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Javier Díez
Natriuretic peptides (NPs) promote diuresis, natriuresis and vasodilation in early chronic heart failure (CHF), countering renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) and sympathetic nervous system (SNS) overstimulation. Despite dramatic increases in circulating NP concentrations as CHF progresses, their effects become blunted. Increases in diuresis, natriuresis, and vasodilation after administration of exogenous atrial (ANP) or brain (BNP) natriuretic peptides are attenuated in patients with advanced CHF compared with controls...
October 21, 2016: European Journal of Heart Failure
Wouter C Meijers, A Rogier van der Velde, Anneke C Muller Kobold, Janneke Dijck-Brouwer, Alan H Wu, Allan Jaffe, Rudolf A de Boer
AIMS: Biomarkers can be used for diagnosis, risk stratification, or management of patients with heart failure (HF). Knowledge about the biological variation is needed for proper interpretation of serial measurements. Therefore, we aimed to determine and compare the biological variation of a large panel of biomarkers in healthy subjects and in patients with chronic HF. METHODS AND RESULTS: The biological variability of established biomarkers [NT-proBNP and high-sensitivity troponin T (hsTnT)], novel biomarkers [galectin-3, suppression of tumorigenicity 2 (ST2), and growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15)], and renal/neurohormonal biomarkers (aldosterone, phosphate, parathyroid hormone, plasma renin concentration, and creatinine) was determined in 28 healthy subjects and 83 HF patients, over a period of 4 months and 6 weeks, respectively...
October 21, 2016: European Journal of Heart Failure
Wojciech Kosmala, Aleksandra Rojek, Monika Przewlocka-Kosmala, Leah Wright, Andrzej Mysiak, Thomas H Marwick
BACKGROUND: Impaired functional capacity is a hallmark of patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Despite the association of HFpEF with reduced myocardial compliance attributed to fibrosis, spironolactone has not been shown to alter outcomes-perhaps reflecting the heterogeneity of underlying pathological mechanisms. OBJECTIVES: The authors sought to identify improvement in exercise capacity with spironolactone in the subset of patients with HFpEF with exercise-induced increase in ratio between early mitral inflow velocity and mitral annular early diastolic velocity (E/e') reflecting elevation of left ventricular (LV) filling pressure...
October 25, 2016: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Robert G Hahn, Nina Grankvist, Camilla Krizhanovskii
OBJECTIVE: Renal conservation (retention) of fluid might affect the outcome of hospital care and can be indicated by increased urinary concentrations of metabolic waste products. We obtained a reference material for further studies by exploring the prevalence of fluid retention in a healthy population. METHODS: Spot urine sampling was performed in 300 healthy hospital workers. A previously validated algorithm summarized the urine-specific gravity, osmolality, creatinine, and color to a fluid retention index (FRI), where 4...
2016: PloS One
Ning Xia, Huige Li
Under physiological conditions, perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) attenuates agonist-induced vasoconstriction by releasing vasoactive molecules including hydrogen peroxide, angiotensin 1-7, adiponectin, methyl palmitate, hydrogen sulfide, nitric oxide (NO) and leptin. This anticontractile function of PVAT is lost under conditions of obesity. The central mechanism underlying PVAT dysfunction in obesity is likely to be an "obesity triad" (consisting of PVAT hypoxia, inflammation and oxidative stress) that leads to dysregulation of PVAT-derived vasoregulators...
October 20, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
Shigeru Shibata, Kenichi Ishizawa, Shunya Uchida
The kidney has a central role in long-term control of blood pressure, and decreased kidney function is a common but difficult-to-treat cause of hypertension. Conversely, elevated blood pressure contributes to the progression of chronic kidney disease. Steroid hormone aldosterone and its receptor mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) contribute to hypertension by increasing renal salt reabsorption and promote kidney dysfunction through direct effects on renal parenchymal cells. Accumulating data indicate that various mechanisms affect aldosterone-MR signaling...
