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Kelvin W C Leong, Louise A Cooley, Ronan F O'Toole
The spread of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREfm) has become a challenge to health care infection control worldwide. In 2015, a marked increase in VREfm isolation was detected in acute public hospitals in Tasmania. We report here the draft whole-genome sequence of a newly designated VREfm sequence type, sequence type 1421 (ST1421).
May 17, 2018: Genome Announcements
Robert Mesibov
Lissodesmus nivalis sp. n. is described from 1450-1550 m elevation on the treeless, alpine Ben Lomond plateau in northeast Tasmania, Australia. The new species is distinguished from all other Tasmanian and Victorian Lissodesmus species by a unique combination of gonopod telopodite features: solenomere without a pre-apical process, tibiotarsus Y-shaped, femoral process L-shaped with forked tips, prefemoral process with a long comb of teeth below an irregularly dentate apical margin, and a roughened "shoulder process" near the base of the prefemoral process...
2018: ZooKeys
G Dennis Shanks, Nick Wilson, Rebecca Kippen, John F Brundage
The 1918-21 influenza pandemic was the most lethal natural event in recent history. In the Pacific region, the pandemic's effects varied greatly across different populations and settings. In this region, the pandemic's lethal effects extended over 3 years, from November, 1918, in New Zealand to as late as July, 1921, in New Caledonia. Although a single virus strain probably affected all the islands, mortality varied from less than 0·1% in Tasmania, to 22% in Western Samoa. The varied expressions of the pandemic across the islands reflected the nature and timing of past influenza epidemics, degrees of social isolation, ethnicity and sex-related effects, and the likelihood of exposures to pathogenic respiratory bacteria during influenza illnesses...
May 10, 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Quan L Huynh, Christopher Leigh Blizzard, Thomas H Marwick, Kazuaki Negishi
OBJECTIVES: We sought to investigate the relationship between air quality and heart failure (HF) incidence and rehospitalisation to elucidate whether there is a threshold in this relationship and whether this relationship differs for HF incidence and rehospitalisation. METHODS: This retrospective observational study was performed in an Australian state-wide setting, where air pollution is mainly associated with wood-burning for winter heating. Data included all 1246 patients with a first-ever HF hospitalisation and their 3011 subsequent all-cause readmissions during 2009-2012...
May 10, 2018: BMJ Open
L D Einoder, C K MacLeod, C Coughanowr
The Derwent estuary, in south east Tasmania, is highly contaminated with heavy metals, mainly due to past industrial pollution. This study sought to determine the extent of contamination, bioaccumulation, and biomagnification in the resident bird community and therefore to infer the potential for adverse effects in birds. Thirteen metals were measured from breast feathers (n = 51 individuals) of eight sympatric species of aquatic bird. Stable carbon (δ13 C) and nitrogen (δ15 N) isotopes were used to identify dietary sources of contaminants, trophic level, and potential biomagnification through food chains...
May 5, 2018: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Joanna C Ellison, Kim M Beasy
Carbon sequestration values of wetlands are greatest in their sediments. Northern hemisphere research dominates the earlier saltmarsh carbon sequestration literature, recently augmented by analyses across mainland Australia where species assemblages, catchment histories and environmental settings differ. No previous assessment has been made for Tasmania. Carbon stores and accumulation rates in saltmarsh sediments of the Rubicon estuary, Tasmania, were investigated. Carbon was determined from sediment cores by Elemental Analyser, combined with analysis of organic content and bulk density...
May 2, 2018: Biology
Joobin Hooshmand, Robin G Abell, Penny Allen, Brendan J Vote
PURPOSE: To assess the clinical safety and performance of a new thermal capsulotomy device in patients having cataract surgery. SETTING: Launceston Eye Institute, Launceston, Tasmania, Australia. DESIGN: Prospective case series. METHODS: This single-surgeon consecutive series comprised eyes having capsulotomy with a precision pulse capsulotomy (PPC) device (Zepto). Baseline demographic information and preoperative, intraoperative, and early postoperative outcomes, including complications, intraocular pressure (IOP), flare photometry, corneal and retinal thickness, and specular microscopy were collected and analyzed...
