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Low potassium

Attilio Marino, Matteo Battaglini, Daniele De Pasquale, Andrea Degl'Innocenti, Gianni Ciofani
A nanotechnology-based approach for the inhibition of breast cancer cell proliferation is proposed. The innovative solution consists in a platform based on biocompatible piezoelectric nanoparticles able to target and remotely stimulate HER2-positive breast cancer cells. The anti-proliferative effects of the ultrasound-driven piezoelectric nanoparticle-assisted stimulation significantly reduced the proliferation by inducing the cell cycle arrest. Similarly to a low-intensity alternating electric field, chronic piezoelectric stimulation resulted able to inhibit cancer cell proliferation by upregulating the expression of the gene encoding Kir3...
April 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Mohammad-Reza Ghovanloo, Mena Abdelsayed, Colin H Peters, Peter C Ruben
Skeletal muscle channelopathies, many of which are inherited as autosomal dominant mutations, include myotonia and periodic paralysis. Myotonia is defined by a delayed relaxation after muscular contraction, whereas periodic paralysis is defined by episodic attacks of weakness. One sub-type of periodic paralysis, known as hypokalemic periodic paralysis (hypoPP), is associated with low potassium levels. Interestingly, the P1158S missense mutant, located in the third domain S4-S5 linker of the "skeletal muscle", Nav1...
April 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Laust Frisenberg Buhl, Frederik Nørregaard Pedersen, Marianne Skovsager Andersen, Dorte Glintborg
This case highlights the clinical course of a 54-year-old male patient presenting with hypertension and long-term refractory hypokalaemia. He reported long-term malaise, fatigue and physical discomfort. Diarrhoea, vomiting, over-the-counter drugs, dietary supplements and any kind of medical abuse were all denied. Physical examination was normal. Suppressed plasma renin activity along with a low aldosterone level and elevated urinary cortisone/cortisol metabolite excretion ratio raised the suspicion of apparent mineralocorticoid excess (AME)...
April 19, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Junyan Liu, Lin Li, Lizhen Zhou, Bing Li, Zhenbo Xu
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed at investigating the enzyme activities and ion concentrations in potential pathogen S.cerevisiae upon ultrasonic treatment. METHODS: The activities of ATPase and antioxidase were identified by ATPase, SOD, and CAT assay kits following the instructions. Extracellular Ca2+ and K+ concentrations were determined in an atomic absorption spectrometer with calcium and potassium hollow-cathode lamps as radiation sources. RESULTS: SOD and CAT activities were enhanced by relatively low ultrasonic power at early time points and reduced to lower levels...
April 16, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Xue-Jiao Yang, Kai Zhang, Hong-Yuan Chen, Jing-Juan Xu
Dysfunction of the human ether-a-go-go related gene (hERG)-encoded potassium channel is identified as a major cause of the long Q-T syndrome, a marker for the lethal cardiac arrhythmia. Furthermore, recent studies revealed that hERG K+ channel is a regulator of tumor cell apoptosis and proliferation. Herein, an ultrasensitive fluorescence assay combining DNA-functionalized gold nanoparticles and rolling circle amplification (RCA) is first attempted to visualize hERG channels in living cells. The spherical nucleic acids gold nanoparticles which can anchor on hERG channels in the cell membrane, not only act as the primary amplification elements, but also trigger the subsequent RCA reaction to achieve the secondary amplification...
April 19, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Jie Xu, Christopher L Bartolome, Cho Shing Low, Xinchi Yi, Cheng-Hao Chien, Peng Wang, Dong Kong
Leptin, a hormone produced in white adipose tissue, acts in the brain to communicate fuel status, suppress appetite following a meal, promote energy expenditure and maintain blood glucose stability1,2 . Dysregulation of leptin or its receptors (LEPR) results in severe obesity and diabetes3-5 . Although intensive studies on leptin have transformed obesity and diabetes research2,6 , clinical applications of the molecule are still limited 7 , at least in part owing to the complexity and our incomplete understanding of the underlying neural circuits...
April 18, 2018: Nature
Rodolfo L B Nóbrega, Alphonce C Guzha, Gabriele Lamparter, Ricardo S S Amorim, Eduardo G Couto, Harold J Hughes, Hermann F Jungkunst, Gerhard Gerold
Studies on the impacts of land-use and land-cover change on stream hydrochemistry in active deforestation zones of the Amazon agricultural frontier are limited and have often used low-temporal-resolution datasets. Moreover, these impacts are not concurrently assessed in well-established agricultural areas and new deforestations hotspots. We aimed to identify these impacts using an experimental setup to collect high-temporal-resolution hydrological and hydrochemical data in two pairs of low-order streams in catchments under contrasting land use and land cover (native vegetation vs...