October 20, 2016: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
Nathan Elie Frenk, Fernando Sebastianes, Antonio Marcondes Lerario, Maria Candida Barisson Villares Fragoso, Berenice Bilharinho Mendonca, Marcos Roberto de Menezes
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the safety and long-term efficacy of computed tomography-guided percutaneous ethanol ablation for benign primary and secondary hyperfunctioning adrenal disorders. METHOD: We retrospectively evaluated the long-term results of nine patients treated with computed tomography-guided percutaneous ethanol ablation: eight subjects who presented with primary adrenal disorders, such as pheochromocytoma, primary macronodular adrenal hyperplasia and aldosterone-producing adenoma, and one subject with Cushing disease refractory to conventional treatment...
October 1, 2016: Clinics
Jamie L Benham, Maysoon Eldoma, Bushra Khokhar, Derek J Roberts, Doreen M Rabi, Gregory A Kline
Unilateral primary aldosteronism (PA) is often treated with adrenalectomy, but hypertension resolution rates are variable. A valid estimate of the postoperative normotension rate is necessary to inform the utility of PA testing and treatment. The authors searched MEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Prospective adult cohort studies with surgically treated PA that reported resolution of hypertension without the aid of medications were included...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Clinical Hypertension
Decio Armanini, Chiara Sabbadin, Alessandra Andrisani, Guido Ambrosini, Luciana Bordin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 19, 2016: Journal of Clinical Hypertension
Rosita Zakeri, Gilles Moulay, Qiang Chai, Ozgur Ogut, Saad Hussain, Hiroyuki Takahama, Tong Lu, Xiao-Li Wang, Wolfgang A Linke, Hon-Chi Lee, Margaret M Redfield
BACKGROUND: Left atrial (LA) compliance and contractility influence left ventricular stroke volume. We hypothesized that diminished LA compliance and contractile function occur early during the development of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) and impair overall cardiac performance. METHODS AND RESULTS: Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, echocardiography, left ventricular and LA pressure-volume studies, and tissue analyses were performed in a model of early HFpEF (elderly dogs, renal wrap-induced hypertension, exogenous aldosterone; n=9) and young control dogs (sham surgery; n=13)...
October 2016: Circulation. Heart Failure
Petra Rust, Cem Ekmekcioglu
Excessive dietary salt (sodium chloride) intake is associated with an increased risk for hypertension, which in turn is especially a major risk factor for stroke and other cardiovascular pathologies, but also kidney diseases. Besides, high salt intake or preference for salty food is discussed to be positive associated with stomach cancer, and according to recent studies probably also obesity risk. On the other hand a reduction of dietary salt intake leads to a considerable reduction in blood pressure, especially in hypertensive patients but to a lesser extent also in normotensives as several meta-analyses of interventional studies have shown...
October 19, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
M Namdari, A Eatemadi, B Negahdari
Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), also known as a B-type natriuretic peptide, is one of the important biomarkers with a proven role in the diagnosis of congestive heart failure (CHF). Researchers from the different clinical field have researched into the performance features of BNP testing in the acute care set-up to assist and improve in diagnosing CHF and in predicting future morbidity and mortality rates. The potency of BNP has also been researched into in cases like myocardial ischemia and infarction, cor pulmonale, and acute pulmonary embolism (PE)...
September 30, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Biology
Do Hee Kim, Hee Jin Kwon, Sang A Ji, Hye Ryoun Jang, Sin-Ho Jung, Jung-Han Kim, Jae Hyeon Kim, Jung Eun Lee, Wooseong Huh, Yoon-Goo Kim, Dae Joong Kim, Ha Young Oh
Primary aldosteronism (PA) may induce significant decline of renal function and structural damage of kidney. However, it is difficult to evaluate accurate renal function in patients with PA, because glomerular hyperfiltration and aldosterone escape can conceal renal impairment. In this retrospective cohort study, we compared changes in renal function after unilateral adrenalectomy between patients with PA and patients with other adrenal diseases. Risk factors associated with postoperative renal impairment in patients with PA were analyzed...
July 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Christian Cadeddu, Valentina Mercurio, Paolo Spallarossa, Savina Nodari, Marco Triggiani, Ines Monte, Roberta Piras, Rosalinda Madonna, Pasquale Pagliaro, Carlo G Tocchetti, Giuseppe Mercuro
Because of the recent advances in chemotherapeutic protocols, cancer survival has improved significantly, although cardiovascular disease has become a major cause of morbidity and mortality among cancer survivors: in addition to the well-known cardiotoxicity (CTX) from anthracyclines, biologic drugs that target molecules that are active in cancer biology also interfere with cardiovascular homeostasis.Pharmacological and non-pharmacological strategies to protect the cardiovascular structure and function are the best approaches to reducing the prevalence of cardiomyopathy linked to anticancer drugs...