March 2018: Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery
Cesar Tovar, Amanda L Patchett, Vitna Kim, Richard Wilson, Jocelyn Darby, A Bruce Lyons, Gregory M Woods
The Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii), the largest extant carnivorous marsupial and endemic to Tasmania, is at the verge of extinction due to the emergence of a transmissible cancer known as devil facial tumour disease (DFTD). DFTD has spread over the distribution range of the species and has been responsible for a severe decline in the global devil population. To protect the Tasmanian devil from extinction in the wild, our group has focused on the development of a prophylactic vaccine. Although this work has shown that vaccine preparations using whole DFTD tumour cells supplemented with adjuvants can induce anti-DFTD immune responses, alternative strategies that induce stronger and more specific immune responses are required...
2018: PloS One
Hilary C Martin, Elizabeth M Batty, Julie Hussin, Portia Westall, Tasman Daish, Stephen Kolomyjec, Paolo Piazza, Rory Bowden, Margaret Hawkins, Tom Grant, Craig Moritz, Frank Grutzner, Jaime Gongora, Peter Donnelly
The platypus is an egg-laying mammal which, alongside the echidna, occupies a unique place in the mammalian phylogenetic tree. Despite widespread interest in its unusual biology, little is known about its population structure or recent evolutionary history. To provide new insights into the dispersal and demographic history of this iconic species, we sequenced the genomes of 57 platypuses from across the whole species range in eastern mainland Australia and Tasmania. Using a highly improved reference genome, we called over 6...
May 1, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
Verity Cleland, Meredith Nash, Melanie J Sharman, Suzi Claflin
PURPOSE: " parkrun" is a free and increasingly popular weekly 5-km walk/run international community event, representing a novel setting for physical activity (PA) promotion. However, little is known about who participates or why. This study aimed to identify sociodemographic, health, behavioral, individual, social, and environmental factors associated with higher levels of participation. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: Tasmania, Australia; June 2016...
January 1, 2018: American Journal of Health Promotion: AJHP
Parisa Farzanehfar, Holly Woodrow, Michelle Braybrook, Sarah McGregor, Andrew Evans, Frank Nicklason, Malcolm Horne
It is common in medicine to titrate therapy according to target ranges of objectively measured parameters. Objective measurement of motor function is available for Parkinson's Disease (PD), making it possible to optimise therapy and clinical outcomes. In this study, an accelerometry based measurement and predefined target ranges were used to assess motor function in a Northern Tasmania PD cohort managed by a Movement Disorder clinic. Approximately 40% ( n  = 103) of the total PD population participated in this study and motor scores were within target in 22%...
2018: NPJ Parkinson's Disease
Endalkachew Admassie, Leanne Chalmers, Luke R Bereznicki
BACKGROUND: Although utilization of anticoagulation in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) has increased in recent years, contemporary data regarding thromboembolism and mortality incidence rates are limited outside of clinical trials. This study aimed to investigate the impact of the direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) on the clinical outcomes of patients with AF included in the Tasmanian Atrial Fibrillation Study. METHODS: The medical records of all patients with a primary or secondary diagnosis of AF who presented to public hospitals in Tasmania, Australia, between 2011 and 2015, were retrospectively reviewed...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Dinh S Bui, Caroline J Lodge, John A Burgess, Adrian J Lowe, Jennifer Perret, Minh Q Bui, Gayan Bowatte, Lyle Gurrin, David P Johns, Bruce R Thompson, Garun S Hamilton, Peter A Frith, Alan L James, Paul S Thomas, Deborah Jarvis, Cecilie Svanes, Melissa Russell, Stephen C Morrison, Iain Feather, Katrina J Allen, Richard Wood-Baker, John Hopper, Graham G Giles, Michael J Abramson, Eugene H Walters, Melanie C Matheson, Shyamali C Dharmage
BACKGROUND: Lifetime lung function is related to quality of life and longevity. Over the lifespan, individuals follow different lung function trajectories. Identification of these trajectories, their determinants, and outcomes is important, but no study has done this beyond the fourth decade. METHODS: We used six waves of the Tasmanian Longitudinal Health Study (TAHS) to model lung function trajectories measured at 7, 13, 18, 45, 50, and 53 years. We analysed pre-bronchodilator FEV1 z-scores at the six timepoints using group-based trajectory modelling to identify distinct subgroups of individuals whose measurements followed a similar pattern over time...