April 14, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Naziha Chelaghma, Samson O Oyibo
A 58-year-old man presented with a 3-year history of chronic and intermittent hyperkalemia requiring recurrent attendances to the emergency department for urgent treatment. His medical history included secondary diabetes mellitus following a bout of acute pancreatitis and a previous splenectomy for a spontaneous splenic rupture. He also had a history of prolonged use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for back pain and painful neuropathy. He was not on any medication or diet that would cause a raised serum potassium level and his renal function was normal...
2018: International Medical Case Reports Journal
Jamie Hicks, Petra Vasko, Jose M Goicoechea, Simon Aldridge
The reactivity of aluminium compounds is dominated by their electron deficiency and consequent electrophilicity; these compounds are archetypal Lewis acids (electron-pair acceptors). The main industrial roles of aluminium, and classical methods of synthesizing aluminium-element bonds (for example, hydroalumination and metathesis), draw on the electron deficiency of species of the type AlR3 and AlCl3 1,2 . Whereas aluminates, [AlR4 ]- , are well known, the idea of reversing polarity and using an aluminium reagent as the nucleophilic partner in bond-forming substitution reactions is unprecedented, owing to the fact that low-valent aluminium anions analogous to nitrogen-, carbon- and boron-centred reagents of the types [NX2 ]- , [CX3 ]- and [BX2 ]- are unknown3-5 ...
April 16, 2018: Nature
Alba du Toit, Maryna de Wit, Arno Hugo
Mucilage extracted from cactus pear cladodes is a hydrocolloid gum. It is a novel, natural, low-kilojoule, cost-effective texture-modifying ingredient in functional food products. Yet, the cultivar with the most optimal nutrient content and the preferred harvest times are as yet unknown. For this reason, mucilage from three Opuntia ficus-indica (Algerian, Morado and Gymno-Carpo) and one Opuntia robusta (Robusta) cultivar were investigated to determine their nutrient content over six months. Nutrients that contribute energy (10...
April 16, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Bryan Williams, Thomas M MacDonald, Steve V Morant, David J Webb, Peter Sever, Gordon T McInnes, Ian Ford, J Kennedy Cruickshank, Mark J Caulfield, Sandosh Padmanabhan, Isla S Mackenzie, Jackie Salsbury, Morris J Brown
BACKGROUND: In the PATHWAY-2 study of resistant hypertension, spironolactone reduced blood pressure substantially more than conventional antihypertensive drugs. We did three substudies to assess the mechanisms underlying this superiority and the pathogenesis of resistant hypertension. METHODS: PATHWAY-2 was a randomised, double-blind crossover trial done at 14 UK primary and secondary care sites in 314 patients with resistant hypertension. Patients were given 12 weeks of once daily treatment with each of placebo, spironolactone 25-50 mg, bisoprolol 5-10 mg, and doxazosin 4-8 mg and the change in home systolic blood pressure was assessed as the primary outcome...
April 11, 2018: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
Sheng Wang, Kristyn Gumpper, Tao Tan, Xianzhang Luo, Hui Guo, Changsheng Ming, Hanying Jiang, Jiangguo Fang, Guang Du, Hua Zhu, Jianjie Ma, Zhishui Chen, Nianqiao Gong
Organ preservation solutions are designed to minimize organ damage during transplantation. A novel preservation solution, WMO-II, was developed to have a low viscosity and to improve microvasculature perfusion for kidneys. In an autologous canine transplantation model, kidney function and recovery were evaluated after organs were flushed and cold-stored with WMO-II or HTK solution, a perfusate currently approved for clinical use. The average number of red blood cells remaining in a single glomerulus after flushing with WMO-II was significantly reduced when compared with HTK solution...
2018: Cell & Bioscience
Saleha Akter, Michael E Netzel, Mary T Fletcher, Ujang Tinggi, Yasmina Sultanbawa
Terminalia ferdinandiana (Kakadu plum) is a native Australian fruit. Industrial processing of T. ferdinandiana fruits into puree generates seeds as a by-product, which are generally discarded. The aim of our present study was to process the seed to separate the kernel and determine its nutritional composition. The proximate, mineral and fatty acid compositions were analysed in this study. Kernels are composed of 35% fat, while proteins account for 32% dry weight (DW). The energy content and fiber were 2065 KJ/100 g and 21...
April 12, 2018: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
Elizabeth A Barnes, Lori Lee, Shayna L Barnes, Robert Brenner, Cristina M Alvira, David N Cornfield
Accessory subunits associated with the calcium-sensitive potassium channel (BKCa ), a major determinant of vascular tone, confer functional and anatomical diversity. The β1 subunit increases Ca2+ -, and voltage-sensitivity of the BKCa channel and is expressed exclusively in smooth muscle cells (SMC). Evidence supporting the physiologic significance of the β1 subunit includes the observations that murine models with deletion of the β1 subunit are hypertensive and that humans with a gain-of-function β1 mutation are at decreased risk of diastolic hypertension, However, whether the β1 subunit of the BKCa channel contributes to the low tone that characterizes the normal pulmonary circulation or modulates the pulmonary vascular response to hypoxia remains unknown...