May 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine
Netanya Y Spencer, Robert C Stanton
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is the rate-limiting enzyme of the pentose phosphate pathway. G6PD is the main source of the essential cellular reductant, NADPH. The purpose of this review is to describe the biochemistry of G6PD and NADPH, cellular factors that regulate G6PD, normal physiologic roles of G6PD, and the pathogenic role altered G6PD/NADPH plays in kidney disease. RECENT FINDINGS: NADPH is required for many essential cellular processes such as the antioxidant system, nitric oxide synthase, cytochrome p450 enzymes, and NADPH oxidase...
October 15, 2016: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
James Sm Cuffe, Eleanor L Turton, Lisa K Akison, Helle Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Karen M Moritz
Maternal stress can impair fetal development and program sex-specific disease outcomes in offspring through the actions of maternally produced glucocorticoids, predominantly corticosterone (Cort) in rodents. We have demonstrated in mice that male but not female offspring prenatally exposed to Cort (33µg/kg/h for 60h beginning at E12.5) develop cardiovascular/renal dysfunction at 12 months. At 6 months of age, renal function was normal but male offspring had increased plasma aldosterone concentrations, suggesting altered adrenal function may precede disease...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Endocrinology
Ali Nehme, Catherine Cerutti, Kazem Zibara
Despite the well-known role of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) in atheroma, its global local organization is poorly understood. In this study, we used transcriptomic meta-analysis to reveal the local transcriptional organization and regulation of 37 extended RAAS (extRAAS) genes in atheroma. Expression analysis and hierarchical clustering were done on extRAAS genes in 32 paired early and advanced atherosclerotic lesions. Contrary to receptor-coding transcripts, multiple angiotensin-metabolizing enzymes showed higher expression in advance, in comparison to early lesions...
October 17, 2016: Hypertension
Yoko Yoshii, Kenji Oki, Celso E Gomez-Sanchez, Haruya Ohno, Kiyotaka Itcho, Kazuhiro Kobuke, Masayasu Yoneda
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the DNA methylation levels of steroidogenic enzyme genes in aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) and the effects of gene mutations in APA on the DNA methylation levels. DNA methylation array analysis was conducted using nonfunctioning adrenocortical adenoma (n=12) and APA (n=35) samples, including some with a KCNJ5 mutation (n=21), an ATP1A1 mutation (n=5), and without the known mutations (n=9). The quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay was performed for the detection of CYP11B2 and CYP11B1 expression levels in nonfunctioning adrenocortical adenoma and APA...
October 17, 2016: Hypertension
Geoffrey Masuyer, Gyles E Cozier, Glenna J Kramer, Brian O Bachmann, K Ravi Acharya
Several soil-derived actinobacteria produce secondary metabolites that are proven specific and potent inhibitors of the human angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE), a key target for the modulation of hypertension through its role in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. K-26-DCP is a zinc dipeptidyl carboxypeptidase produced by Astrosporangium hypotensionis, and an ancestral homologue of ACE. Here we report the high resolution crystal structures of K-26-DCP and of its complex with the natural microbial tripeptide product K-26...
October 18, 2016: FEBS Journal
Elena Azizan, Norlela Sukor, Nor Azmi Kamaruddin, A Rahman A Jamal, Jiri Ceral, Miroslav Solar, Isa Mohamed Rose, Geok Chin Tan
OBJECTIVE: Aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) is a common curable cause of hypertension. Somatic mutations in five genes (KCNJ5, ATP1A1, ATP2B3, CACNA1D, and CTNNB1) have been found to cause the excess aldosterone production of two thirds of APAs [1-4]. KCNJ5 mutant APAs, the most common and largest, had explicit genotype-phenotype relationship - a low protein expression of KCNJ5 relative to their peritumoural zona glomerulosa (ZG) and a zona fasciculata-like composition [5-6]. Conversely for the other genes, controversy arises on whether they have the opposite cell phenotype [4,7-8]...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
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