April 5, 2018: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
Julie A Campbell, Martin Hensher, Amanda Neil, Alison Venn, Petr Otahal, Stephen Wilkinson, Andrew J Palmer
BACKGROUND: Choice of a multi-attribute utility instrument (MAUI) that appropriately assesses an intervention's health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL) impacts is a vital part of healthcare resource allocation and clinical assessment. OBJECTIVE: Our exploratory study compared the EuroQol (EQ)-5D-5L and Assessment of Quality of Life (AQoL)-8D MAUIs, which were used to assess the effect of bariatric surgery for a cohort of long-term publicly waitlisted, severely obese patients...
November 13, 2017: PharmacoEconomics Open
Linda Murray, Shandell Elmer, Jennifer Elkhair
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to explore perceived barriers to managing medications and potential solutions to such barriers among Bhutanese former refugees and service providers in Tasmania, Australia. METHOD: Thirty Bhutanese former refugees and service providers recruited through community health programs participated in a community-based participatory research design. Data were elicited through a structured focus group process and analyzed using content analysis...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Transcultural Nursing: Official Journal of the Transcultural Nursing Society
Christopher Dean, Jamie B Kirkpatrick, Jon Osborn, Richard B Doyle, Nicholas B Fitzgerald, Stephen H Roxburgh
There is high uncertainty in the contribution of land-use change to anthropogenic climate change, especially pertaining to below-ground carbon loss resulting from conversion of primary-to-secondary forest. Soil organic carbon (SOC) and coarse roots are concentrated close to tree trunks, a region usually unmeasured during soil carbon sampling. Soil carbon estimates and their variation with land-use change have not been correspondingly adjusted. Our aim was to deduce allometric equations that will allow improvement of SOC estimates and tree trunk carbon estimates, for primary forest stands that include large trees in rugged terrain...
March 2018: AoB Plants
D R Farias, C L Hurd, R S Eriksen, C K Macleod
The Derwent estuary, in Tasmania (Australia), is highly contaminated with heavy metals with significant levels in both sediments and benthic fauna. However, little is known about metal content in benthic primary producers. We characterized metal content (Arsenic, Cadmium, Copper, Lead, Selenium and Zinc) in twelve species of macrophyte, including red, green, and brown algae, and seagrasses, from the Derwent. The metals, arsenic, copper, lead, and Zinc were detected in all of the macrophytes assessed, but the levels differed between species...
March 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Ian Blackman, Che Yee Lye, I Gusti Ngurah Darmawan, Julie Henderson, Tracey Giles, Eileen Willis, Luisa Toffoli, Lily Xiao, Claire Verrall
BACKGROUND: There is a growing nursing literature that views missed care as an inevitable consequence of work intensification associated with the rationing of nursing and material resources available to deliver care. Global studies recognize that missed care is now ubiquitous, although studies tend to be conducted in one region, rather than nationwide. This study seeks to understand the Australian context of missed care. AIMS: To explore self-reported reasons for missed care and to identify the main factors for predicting missed care within a sample of Australian nurses and midwives working in public and private hospitals in New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania, and South Australia...
March 23, 2018: Worldviews on Evidence-based Nursing
Mikael Larsson, Ataollah Nosrati, Simarpreet Kaur, Jochen Wagner, Ulf Baus, Magnus Nydén
Mine waters and tailings generated from mining and mineral processing activities often have detrimental impact on the local environment. One example is acid mine drainage, in which sulphides in the mining waste react with water and oxygen to produce an acidic environment that subsequently dissolves host rock minerals from the waste containing toxic metals and trace elements. Copper is one such metal of significance, as it is mined at large volumes in sulphide containing ores. It has strong biocidal activity that greatly affects ecosystems...
February 2018: Heliyon
Ahmadreza Argha, Andrey Savkin, Siaw-Teng Liaw, Branko George Celler
BACKGROUND: Seasonal variation has an impact on the hospitalization rate of patients with a range of cardiovascular diseases, including myocardial infarction and angina. This paper presents findings on the influence of seasonal variation on the results of a recently completed national trial of home telemonitoring of patients with chronic conditions, carried out at five locations along the east coast of Australia. OBJECTIVE: The aim is to evaluate the effect of the seasonal timing of hospital admission and length of stay on clinical outcome of a home telemonitoring trial involving patients (age: mean 72...
March 16, 2018: JMIR Medical Informatics
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