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Maria Unwin, Leigh Kinsman, Scott Rigby
[Background] Emergency departments world-wide report service demands which exceed resource availability. Themes such as crowding, non-urgent presentations, ambulance diversion and access block have been linked to complications in care, poorer patient outcomes, increased morbidity and staff burnout. People attending the emergency department with problems perceived as non-urgent are frequently attributed blame for increased service demand, yet little is known from the patients' perspective. [Method] This project utilised a descriptive cross-sectional waiting room survey of non-urgent patients to identify factors contributing to their decision making process to access ED services at a regional hospital in Tasmania, Australia...
October 21, 2016: International Emergency Nursing
Ricardo Fonseca, Faraz Pathan, Thomas H Marwick
OBJECTIVE: We sought whether simple clinical markers could be used in a questionnaire for recognition of inappropriate (or rarely appropriate, RA) tests at point-of-service. Most applications of appropriateness criteria (AC) for transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE) have been at the point of order, but a simple means of identifying RA tests in an audit process would be of value. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: The study was performed in 2 major hospitals in Tasmania...
October 5, 2016: BMJ Open
James R P Worth, Shota Sakaguchi, Karl D Rann, Clarence J W Bowman, Motomi Ito, Gregory J Jordan, David M J S Bowman
Global increases in fire frequency driven by anthropogenic greenhouse emissions and land use change could threaten unique and ancient species by creeping into long-term fire refugia. The perhumid and mountainous western half of Tasmania is a globally important refugium for palaeo-endemic, fire intolerant lineages, especially conifers. Reproductive strategy will be crucial to the resilience of these organisms under warmer, dryer and more fire prone climates. This study analysed clonal versus sexual reproduction in old growth plots dominated by the palaeo-endemic conifer Athrotaxis cupressoides (Cupressaceae), a species that lacks any traits to tolerate frequent landscape fire...
September 26, 2016: Scientific Reports
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
Anke S K Frank, Alexandra J R Carthey, Peter B Banks
Introduced predators have a global reputation for causing declines and extinctions of native species. Native prey naiveté towards novel predators is thought to be a key reason for predator impacts. However, naiveté is not necessarily forever: where coexistence establishes, it is likely that naiveté will be reduced through adaptation, and the once alien predator will eventually become recognised by prey. For example, native marsupial bandicoots in Sydney avoid backyards with domestic dogs (C. lupus familiaris), but not domestic cats (Felis catus), even though cats and dogs were both introduced about 200 years ago (Carthey and Banks 2012)...
2016: PloS One
Nicola Stephens, David Coleman, Kelly Shaw, Alison Venn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 7, 2016: Australian Journal of Rural Health
Treena I Burgess, John K Scott, Keith L Mcdougall, Michael J C Stukely, Colin Crane, William A Dunstan, Frances Brigg, Vera Andjic, Diane White, Tim Rudman, Frans Arentz, Noboru Ota, Giles E St J Hardy
Globally, Phytophthora cinnamomi is listed as one of the 100 worst invasive alien species and active management is required to reduce impact and prevent spread in both horticulture and natural ecosystems. Conversely, there are regions thought to be suitable for the pathogen where no disease is observed. We developed a climex model for the global distribution of P. cinnamomi based on the pathogen's response to temperature and moisture and by incorporating extensive empirical evidence on the presence and absence of the pathogen...
September 6, 2016: Global Change Biology
H M Golder, N Moss, G Rogers, B Jackson, N Gannon, Ptw Wong, I J Lean
CASE HISTORY: A herd of Holstein, Jersey, or Holstein-Jersey cross lactating cattle of mixed ages presented with a sudden drop in milk yield in 94/678 cows on 3 October 2014 (Day 0). The herd was located in Gretna in the Derwent Valley (Tasmania, Australia) and had been grazing dryland pasture. CLINICAL FINDINGS: On Day 0 the cows variably showed recumbency, peracute photosensitisation, inflamed coronary bands, conjunctival erythema, periauricular oedema, distress indicated by kicking at the flank, bruxism, discomfort, weight shifting, vocalisation indicating pain and depression...
