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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145767/addressing-geographic-confounding-through-spatial-propensity-scores-a-study-of-racial-disparities-in-diabetes
#1
Melanie L Davis, Brian Neelon, Paul J Nietert, Kelly J Hunt, Lane F Burgette, Andrew B Lawson, Leonard E Egede
Motivated by a study exploring differences in glycemic control between non-Hispanic black and non-Hispanic white veterans with type 2 diabetes, we aim to address a type of confounding that arises in spatially referenced observational studies. Specifically, we develop a spatial doubly robust propensity score estimator to reduce bias associated with geographic confounding, which occurs when measured or unmeasured confounding factors vary by geographic location, leading to imbalanced group comparisons. We augment the doubly robust estimator with spatial random effects, which are assigned conditionally autoregressive priors to improve inferences by borrowing information across neighboring geographic regions...
January 1, 2017: Statistical Methods in Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143657/clinical-benefits-of-incorporating-doxycycline-into-a-canine-heartworm-treatment-protocol
#2
C Thomas Nelson, Elizabeth S Myrick, Thomas A Nelson
BACKGROUND: The objective of heartworm treatment is to improve the clinical condition of the patient and to eliminate pre-cardiac, juvenile, and adult worm stages with minimal complications. Pulmonary thromboembolisms are an inevitable consequence of worm death and can result in severe pulmonary reactions and even death of the patient. To minimize these reactions, various treatment protocols involving melarsomine, the only adulticidal drug approved by the US Food and Drug Administrations (FDA), in conjunction with macrocyclic lactone heartworm preventives and glucocorticosteroids have been advocated...
November 9, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139216/patterns-and-drivers-of-fish-extirpations-in-rivers-of-the-american-southwest-and-southeast
#3
John S Kominoski, Albert Ruhí, Megan M Hagler, Kelly Petersen, John L Sabo, Tushar Sinha, Arumugam Sankarasubramanian, Julian D Olden
Effective conservation of freshwater biodiversity requires spatially explicit investigations of how dams and hydroclimatic alterations among climate regions may interact to drive species to extinction. We investigated how dams and hydroclimatic alterations interact with species ecological and life history traits to influence past extirpation probabilities of native freshwater fishes in the Upper and Lower Colorado River (CR), Alabama-Coosa-Tallapoosa (ACT), and Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint (ACF) basins...
November 15, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134014/on-the-identity-of-leptoxis-taeniata-a-misapplied-name-for-the-threatened-painted-rocksnail-cerithioidea-pleuroceridae
#4
Nathan V Whelan, Paul D Johnson, Jeffrey T Garner, Ellen E Strong
The Painted Rocksnail, currently known as Leptoxis taeniata, is a federally threatened species native to the Mobile River basin in Alabama, USA. Presently restricted to four disjunct populations, the species is at considerable risk of extinction after a range decline of over 95% in the 20th century because of habitat alteration following impoundment of the Coosa River. Here, we reassess the identity and historical range of the Painted Rocksnail to improve communication and conservation efforts for the species...
2017: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121953/risk-of-tuberculosis-among-alabama-children-and-adolescents-treated-with-tumor-necrosis-factor-inhibitors-a-retrospective-study
#5
Matthew L Stoll, James Aaron Grubbs, Timothy Beukelman, Melissa L Mannion, Traci W Jester, Randy Q Cron, Marilyn J Crain
BACKGROUND: Tumor Necrosis Factor inhibitors (TNFi) have dramatically improved the outlook for patients with inflammatory arthritides and bowel disease (IBD), but are associated with increased infection risks, including tuberculosis (TB). Pediatric inflammatory diseases are uncommon, and the risk of TB in children taking TNFi remains unclear. The objective of this study was to report the incidence of TB disease among TNFi recipients at a single pediatric medical center serving most of Alabama compared to that of the general population of Alabama children...
November 9, 2017: Pediatric Rheumatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121347/race-ethnic-variations-in-quitline-use-among-us-adult-tobacco-users-in-45-states-2011-2013
#6
LaTisha L Marshall, Lei Zhang, Ann M Malarcher, Nathan H Mann, Brian A King, Robert L Alexander
Introduction: State quitlines provide free telephone-based cessation services and are available in all states. However, quitlines presently reach 1% of US cigarette smokers. We assessed variations in quitline reach by race/ethnicity across 45 US states included in the National Quitline Data Warehouse, a repository on non-identifiable data reported by state quitlines. Methods: During 2011 to 2013, we analyzed 1 220 171 records from the National Quitline Data Warehouse...
