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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776186/chemical-event-chain-model-of-coupled-genetic-oscillators
#1
David J Jörg, Luis G Morelli, Frank Jülicher
We introduce a stochastic model of coupled genetic oscillators in which chains of chemical events involved in gene regulation and expression are represented as sequences of Poisson processes. We characterize steady states by their frequency, their quality factor, and their synchrony by the oscillator cross correlation. The steady state is determined by coupling and exhibits stochastic transitions between different modes. The interplay of stochasticity and nonlinearity leads to isolated regions in parameter space in which the coupled system works best as a biological pacemaker...
March 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775462/analytical-scaling-relations-to-evaluate-leakage-and-intrusion-in-intermittent-water-supply-systems
#2
David D J Taylor, Alexander H Slocum, Andrew J Whittle
Intermittent water supplies (IWS) deliver piped water to one billion people; this water is often microbially contaminated. Contaminants that accumulate while IWS are depressurized are flushed into customers' homes when these systems become pressurized. In addition, during the steady-state phase of IWS, contaminants from higher-pressure sources (e.g., sewers) may continue to intrude where pipe pressure is low. To guide the operation and improvement of IWS, this paper proposes an analytic model relating supply pressure, supply duration, leakage, and the volume of intruded, potentially-contaminated, fluids present during flushing and steady-state...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774504/environmental-toxins-and-male-fertility
#3
REVIEW
Mahmoud Mima, David Greenwald, Samuel Ohlander
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Global industrialization has increased population exposure to environmental toxins. A global decline in sperm quality over the last few decades raises questions about the adverse impact of environmental toxins on male reproductive health. RECENT FINDINGS: Multiple animal- and human-based studies on exposure to environmental toxins suggest a negative impact on semen quality, in terms of sperm concentration, motility, and/or morphology. These toxins may exert estrogenic and/or anti-androgenic effects, which in turn alter the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis (HPGA), induce sperm DNA damage, or cause sperm epigenetic changes...
May 17, 2018: Current Urology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772390/pathobiology-of-christianson-syndrome-linking-disrupted-endosomal-lysosomal-function-with-intellectual-disability-and-sensory-impairments
#4
Mallory Kerner-Rossi, Maria Gulinello, Steven Walkley, Kostantin Dobrenis
Christianson syndrome (CS) is a recently described rare neurogenetic disorder presenting early in life with a broad range of neurological symptoms, including severe intellectual disability with nonverbal status, hyperactivity, epilepsy, and progressive ataxia due to cerebellar atrophy. CS is due to loss-of-function mutations in SLC9A6, encoding NHE6, a sodium-hydrogen exchanger involved in the regulation of early endosomal pH. Here we review what is currently known about the neuropathogenesis of CS, based on insights from experimental models, which to date have focused on mechanisms that affect the CNS, specifically the brain...
May 14, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770211/the-performance-of-select-universities-of-medical-sciences-based-on-the-components-affecting-medical-education
#5
Mehdi Tayebi Arasteh, Behrooz Pouragha, Masume Bagheri Kahkesh
Background:  Every educational institution requires an evaluation system in order to find out about the quality and desirability of its activities, especially if it is a complex and dynamic environment. The present study was conducted to evaluate the educational performance of schools affiliated to Alborz University of Medical Sciences to help improve their performance. Methods:  This descriptive analytical study was conducted in six schools affiliated to Alborz University of Medical Sciences in April 2016-October 2016 and October 2016-April 2017...
2018: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769386/global-acceptance-of-biosimilars-importance-of-regulatory-consistency-education-and-trust
#6
REVIEW
Eduardo Cazap, Ira Jacobs, Ali McBride, Robert Popovian, Karol Sikora
Globally, biosimilars are expected to have a key role in improving patient access to biological therapies and addressing concerns regarding the escalating cost of health care. Indeed, in Europe, increased use of biologics and reduced drug prices have been observed after the introduction of biosimilars. Recently, several monoclonal antibody biosimilars of anticancer therapies have been approved, and numerous others are in various stages of clinical development. Biosimilars are authorized via a regulatory pathway separate from that used for generic drugs; they are also regulated separately from novel biologics...
May 16, 2018: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764991/a-dgk%C3%AE-foxo-ubiquitin-proteolytic-axis-controls-fiber-size-during-skeletal-muscle-remodeling
#7
Jae-Sung You, Matthew S Dooley, Chan-Ran Kim, Eui-Jun Kim, Wei Xu, Craig A Goodman, Troy A Hornberger
Skeletal muscle rapidly remodels in response to various stresses, and the resulting changes in muscle mass profoundly influence our health and quality of life. We identified a diacylglycerol kinase ζ (DGKζ)-mediated pathway that regulated muscle mass during remodeling. During mechanical overload, DGKζ abundance was increased and required for effective hypertrophy. DGKζ not only augmented anabolic responses but also suppressed ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS)-dependent proteolysis. We found that DGKζ inhibited the transcription factor FoxO that promotes the induction of the UPS...
