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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218507/enabling-inkjet-printed-graphene-for-ion-selective-electrodes-with-post-print-thermal-annealing
#1
Qing He, Suprem R Das, Nathaniel T Garland, Dapeng Jing, John A Hondred, Allison A Cargill, Shaowei Ding, Chandran Karunakaran, Jonathan C Claussen
Inkjet printed graphene (IPG) has recently shown tremendous promise in reducing the cost and complexity of graphene circuit fabrication. Herein we demonstrate, for the first time, the fabrication of an ion selective electrode (ISE) with IPG. A thermal annealing process in a nitrogen ambient environment converts the IPG into a highly conductive electrode (sheet resistance changes from 52.8 ± 7.4 MΩ/☐ for unannealed graphene to 172.7 ± 33.3Ω/☐ for graphene annealed at 950°C). Raman spectroscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) analysis reveals that the printed graphene flakes begin to smooth at an annealing temperature of 500°C and then become more porous and more electrically conductive when annealed at temperatures of 650°C and above...
February 20, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215808/urea-stabilisation-and-concentration-for-urine-diverting-dry-toilets-urine-dehydration-in-ash
#2
Jenna Senecal, Björn Vinnerås
Human excreta contain the same nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (N-P-K) as the fertilisers used to produce the food consumed. However, human excreta are considered unwanted waste throughout the world, creating humanitarian and environmental problems. In order to replace the nutrients removed from fields during crop harvesting, more fertilisers are manufactured, in processes contributing to environmental changes at global level. The limitation of human urine as a fertiliser is its low nutrient concentration compared with commercial fertilisers...
February 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214687/gastroprotective-effect-and-mechanism-of-action-of-croton-rhamnifolioides-essential-oil-in-mice
#3
Cinara Soares Vidal, Anita Oliveira Brito Pereira Bezerra Martins, Andressa de Alencar Silva, Maria Rayane Correia de Oliveira, Jaime Ribeiro-Filho, Thaís Rodrigues de Albuquerque, Henrique Douglas Melo Coutinho, Jackson Roberto Guedes da Silva Almeida, Lucindo Jose Quintans, Irwin Rose Alencar de Menezes
BACKGROUND: Croton rhamnifolioides Pax is a plant species that have been used in the folk medicine to treat ulcers, inflammations and hypertension. However, despite the relevant data obtained from ethnopharmacological studies, the pharmacological properties endorsing the efficacy of this plant to treat ulcer remain to be elucidated. HYPOTHESIS/PURPOSE: The present study aimed to characterize the chemical profile and evaluate the gastroprotective activity of the essential oil obtained from C...
February 16, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214288/an-accelerator-mass-spectrometry-enabled-microtracer-study-to-evaluate-the-first-pass-effect-on-the-absorption-of-yh4808
#4
Anhye Kim, Byung-Yong Yu, Stephen R Dueker, Kwang-Hee Shin, Hwa Suk Kim, Hyungmi Ahn, Joo-Youn Cho, Kyung-Sang Yu, In-Jin Jang, Howard Lee
(14) C-labeled YH4808, a novel potassium-competitive acid blocker, was intravenously administered as a microtracer at 80 μg (11.8 kBq or 320 nCi) concomitantly with the non-radiolabeled oral drug at 200 mg to determine the absolute bioavailability and to assess the effect of pharmacogenomics on the oral absorption of YH4808. The absolute bioavailability was low and highly variable (mean, 10.1%; range, 2.3-19.3%), and M3 and M8, active metabolites of YH4808, were formed 22.6- and 38.5-fold higher after oral administration than intravenous administration, respectively...