November 7, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119799/testing-our-faithh-hiv-stigma-and-knowledge-after-a-faith-based-hiv-stigma-reduction-intervention-in-the-rural-south
#7
Pamela Payne-Foster, Erin L P Bradley, Natasha Aduloju-Ajijola, Xin Yang, Zaneta Gaul, Jason Parton, Madeline Y Sutton, Susan Gaskins
Eliminating racial/ethnic HIV disparities requires HIV-related stigma reduction. African-American churches have a history of addressing community concerns, including health issues, but may also contribute to stigma. We developed and pilot tested a faith-based, anti-stigma intervention with 12 African-American churches in rural Alabama. We measured HIV-related stigma held by 199 adults who participated in the intervention (individual-level) and their perception of stigma among other congregants (congregational-level)...
November 9, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117263/genetic-health-and-population-monitoring-of-two-small-black-bear-ursus-americanus-populations-in-alabama-with-a-regional-perspective-of-genetic-diversity-and-exchange
#8
John P Draper, Lisette P Waits, Jennifer R Adams, Christopher L Seals, Todd D Steury
One of the major concerns in conservation today is the loss of genetic diversity which is a frequent consequence of population isolation and small population sizes. Fragmentation of populations and persecution of carnivores has posed a substantial threat to the persistence of free ranging carnivores in North America since the arrival of European settlers. Black bears have seen significant reductions in range size from their historic extent, which is most pronounced in the southeastern United States and even more starkly in Alabama where until recently bears were reduced to a single geographically isolated population in the Mobile River Basin...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101768/novel-methods-and-data-sources-for-surveillance-of-state-level-diabetes-and-prediabetes-prevalence
#9
Russ Mardon, David Marker, Jennifer Nooney, Joanne Campione, Frank Jenkins, Maurice Johnson, Lori Merrill, Deborah B Rolka, Sharon Saydah, Linda S Geiss, Xuanping Zhang, Sundar Shrestha
States bear substantial responsibility for addressing the rising rates of diabetes and prediabetes in the United States. However, accurate state-level estimates of diabetes and prediabetes prevalence that include undiagnosed cases have been impossible to produce with traditional sources of state-level data. Various new and nontraditional sources for estimating state-level prevalence are now available. These include surveys with expanded samples that can support state-level estimation in some states and administrative and clinical data from insurance claims and electronic health records...
November 2, 2017: Preventing Chronic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079749/swainson-s-thrushes-do-not-show-strong-wind-selectivity-prior-to-crossing-the-gulf-of-mexico
#10
Rachel T Bolus, Robert H Diehl, Frank R Moore, Jill L Deppe, Michael P Ward, Jaclyn Smolinsky, Theodore J Zenzal
During long-distance fall migrations, nocturnally migrating Swainson's Thrushes often stop on the northern Gulf of Mexico coast before flying across the Gulf. To minimize energetic costs, trans-Gulf migrants should stop over when they encounter crosswinds or headwinds, and depart with supportive tailwinds. However, time constrained migrants should be less selective, balancing costs of headwinds with benefits of continuing their migrations. To test the hypotheses that birds select supportive winds and that selectivity is mediated by seasonal time constraints, we examined whether local winds affected Swainson's Thrushes' arrival and departure at Ft...
October 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075676/direct-acting-antivirals-in-kidney-transplant-patients-successful-hepatitis-c-treatment-and-short-term-reduction-in-urinary-protein-creatinine-ratios
#11
Michael R Goetsch, Ashutosh Tamhane, Mohit Varshney, Anuj Kapil, Edgar T Overton, Graham C Towns, Ricardo A Franco
BACKGROUND: The role of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) clearance in kidney graft survival is unknown. We examined short-term trends of protein/creatinine (P/C) ratios in HCV-infected kidney transplant recipients treated with direct-acting antivirals (DAAs). METHODS: This is a retrospective study of 19 kidney transplant patients with HCV infection treated with DAAs at the University of Alabama at Birmingham between January 2013 and June 2016. Markers of glomerular damage were assessed using average urinary protein/creatinine (P/C) ratios measured pretreatment and posttreatment...
2017: Pathogens & Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063814/the-use-of-cannabidiol-for-seizure-management-in-patients-with-brain-tumor-related-epilepsy
#12
Paula Province Warren, E Martina Bebin, L Burt Nabors, Jerzy P Szaflarski
Epilepsy, commonly encountered by patients with brain tumors, is often refractory to standard therapies. Our aim was to examine the safety and efficacy of pharmaceutical grade cannabidiol (CBD; Epidiolex, GW Pharmaceuticals) in those patients with epilepsy with concomitant tumors enrolled in The University of Alabama at Birmingham CBD Program (NCT02700412 and NCT02695537). Of the three patients with refractory seizures and a history of a primary brain tumor, two had improvement in seizure frequency and all three had improvement in seizure severity...