October 2, 2016: New Zealand Veterinary Journal
Sarah Peck, Ross Corkrey, Rodrigo Hamede, Menna Jones, Paul Canfield
BACKGROUND: Devil Facial Tumor Disease (DFTD) is an infectious tumor causing significant population declines in wild Tasmanian Devils. While clinical assessment and pathology have been well reported for DFTD, there is a lack of information on hematologic and biochemical alterations associated with DFTD. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the study was to determine hematologic and serum biochemical variation in healthy, wounded, and DFTD-affected Tasmanian Devils. METHODS: Blood samples were collected from wild Tasmanian Devils at 5 sites in Tasmania...
September 2016: Veterinary Clinical Pathology
Colin M Curtain, Mackenzie Williams, Justin M Cousins, Gregory M Peterson, Tania Winzenberg
BACKGROUND: It is currently recommended in Australia that nursing home residents are supplemented daily with 1000 IU vitamin D as they are at an increased risk of fractures. Historically, supplementation has been low, and current supplementation prevalence is not known. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of vitamin D supplementation amongst nursing home residents in Tasmania, Australia. METHODS: Resident data, including demographics, medical conditions and medications (including vitamin D and calcium supplement use), exercise and sun exposure, were obtained from residents' files and staff in consenting nursing homes...
September 1, 2016: Drugs & Aging
Alhossain A Khalafallah, Carl Yan, Raghad Al-Badri, Ella Robinson, Brooke E Kirkby, Emily Ingram, Zara Gray, Vinod Khelgi, Iain K Robertson, Brian P Kirkby
BACKGROUND: Despite increasing efforts in perioperative management, postoperative iron deficiency anaemia persists, and few data are available about the management of this condition. In this study, we aimed to determine whether giving postoperative intravenous iron (in the form of ferric carboxymaltose) improved iron stores, haemoglobin concentrations, and outcomes following surgery. METHODS: We did a prospective, open-label, randomised, controlled study of patients at two centres (a general hospital and a private health-care centre) in Tasmania, Australia, undergoing elective surgery with functional iron deficiency anaemia (haemoglobin 70-120 g/L and ferritin ≤100 μg/L or iron saturation ≤20%), measured at day 1 postoperatively...
September 2016: Lancet Haematology
Andrea M de Silva, Jacqueline M Martin-Kerry, Katherine McKee, Deborah Cole
Objective The aim of the present study was to identify all evidence about the prevalence and severity of clinically measured caries and periodontal disease in Indigenous adults in Australia published in peer-reviewed journals and to summarise trends over time. In addition, we examined whether the studies investigated associations between putative risk factors and levels of caries and periodontal disease.Methods PubMed was searched in September 2014, with no date limitations, for published peer-reviewed articles reporting the prevalence rates and/or severity of caries and periodontal disease in Indigenous adults living in Australia...
August 29, 2016: Australian Health Review: a Publication of the Australian Hospital Association
Bryony M Horton, Morag Glen, Neil J Davidson, David A Ratkowsky, Dugald C Close, Tim J Wardlaw, Caroline Mohammed
Fungal diversity of Australian eucalypt forests remains underexplored. We investigated the ectomycorrhizal (EcM) fungal community characteristics of declining temperate eucalypt forests in Tasmania. Within this context, we explored the diversity of EcM fungi of two forest types in the northern highlands in the east and west of the island. We hypothesised that EcM fungal community richness and composition would differ between forest type but that the Cortinariaceae would be the dominant family irrespective of forest type...