February 18, 2017: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213045/identification-of-the-causes-for-chronic-hypokalemia-importance-of-urinary-sodium-and-chloride-excretion
#5
Kun-Lin Wu, Chih-Jen Cheng, Chih-Chen Sung, Ming-Hua Tseng, Yu-Juei Hsu, Sung-Sen Yang, Tom Chau, Shih-Hua Lin
BACKGROUND: Uncovering the correct diagnosis of chronic hypokalemia with potassium (K(+)) wasting from the kidneys or gut can be fraught with challenges. We identified clinical and laboratory parameters helpful for differentiating the causes of chronic hypokalemia. METHODS: Normotensive patients referred to our tertiary academic medical center for the evaluation of chronic hypokalemia were prospectively enrolled over five years. Clinical features, laboratory examinations-including blood and spot urine electrolytes, acid-base status, biochemistries and hormones-as well as genetic analysis were determined...
February 14, 2017: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211269/phosphorus-based-alloy-materials-for-advanced-potassium-ion-battery-anode
#6
Wenchao Zhang, Jianfeng Mao, Sean Li, Zhixin Chen, Zaiping Guo
Potassium-ion batteries (PIBs) are interesting as one of the alternative metal-ion battery systems to lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) due to the abundance and low cost of potassium. We have herein investigated Sn4P3/C composite as a novel anode material for PIBs. The electrode delivered a reversible capacity of 384.8 mA h g-1 at 50 mA g-1 and a good rate capability of 221.9 mA h g-1, even at 1 A g-1. Its electrochemical performance is better than any anode material reported so far for PIBs. It was also found that the Sn4P3/C electrode displays a discharge potential plateau of 0...
February 17, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210218/phasic-firing-and-coincidence-detection-by-subthreshold-negative-feedback-divisive-or-subtractive-or-better-both
#7
Gemma Huguet, Xiangying Meng, John Rinzel
Phasic neurons typically fire only for a fast-rising input, say at the onset of a step current, but not for steady or slow inputs, a property associated with type III excitability. Phasic neurons can show extraordinary temporal precision for phase locking and coincidence detection. Exemplars are found in the auditory brain stem where precise timing is used in sound localization. Phasicness at the cellular level arises from a dynamic, voltage-gated, negative feedback that can be recruited subthreshold, preventing the neuron from reaching spike threshold if the voltage does not rise fast enough...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207797/mutation-increasing-%C3%AE-carotene-concentrations-does-not-adversely-affect-concentrations-of-essential-mineral-elements-in-pepper-fruit
#8
Nasya B Tomlekova, Philip J White, Jacqueline A Thompson, Emil A Penchev, Stephan Nielen
Vitamin and mineral deficiencies are prevalent in human populations throughout the world. Vitamin A deficiency affects hundreds of millions of pre-school age children in low income countries. Fruits of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) can be a major dietary source of precursors to Vitamin A biosynthesis, such as β-carotene. Recently, pepper breeding programs have introduced the orange-fruited (of) trait of the mutant variety Oranzheva kapiya, which is associated with high fruit β-carotene concentrations, to the mutant variety Albena...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207234/potassium-iodide-potentiates-broad-spectrum-antimicrobial-photodynamic-inactivation-using-photofrin
#9
Liyi Huang, Grzegorz Szewczyk, Tadeusz Sarna, Michael R Hamblin
It is known that non-cationic porphyrins such as Photofrin (PF) are effective in mediating antimicrobial photodynamic inactivation (aPDI) of Gram-positive bacteria or fungi. However the aPDI activity of PF against Gram-negative bacteria is accepted to be extremely low. Here we report that the non-toxic inorganic salt, potassium iodide (KI) at a concentration of 100mM when added to microbial cells (10(8)/mL) + PF (10µM hematoporphyrin equivalent) + 415nm light (10J/cm2) can eradicate (>6 logs killing) five different Gram-negative species (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, and Acinetobacter baumannii), while no killing was obtained without KI...