October 24, 2017: Neurocase
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053056/intradural-spine-surgery-may-not-carry-an-increased-risk-of-shunt-revision-compared-with-extradural-spine-surgery-in-pediatric-patients-with-myelomeningocele
#13
Elizabeth N Kuhn, Betsy Hopson, Michael J Conklin, Jeffrey P Blount
OBJECTIVE Patients with myelomeningocele are often affected by scoliosis and tethered cord syndrome, and frequently require spine surgery. Intradural spine surgeries may carry an inherently higher risk of inducing shunt malfunction due to entry into the subarachnoid space. In this study, the authors sought to compare rates of shunt malfunction after intradural and extradural spine surgeries among pediatric patients with myelomeningocele. METHODS The authors reviewed records of the National Spina Bifida Program Registry for Children's Hospital of Alabama...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034778/berman-j-2015-writing-widowhood-the-landscapes-of-bereavement-bush-h-l-2016-continuing-bonds-with-the-dead-parental-grief-and-19th-century-american-authors-berman-j-2015-writing-widowhood-the-landscapes-of-bereavement-albany-ny-state-university-of-new-york
#14
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033024/a-predictive-model-for-a-reputation-based-general-surgery-residency-match-and-a-novel-online-calculator
#15
John T Killian, James D Leeper, Qiong Xu, Paul F Sauer, John R Porterfield
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify medical student characteristics that predict a successful categorical match into a general surgery residency and a match based upon Doximity program rankings. DESIGN: This was a retrospective study that analyzed academic and personal predictors of a successful general surgery residency match. SETTING: This study was set at the University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Medicine, a public medical school...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Surgical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028993/high-prevalence-of-multidrug-resistant-mycoplasma-genitalium-in-hiv-infected-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-alabama
#16
J Dionne-Odom, W M Geisler, K J Aaron, K B Waites, A O Westfall, B Van Der Pol, L Xiao
We tested for Mycoplasma genitalium in 157 HIV-infected men in Alabama who were mostly asymptomatic. Urogenital and rectal prevalence were 10.8% and 6.4%, respectively. Macrolide resistance mutations were detected in 70.6% and 80% of urogenital and rectal samples and fluoroquinolone resistance mutations in 26.7% and 40% of samples, respectively.
September 26, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026295/systemic-effects-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-in-young-old-adults-life-space-mobility
#17
Isabel Fialho Fontenele Garcia, Carina Tiemi Tiuganji, Maria do Socorro Morais Pereira Simões, Ilka Lopes Santoro, Adriana Claudia Lunardi
PURPOSE: The objective was to assess whether dyspnea, peripheral muscle strength and the level of physical activity are correlated with life-space mobility of older adults with COPD. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Sixty patients over 60 years of age (40 in the COPD group and 20 in the control group) were included. All patients were evaluated for lung function (spirometry), life-space mobility (University of Alabama at Birmingham Study of Aging Life-Space Assessment), dyspnea severity (Modified Dyspnea Index), peripheral muscle strength (handgrip dynamometer), level of physical activity and number of daily steps (accelerometry)...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020876/screening-for-colorectal-cancer-at-the-worksite
#18
Louise C O'Keefe, Margaret M Sullivan, Amber McPhail, Kristen Van Buren, Nathan Dewberry
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths among men and women in the United States. To increase statewide CRC screening rates, the Alabama Department of Public Health (through a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC] Colorectal Cancer Control Program grant) partnered with The University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) and The University of South Alabama (USA) to provide free CRC screening opportunities to eligible University employees and dependents. Resources were invested at both universities to ensure participant education, tracking, and monitoring...
October 1, 2017: Workplace Health & Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016326/human-intestinal-parasite-burden-and-poor-sanitation-in-rural-alabama
#19
Megan L McKenna, Shannon McAtee, Patricia E Bryan, Rebecca Jeun, Tabitha Ward, Jacob Kraus, Maria E Bottazzi, Peter J Hotez, Catherine C Flowers, Rojelio Mejia
Hookworm infection affects 430 million people worldwide, causing iron deficiency, impaired cognitive development, and stunting in children. Because of the environmental conditions needed for the hookworm life-cycle, this parasite is endemic to resource-limited countries. Necator americanus was endemic in the southern United States before improvement of sewage disposal systems and eradication programs. With continued poverty, poor sanitation, and an environment suitable for the hookworm life-cycle in some regions of the southern United States, a current prevalence study using modern molecular diagnostics is warranted...
September 5, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016129/estimating-the-quantity-of-wind-and-solar-required-to-displace-storage-induced-emissions
#20
Eric Hittinger, Inês M L Azevedo
The variable and nondispatchable nature of wind and solar generation has been driving interest in energy storage as an enabling low-carbon technology that can help spur large-scale adoption of renewables. However, prior work has shown that adding energy storage alone for energy arbitrage in electricity systems across the U.S. routinely increases system emissions. While adding wind or solar reduces electricity system emissions, the emissions effect of both renewable generation and energy storage varies by location...
November 7, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
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