August 22, 2016: Mycorrhiza
S M Bengtson Nash, M C Baddock, E Takahashi, A Dawson, R Cropp
The periodic trend to cetacean mass stranding events in the Australian island state of Tasmania remains unexplained. This article introduces the hypothesis that domoic acid poisoning may be a causative agent in these events. The hypothesis arises from the previously evidenced role of aeolian dust as a vector of iron input to the Southern Ocean; the role of iron enrichment in Pseudo-nitzschia bloom proliferation and domoic acid production; and importantly, the characteristic toxicosis of domoic acid poisoning in mammalian subjects leading to spatial navigation deficits...
August 16, 2016: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Darren J Kriticos, Sarah Brunel
Understanding and managing the biological invasion threats posed by aquatic plants under current and future climates is a growing challenge for biosecurity and land management agencies worldwide. Eichhornia crassipes is one of the world's worst aquatic weeds. Presently, it threatens aquatic ecosystems, and hinders the management and delivery of freshwater services in both developed and developing parts of the world. A niche model was fitted using CLIMEX, to estimate the potential distribution of E. crassipes under historical and future climate scenarios...
2016: PloS One
Ferry Susanto, Paulo de Souza, Jing He
A variation of the reduction-based approach to spatiotemporal interpolation (STI), in which time is treated independently from the spatial dimensions, is proposed in this paper. We reviewed and compared three widely-used spatial interpolation techniques: ordinary kriging, inverse distance weighting and the triangular irregular network. We also proposed a new distribution-based distance weighting (DDW) spatial interpolation method. In this study, we utilised one year of Tasmania's South Esk Hydrology model developed by CSIRO...
2016: Sensors
Tamika Lunn, James Macgregor, Sarah Munks, Scott Carver
We report disease due to Dermatophilus congolensis infection in three of 13 (23%) platypuses ( Ornithorhynchus anatinus ) from a catchment in Tasmania, Australia. This pathogen has not previously been reported in platypuses. Two of the three infected platypuses had extensive scab formations, but no substantial hair loss was apparent.
October 2016: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Alhossain A Khalafallah, Brooke E Kirkby, Sophia Wong, Yi Chao Foong, Nishant Ranjan, James Luttrell, Ronnie Mathew, Charles M Chilvers, Emily Mauldon, Colin Sharp, Terry Hannan
OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to assess the incidence and risk factors for venous thromboembolism (VTE) in a cohort of medical patients both during the period of hospitalisation and following discharge. DESIGN: This was a prospective observational study to document the risk profile and incidence of VTE posthospitalisation among all medical patients admitted to our institution during the trial period. SETTINGS: Primary healthcare. Single tertiary referral centre, Tasmania, Australia...
2016: BMJ Open
Erin Trainer, Seana Gall, Abby Smith, Kathryn Terry
BACKGROUND: The tobacco-free generation (TFG) proposal advocates prohibiting the sale of tobacco products to people born after the year 2000. In a world-first, the Tasmanian parliament is considering this proposed legislation. Levels of public support for the proposal among adults and adolescents were investigated. METHODS: Data were collected via 2 cross-sectional studies in 2014. 1 was a telephone survey of 600 randomly sampled Tasmanians aged 18 years or over, the other a pencil and paper survey of 1888 Tasmanian secondary school students aged 12-17 years...
July 27, 2016: Tobacco Control
Graham Kearn, Ian Whittington, Leslie Chisholm, Richard Evans-Gowing
Acanthocotyle urolophi sp. nov. is described from the skin of the banded stingaree, Urolophus cruciatus (Lacépède, 1804). This is the first acanthocotylid to be described from Australian waters. Acanthocotyle urolophi sp. nov. is distinguished from other species of Acanthocotyle by a combination of the number of vitelline follicles 38 (33-46) and the number of rows 35 (32-37) of sclerites on the pseudohaptor. In addition, Acanthocotyle urolophi sp. nov. has no germarial appendix and no uterine "arm". A uterine receptaculum seminis was not identified in whole mounts...
September 1, 2016: Acta Parasitologica
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