February 16, 2017: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204960/sites-and-functional-consequence-of-alkylphenol-anesthetic-binding-to-kv1-2-channels
#10
Weiming Bu, Qiansheng Liang, Lianteng Zhi, Lina Maciunas, Patrick J Loll, Roderic G Eckenhoff, Manuel Covarrubias
Inhalational general anesthetics, such as sevoflurane and isoflurane, modulate a subset of brain Kv1 potassium channels. However, the Kv1.2 channel is resistant to propofol, a commonly used intravenous alkylphenol anesthetic. We hypothesize that propofol binds to a presumed pocket involving the channel's S4-S5 linker, but functional transduction is poor and, therefore, propofol efficacy is low. To test this hypothesis, we used a photoactive propofol analog (meta-aziPropofol = AziPm) to directly probe binding and electrophysiological and mutational analyses in Xenopus oocytes to probe function...
February 15, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202621/potassium-homeostasis-the-knowns-the-unknowns-and-the-health-benefits
#11
REVIEW
Alicia A McDonough, Jang H Youn
Potassium homeostasis has a very high priority because of its importance for membrane potential. Although extracellular K(+) is only 2% of total body K(+), our physiology was evolutionarily tuned for a high-K(+), low-Na(+) diet. We review how multiple systems interface to accomplish fine K(+) balance and the consequences for health and disease.
March 2017: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198026/quantitative-assessment-of-haemolysis-secondary-to-modern-infusion-pumps
#12
T G Poder, J-C Boileau, R Lafrenière, L Thibault, N Carrier, M-J de Grandmont, P Beauregard
BACKGROUND: Although most studies have shown that little haemolysis is induced by infusion pumps, there are some notable exceptions. Only limited data are available on the actual infusion pumps that are most used in hospitals in Quebec and elsewhere, namely, the Infusomat(®) Space (peristaltic), Plum A+™ (piston) and Colleague(®) CXE (shuttle) pumps. METHODS: Haemolysis and potassium levels were compared before and after the use of the three different infusion pumps...
February 15, 2017: Vox Sanguinis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196349/effects-of-low-sink-demand-on-leaf-photosynthesis-under-potassium-deficiency
#13
Yonghui Pan, Zhifeng Lu, Jianwei Lu, Xiaokun Li, Rihuan Cong, Tao Ren
The interaction between low sink demand and potassium (K) deficiency in leaf photosynthesis was not intensively investigated, therefore this interaction was investigated in winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.). Plants subjected to sufficient (+K) or insufficient (-K) K supply treatments were maintained or removed their flowers and pods; these conditions were defined as high sink demand (HS) or low sink demand (LS), respectively. The low sink demand induced a lower photosynthetic rate (Pn), especially in the -K treatment during the first week...
February 1, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192889/effects-of-aristolochic-acid-i-and-or-hypokalemia-on-tubular-damage-in-c57bl-6-rat-with-aristolochic-acid-nephropathy
#14
Joo-Hark Yi, Sang-Woong Han, Wan-Young Kim, Jin Kim, Moon-Hyang Park
Background/Aims: This study was designed to investigate the roles of aristolochic acid I (AA-I) and hypokalemia in acute aristolochic acid nephropathy (AAN). Methods: After an adaptation period (1 week), a total of 40 C57BL/6 mice (male, 8 weeks old) were divided into four groups: I (control group), II (low potassium [K] diet), III (normal K diet with administration of AA-I [10 mg/kg weight]), and IV (low K diet with AA-I). After collecting 24 hours of urine at 2 weeks, the mice were sacrificed, and their blood and kidneys were obtained to perform immunochemical staining and/or Western blot analysis...
February 15, 2017: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191588/enhancing-fungal-production-of-galactaric-acid
#15
Dorothee Barth, Marilyn G Wiebe
Galactaric (mucic) acid is a symmetrical six carbon diacid which can be produced by oxidation of galactose with nitric acid, electrolytic oxidation of D-galacturonate or microbial conversion of D-galacturonate. Both salts and the free acid of galactarate have relatively low solubility, which may create challenges for a microbial host. Galactaric acid was most soluble at pH values around 4.7 in the presence of ammonium or sodium ions and less soluble in the presence of potassium ions. Solubility increased with increasing temperature...