April 12, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
Qiuwei Shi, Yiren Zhong, Min Wu, Hongzhi Wang, Hailiang Wang
Developing Na metal anodes that can be deeply cycled with high efficiency for a long time is a prerequisite for rechargeable Na metal batteries to be practically useful despite their notable advantages in theoretical energy density and potential low cost. High chemical reactivity with electrolyte and tendency for dendrite formation are two major issues limiting the reversibility of Na metal electrodes. In this work, we for the first time introduce potassium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (KTFSI) as a bi-functional electrolyte additive to stabilize Na metal electrodes, where the TFSI- anions decompose into lithium nitride and oxynitrides to render a desirable solid electrolyte interphase layer while the K+ cations preferentially adsorb on Na protrusions and provide electrostatic shielding to suppress dendritic deposition...
April 12, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Cheng Zhang, Zhongkun Du, Jinhua Wang, Jun Wang, Tongtong Zhou, Bing Li, Lusheng Zhu, Wenxiu Li, Kaixuan Hou
Ionic liquids (ILs) were considered new "green solvents" in consideration of the low volatility. Since their inception, ionic liquids (ILs) have attracted widespread attention. However, ILs were not safe enough as what we thought. The toxicity of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ILs ([C2 mim]R, R = Cl- , Br- , BF4 - ) and 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium bromine ([Cn mim]Br, n = 2, 4, 8, 10, 12) using 50% lethal concentration (LC50 ) were studied in the present study to enrich the toxicological information...
March 27, 2018: Chemosphere
T Cunha, M Mendes, F Ferreira da Silva, S Eden, G García, M-C Bacchus-Montabonel, P Limão-Vieira
We report on a combined experimental and theoretical study of electron-transfer-induced decomposition of adenine (Ad) and a selection of analog molecules in collisions with potassium (K) atoms. Time-of-flight negative ion mass spectra have been obtained in a wide collision energy range (6-68 eV in the centre-of-mass frame), providing a comprehensive investigation of the fragmentation patterns of purine (Pu), adenine (Ad), 9-methyl adenine (9-mAd), 6-dimethyl adenine (6-dimAd), and 2-D adenine (2-DAd). Following our recent communication about selective hydrogen loss from the transient negative ions (TNIs) produced in these collisions [T...
April 7, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Cátia Salvador, M Rosário Martins, Henrique Vicente, A Teresa Caldeira
Amanita ponderosa are wild edible mushrooms that grow in some microclimates of Iberian Peninsula. Gastronomically this species is very relevant, due to not only the traditional consumption by the rural populations but also its commercial value in gourmet markets. Mineral characterisation of edible mushrooms is extremely important for certification and commercialization processes. In this study, we evaluate the inorganic composition of Amanita ponderosa fruiting bodies (Ca, K, Mg, Na, P, Ag, Al, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, and Zn) and their respective soil substrates from 24 different sampling sites of the southwest Iberian Peninsula (e...
2018: International Journal of Analytical Chemistry
Hossein Mohammadzadeh-Aghdash, Yousef Sohrabi, Ali Mohammadi, Dariush Shanehbandi, Parvin Dehghan, Jafar Ezzati Nazhad Dolatabadi
Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of sodium acetate (SA), sodium diacetate (SDA), and potassium sorbate (PS) was tested on Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVEC). Cytotoxicity was investigated by MTT assay and flow cytometry analysis, while genotoxicity was evaluated using DNA fragmentation and DAPI staining assays. The growth of treated HUVECs with various concentrations of SA, SDA and PS decreased in a dose-and time-dependent manner. The IC50 of 487.71, 485.82 and 659.96 µM after 24 h and IC50 of 232...
August 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Rohit Babbar, Martin Heni, Andreas Peter, Martin Hrabě de Angelis, Hans-Ulrich Häring, Andreas Fritsche, Hubert Preissl, Bernhard Schölkopf, Róbert Wagner
Introduction: Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) is diagnosed by a standardized oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). However, the OGTT is laborious, and when not performed, glucose tolerance cannot be determined from fasting samples retrospectively. We tested if glucose tolerance status is reasonably predictable from a combination of demographic, anthropometric, and laboratory data assessed at one time point in a fasting state. Methods: Given a set of 22 variables selected upon clinical feasibility such as sex, age, height, weight, waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting glucose, HbA1c, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume, serum potassium, fasting levels of insulin, C-peptide, triglyceride, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), proinsulin, prolactin, cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, HDL, uric acid, liver transaminases, and ferritin, we used supervised machine learning to estimate glucose tolerance status in 2,337 participants of the TUEF study who were recruited before 2012...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
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