May 15, 2018: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764870/physicians-attitudes-towards-the-media-and-peer-review-selection-of-the-best-cancer-doctor-comparison-of-two-different-selection-methods
#8
Dong Wook Shin, Juhee Cho, Hyung Kook Yang, So Young Kim, Soohyeon Lee, Eun Joo Nam, Joo Seop Chung, Jeong-Soo Im, Keeho Park, Jong Hyock Park
OBJECTIVES: The choice of doctor is an important issue for patients with cancer, and the reputation of the doctor is the single most important factor for patients to choose a doctor. Media are providing information about the 'best cancer doctor', but they vary widely in their selection methodology. We investigated cancer physicians' attitudes towards the selection of the 'best cancer doctor' by the media, by comparing two different selection methodologies: selection by media personnel or selection through peer-review system...
May 14, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764407/are-we-doing-enough-to-prevent-poor-quality-antimalarial-medicines-in-the-developing-world
#9
Erin J Walker, Gregory M Peterson, James Grech, Evie Paragalli, Jackson Thomas
BACKGROUND: Malaria is a deadly parasitic disease that affects more than 3 billion people worldwide, in predominantly resource-poor countries. Despite malaria being preventable and treatable, a large number of adults and children, mostly in Africa, die from this disease each year. One contributor to needless morbidity and mortality is the production and distribution of poor-quality antimalarial medicines; indeed, it is estimated that over 122,000 deaths of children under 5 years of age in sub-Saharan countries were caused by poor-quality antimalarial medicines, in 2013 alone...
May 15, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759899/integrated-diversity-analysis-of-the-microbial-community-in-a-reverse-osmosis-system-from-a-brazilian-oil-refinery
#10
Daiane R B Belgini, Virgínia M Siqueira, Douglas M Oliveira, Samantha G Fonseca, Viviane Piccin-Santos, Roberto S Dias, Larissa Quartaroli, Rodrigo S Souza, Ana Paula R Torres, Maíra P Sousa, Cláudio M Silva, Cynthia C Silva, Sérgio O De Paula, Valéria M Oliveira
Oil refineries are known for the large volume of water used in their processes, as well as the amount of wastewater generated at the end of the production chain. Due to strict environmental regulations, the recycling of water has now become a viable alternative for refineries. Among the many methods available to treat wastewater for reuse, the use of membranes in reverse osmosis systems stands out due to several economic and environmental benefits. However, these systems are vulnerable to contamination and deposition of microorganisms, mainly because of the feedwater quality...
April 13, 2018: Systematic and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758893/future-changes-in-yuan-river-ecohydrology-individual-and-cumulative-impacts-of-climates-change-and-cascade-hydropower-development-on-runoff-and-aquatic-habitat-quality
#11
Xin Wen, Zhehua Liu, Xiaohui Lei, Rongjie Lin, Guohua Fang, Qiaofeng Tan, Chao Wang, Yu Tian, Jin Quan
The eco-hydrological system in southwestern China is undergoing great changes in recent decades owing to climate change and extensive cascading hydropower exploitation. With a growing recognition that multiple drivers often interact in complex and nonadditive ways, the purpose of this study is to predict the potential future changes in streamflow and fish habitat quality in the Yuan River and quantify the individual and cumulative effect of cascade damming and climate change. The bias corrected and spatial downscaled Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) General Circulation Model (GCM) projections are employed to drive the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) hydrological model and to simulate and predict runoff responses under diverse scenarios...
August 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758861/advancing-towards-functional-environmental-flows-for-temperate-floodplain-rivers
#12
Daniel S Hayes, Julia M Brändle, Carina Seliger, Bernhard Zeiringer, Teresa Ferreira, Stefan Schmutz
Abstraction, diversion, and storage of flow alter rivers worldwide. In this context, minimum flow regulations are applied to mitigate adverse impacts and to protect affected river reaches from environmental deterioration. Mostly, however, only selected instream criteria are considered, neglecting the floodplain as an indispensable part of the fluvial ecosystem. Based on essential functions and processes of unimpaired temperate floodplain rivers, we identify fundamental principles to which we must adhere to determine truly ecologically-relevant environmental flows...
August 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758426/two-contrasted-future-scenarios-for-the-french-agro-food-system
#13
Gilles Billen, Julia Le Noë, Josette Garnier
Narratives of two prospective scenarios for the future of French agriculture were elaborated by pushing several trends already acting on the dynamics of the current system to their logical end. The first one pursues the opening and specialization characterizing the long-term evolution of the last 50 years of most French agricultural regions, while the second assumes a shift, already perceptible through weak signals, towards more autonomy at the farm and regional scales, a reconnection of crop and livestock farming and a more frugal human diet...
May 11, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754770/skewing-effect-of-sulprostone-on-dendritic-cell-maturation-compared-with-dinoprostone
#14
Jenny Bulgarelli, Laura Fiammenghi, Serena Cassan, Anna Maria Granato, Massimiliano Petrini, Elena Pancisi, Valentina Soldati, Francesco De Rosa, Laura Ridolfi, Angela Riccobon, Massimo Guidoboni
BACKGROUND: Dendritic cells (DCs) are the most efficient antigen-presenting cells and act at the center of the immune system owing to their ability to control both immune tolerance and immunity. In cancer immunotherapy, DCs play a key role in the regulation of the immune response against tumors and can be generated ex vivo with different cytokine cocktails. METHODS: We evaluated the feasibility of dinoprostone (PGE2 ) replacement with the molecular analog sulprostone, in our good manufacturing practice (GMP) protocol for the generation of DC-based cancer vaccine...