February 12, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188722/prevalence-of-hypokalemia-before-and-after-bowel-preparation-for-colonoscopy-in-high-risk-patients
#16
Ankie Reumkens, Ad A M Masclee, Bjorn Winkens, Cees T van Deursen, Silvia Sanduleanu, C Minke Bakker
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Bowel preparation for colonoscopy should not cause significant shifts in systemic electrolyte concentrations. We recently encountered 2 cases of severe postcolonoscopy hypokalemia with fatal consequences, prompting us to conduct a study to explore the magnitude of and risk factors for hypokalemia associated with bowel preparation. We paid specific attention to higher risk subgroups, in particular diuretic users, hospitalized patients and patients estimated at to be high risk by the gastroenterologist...
February 7, 2017: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188270/dual-mechanism-for-inhibition-of-inwardly-rectifying-kir2-x-channels-by-quinidine-involving-direct-pore-block-and-pip2-interference
#17
Christoph Koepple, Daniel Scherer, Claudia Seyler, Eberhard Scholz, Dierk Thomas, Hugo A Katus, Edgar Zitron
Class IA antiarrhythmic drug quinidine was one of the first clinically used compounds to terminate atrial fibrillation and acts as multichannel inhibitor with well-documented inhibitory effects on several cardiac potassium channels. In the mammalian heart, heteromeric assembly of Kir2.1-2.3 channels underlies IK1 current. While a low-affinity block of quinidine on Kir2.1 has already been described, a comparative analysis of effects on other Kir2.x channels has not been performed to date. Therefore, we analyzed the effects of quinidine on wild type and mutant Kir2...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179555/role-of-the-excitability-brake-potassium-current-ikd-in-cold-allodynia-induced-by-chronic-peripheral-nerve-injury
#18
Alejandro González, Gonzalo Ugarte, Carlos Restrepo, Gaspar Herrera, Ricardo Piña, José Antonio Gómez-Sánchez, María Pertusa, Patricio Orio, Rodolfo Madrid
Cold allodynia is a common symptom of neuropathic and inflammatory pain following peripheral nerve injury. The mechanisms underlying this disabling sensory alteration are not entirely understood. In primary somatosensory neurons, cold-sensitivity is mainly determined by a functional counterbalance between cold-activated TRPM8 channels and Shaker-like Kv1.1-1.2 channels underlying the excitability brake current IKD Here we studied the role of IKD in damage-triggered painful hypersensitivity to innocuous cold...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174181/cardiovascular-benefits-associated-with-higher-dietary-k-versus-lower-dietary-na-evidence-from-population-and-mechanistic-studies
#19
Alicia A McDonough, Luciana C Veiras, Claire A Guevara, Donna L Ralph
The WHO ranks hypertension the leading global risk factor for disease, specifically, cardiovascular disease. Blood pressure is higher in westernized populations consuming sodium-rich processed foods compared to isolated societies consuming potassium-rich natural foods. Evidence suggests that lowering dietary Na(+) is particularly beneficial in hypertensives who consume a high Na(+) diet. Nonetheless, numerous population studies demonstrate a relationship between higher dietary K(+), estimated from urinary excretion or dietary recall, and lower blood pressure regardless of sodium intake...
February 7, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169210/a-comparison-of-concentrations-of-sodium-and-related-nutrients-potassium-total-dietary-fiber-total-and-saturated-fat-and-total-sugar-in-private-label-and-national-brands-of-popular-sodium-contributing-commercially-packaged-foods-in-the-united-states
#20
Jaspreet K C Ahuja, Pamela R Pehrsson, Mary Cogswell
BACKGROUND: Private-label brands account for about one in four foods sold in US supermarkets. They provide value to consumers due to their low cost. We know of no US studies comparing the nutrition content of private-label products with corresponding national brand products. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to compare concentrations of sodium and related nutrients (potassium, total dietary fiber, total and saturated fat, and total sugar) in popular sodium-contributing, commercially packaged foods by brand type (national or private-label brand)...
February 3, 2017: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
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