanabe, Shigetsugu Hatakeyama
Ubiquitination is one of the posttranslational modifications that regulates a number of intracellular events including signal transduction, protein quality control, transcription, cell cycle, apoptosis and development. The ubiquitin system functions as a garbage machine to degrade target proteins and as a regulator for several signalling pathways. Biochemical reaction of ubiquitination requires several enzymes including E1, E2 and E3, and E3 ubiquitin ligases play roles as receptors for recognizing target proteins...
January 7, 2017: Journal of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067194/mapping-actions-to-improve-access-to-medicines-for-mental-disorders-in-low-and-middle-income-countries
#13
C Barbui, T Dua, K Kolappa, B Saraceno, S Saxena
AIMS: In recent years a number of intergovernmental initiatives have been activated in order to enhance the capacity of countries to improve access to essential medicines, particularly for mental disorders. In May 2013 the 66th World Health Assembly adopted the World Health Organization (WHO) Comprehensive Mental Health Action Plan 2013-2020, which builds upon the work of WHO's Mental Health Gap Action Programme. Within this programme, evidence-based guidelines for mental disorders were developed, including recommendations on appropriate use of medicines...
January 9, 2017: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065195/programming-maternal-and-child-overweight-and-obesity-in-the-context-of-undernutrition-current-evidence-and-key-considerations-for-low-and-middle-income-countries
#14
Lindsay M Jaacks, Justine Kavle, Abigail Perry, Albertha Nyaku
The goals of the present targeted review on maternal and child overweight and obesity were to: (i) understand the current situation in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) with regard to recent trends and context-specific risk factors; and (ii) building off this, identify entry points for leveraging existing undernutrition programmes to address overweight and obesity in LMIC. Trends reveal that overweight and obesity are a growing problem among women and children in LMIC; as in Ghana, Kenya, Niger, Sierra Leone, Tanzania and Zimbabwe, where the prevalence among urban women is approaching 50 %...
January 9, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062917/the-enteric-nervous-system-and-the-musculature-of-the-colon-are-altered-in-patients-with-spina-bifida-and-spinal-cord-injury
#15
Marjanne den Braber-Ymker, Martin Lammens, Michel J A M van Putten, Iris D Nagtegaal
Neurogenic bowel dysfunction occurs in a large percentage of adult patients with spina bifida (SB) and spinal cord injury (SCI), significantly affecting their quality of life. Although bowel motility is autonomously regulated by the enteric nervous system (ENS), disruption of the modulation of the ENS by extrinsic innervation as present in many patients with SB and SCI might lead to motility disorders. In order to gain insight in the pathophysiology, we studied histological changes of the neuromuscular structures in the colon of SB and SCI patients...
January 6, 2017: Virchows Archiv: An International Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059698/uk-national-data-guardian-for-health-and-care-s-review-of-data-security-trust-better-security-and-opt-outs
#16
Tom Chan, Concetta Tania Di Iorio, Simon De Lusignan, Daniel Lo Russo, Craig Kuziemsky, Siaw-Teng Liaw
Sharing health and social care data is essential to the delivery of high quality health care as well as disease surveillance, public health, and for conducting research. However, these societal benefits may be constrained by privacy and data protection principles. Hence, societies are striving to find a balance between the two competing public interests. Whilst the spread of IT advancements in recent decades has increased the demand for an increased privacy and data protection in many ways health is a special case...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Innovation in Health Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059038/toxicities-of-receptor-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitors-in-cancer-pharmacotherapy-management-with-clinical-pharmacology
#17
Ken-Ichi Fujita, Hiroo Ishida, Yutaro Kubota, Yasutsuna Sasaki
A number of molecularly targeted anticancer drugs that efficiently inhibit receptor tyrosine kinases, so-called receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), have been developed. Although these receptor TKIs are generally well tolerated, unexpected toxicities sometimes occur in various organs. TKI-induced adverse events not only lower the quality of life of cancer patients but also reduce dose intensity, and sometimes result in treatment discontinuation. To reduce adverse drug events and increase treatment efficacy, oncologists and clinical pharmacologists have made efforts to establish strategies to treat patients via optimal selection and dosing of TKIs...
January 5, 2017: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057193/weekday-and-weekend-food-advertising-varies-on-children-s-television-in-the-usa-but-persuasive-techniques-and-unhealthy-items-still-dominate
#18
M J Vilaro, T E Barnett, A M Watson, J W Merten, A E Mathews
OBJECTIVE: In 2006, food industry self-regulatory efforts aimed to balance the mix of food advertisements to limit children's exposure to unhealthy food products. An update to these efforts proposed to eliminate all unhealthy advertisements during peak child viewing times and implement uniform nutrition criteria by December, 2013. Marketing techniques are not currently addressed in self-regulatory efforts. The food industry's pledge prompted researchers to conduct a content analysis to assess nutritional quality and presence of persuasive marketing techniques in child-directed food and beverage advertisements...
January 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054655/unique-local-bone-tissue-characteristics-in-iliac-crest-bone-biopsy-from-adolescent-idiopathic-scoliosis-with-severe-spinal-deformity
#19
Zhiwei Wang, Huanxiong Chen, Y Eric Yu, Jiajun Zhang, Ka-Yee Cheuk, Bobby K W Ng, Yong Qiu, X Edward Guo, Jack C Y Cheng, Wayne Y W Lee
Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is a complex disease with unclear etiopathogenesis. Systemic and persistent low bone mineral density is an independent prognostic factor for curve progression. The fundamental question of how bone quality is affected in AIS remains controversy because there is lack of site-matched control for detailed analysis on bone-related parameters. In this case-control study, trabecular bone biopsies from iliac crest were collected intra-operatively from 28 severe AIS patients and 10 matched controls with similar skeletal and sexual maturity, anthropometry and femoral neck BMD Z-score to control confounding effects...
January 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054230/tumor-necrosis-factor-alpha-and-pregnancy-focus-on-biologics-an-updated-and-comprehensive-review
#20
REVIEW
Jaume Alijotas-Reig, Enrique Esteve-Valverde, Raquel Ferrer-Oliveras, Elisa Llurba, Josep Maria Gris
Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is a central regulator of inflammation, and TNF-α antagonists may be effective in treating inflammatory disorders in which TNF-α plays a major pathogenic role. TNF-α has also been associated with inflammatory mechanisms related to implantation, placentation, and pregnancy outcome. TNF-α is secreted by immune cells and works by binding to TNFR1 and TNFR2 cell receptors. TNF-α is also related to JAK/STAT pathways, which opens up hypothetical new targets for modifying. The accurate balance between Th1 cytokines, mainly TNF-α, Th17, and Th2, particularly IL-10 is essential to achieve good obstetric outcomes...
January 4, 2017: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
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