May 10, 2018: Cytotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754465/pbrmir397a-regulates-lignification-during-stone-cell-development-in-pear-fruit
#15
Cheng Xue, Jia-Long Yao, Meng-Fan Qin, Ming-Yue Zhang, Andrew C Allan, De-Fu Wang, Jun Wu
Lignified stone cells substantially reduce fruit quality. Therefore, it is desirable to inhibit stone cell development by using genetic technologies. However, the molecular mechanisms regulating lignification are poorly understood in fruit stone cells. In this study, we have shown that microRNA (miR) miR397a regulates fruit cell lignification by inhibiting laccase (LAC) genes that encode key lignin biosynthesis enzymes. Transient overexpression of PbrmiR397a, which is the miR397a of Chinese pear (Pyrus bretschneideri), and simultaneous silencing of three LAC genes reduced the lignin content and stone cell number in pear fruit...
May 13, 2018: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751996/update-on-tumor-neoantigens-and-their-utility-why-it-is-good-to-be-different
#16
REVIEW
Chung-Han Lee, Roman Yelensky, Karin Jooss, Timothy A Chan
Antitumor rejection by the immune system is a complex process that is regulated by several factors. Among these factors are the quality and quantity of mutational events that occur in cancer cells. Perhaps one of the most important types of mutations that influence antitumor immunity is the neoantigen, that is, a non-self-antigen that arises as a result of somatic mutation. Recent work has demonstrated that neoantigens hold significant promise for developing new diagnostic and therapeutic modalities. Therapeutic targeting of neoantigens is important for achieving benefit following therapy with immune checkpoint blockade agents or for cancer vaccines targeting mutations...
May 8, 2018: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750454/extemporaneous-formulations-in-germany-relevance-for-everyday-clinical-practice
#17
Petra Staubach, Stefan Salzmann, Adriane Peveling-Oberhag, Veronika Weyer, Sebastian Zimmer, Gabriele Gradl, Berenice M Lang
BACKGROUND: Extemporaneous formulations broaden the spectrum of therapeutic options for topical treatment in particular and thus improve patient care. The latest amendment to the Regulation on the Operation of Pharmacies issued in 2012 brought about changes in prescribing and manufacturing practices. The aim of the present study was to assess the relevance of extemporaneous formulations in everyday clinical practice. METHODS: We used data from the German Institute for Drug Use Evaluation (DAPI) to analyze the prescribing practice for compounded preparations in Germany between the fourth quarter of 2011 and the third quarter of 2014...
May 2018: Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft, Journal of the German Society of Dermatology: JDDG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741771/gp78-involvement-in-cellular-proliferation-can-act-as-a-promising-modulator-for-cell-cycle-regulatory-proteins
#18
Vibhuti Joshi, Arun Upadhyay, Deepak Chhangani, Ayeman Amanullah, Rajesh N Sharan, Amit Mishra
In cells, protein synthesis and degradation are normal processes, which are tightly regulated by various cellular metabolic pathways. Cellular protein quality control (PQC) mechanisms always present a continuous and rigorous check over all intracellular proteins before they can participate in various cellular physiological processes with the help of PQC pathways like autophagy and ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS). The UPS employs few selective E3 ubiquitin ligases for the intracellular degradation of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B (p27Kip1 ) that tightly controls cell cycle progression...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741637/microscopic-analysis-of-sperm-movement-links-to-mechanisms-and-protein-components
#19
Kazuo Inaba, Kogiku Shiba
Cilia and flagella are cell machines that power hydrodynamic forces by fast beating. They are composed of bundles of 9 + 2 microtubules that associate with several protein structures including axonemal dyneins and their regulators. Spermatozoa are single cells with in most cases a single flagellum and are good cell models to study how flagellar movements are regulated and linked to cell behavior. In addition, the assessment of sperm motility is an important diagnostic tool for evaluating male fertility in human reproductive medicine, and in livestock and fisheries sciences...
May 8, 2018: Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740237/key-composition-optimization-of-meat-processed-protein-source-by-vacuum-freeze-drying-technology
#20
Yan Ma, Xingzhuang Wu, Qi Zhang, Vigna Giovanni, Xianjun Meng
Vacuum freeze-drying technology is a high technology content, a wide range of knowledge of technology in the field of drying technology is involved, it is also a method of the most complex drying equipment, the largest energy consumption, the highest cost of drying method, but due to the particularity of its dry goods: the freeze-drying food has the advantages of complex water performance is good, cooler and luster of freezing and drying food to maintain good products, less nutrient loss, light weight, easy to carry transportation, easy to long-term preservation, and on the quality is far superior to the obvious advantages of other dried food, making it become the forefront of drying technology research and development...
May 2018: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
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