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Facial expression

Yuhong Yan, Chuanshi Liu, Lin Ye, Yangyang Liu
The objective of the present study was to conduct an intervention study which aimed to improve emotion recognition for Chinese children with ASD by using animated vehicles with real emotional faces. A total of 21 children participated in the current study; participants consisted of 14 children (2 girls) with a formal diagnosis of ASD and 7 typically developing children. Participants were measured on emotional vocabulary and situation-facial expression matching before and after the intervention. Results indicated that the intervention significantly improved ASD children's emotion recognition compared to their pre-intervention scores...
2018: PloS One
Marcello Passarelli, Michele Masini, Fabrizio Bracco, Matteo Petrosino, Carlo Chiorri
Detecting the emotional state of others from facial expressions is a key ability in emotional competence and several instruments have been developed to assess it. Typical emotion recognition tests are assumed to be unidimensional, use pictures or videos of emotional portrayals as stimuli, and ask the participant which emotion is depicted in each stimulus. However, using actor portrayals adds a layer of difficulty in developing such a test: the portrayals may fail to be convincing and may convey a different emotion than intended...
July 19, 2018: Psychological Assessment
Leonor Philip, Jean-Claude Martin, Céline Clavel
Facial expressions of emotion provide relevant cues for understanding social interactions and the affective processes involved in emotion perception. Virtual human faces are useful for conducting controlled experiments. However, little is known regarding the possible differences between physiological responses elicited by virtual versus real human facial expressions. The aim of the current study was to determine if virtual and real emotional faces elicit the same rapid facial reactions for the perception of facial expressions of joy, anger, and sadness...
July 2018: I-Perception
Yuriko Kojima, Tomohiro Kumagai, Tomoo Hidaka, Takeyasu Kakamu, Shota Endo, Yayoi Mori, Tadashi Tsukamoto, Takashi Sakamoto, Miho Murata, Takehito Hayakawa, Tetsuhito Fukushima
BACKGROUND: The facial expression of medical staff has been known to greatly affect the psychological state of patients, making them feel uneasy or conversely, cheering them up. By clarifying the characteristics of facial expression recognition ability in patients with Lewy body disease, the aim of this study is to examine points to facilitate smooth communication between caregivers and patients with the disease whose cognitive function has deteriorated. METHODS: During the period from March 2016 to July 2017, we examined the characteristics of recognition of the six facial expressions of "happiness," "sadness," "fear," "anger," "surprise," and "disgust" for 107 people aged 60 years or more, both outpatient and inpatient, who hospital specialists had diagnosed with Lewy body diseases of Parkinson's disease, Parkinson's disease with dementia, and dementia with Lewy bodies...
July 18, 2018: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
Lawrence O Lin, Rosaline S Zhang, Daniel Mazzaferro, Ian C Hoppe, Rebecca L Pearl, Jordan W Swanson, Scott P Bartlett, Jesse A Taylor
BACKGROUND: Facial scarring and disharmony due to clefting is associated with psychosocial stress which may be improved by orthognathic surgery. The authors examine how a history of clefting influences change in layperson perception of a patient following orthognathic surgery. METHODS: 1000 laypeople were recruited through Mechanical Turk to evaluate patient photographs pre- and post-orthognathic surgery. Nineteen patients - 5 with unilateral and 4 with bilateral clefting - were included...
July 5, 2018: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Hanna B Cygan, Hanna Okuniewska, Katarzyna Jednoróg, Artur Marchewka, Marek Wypych, Anna Nowicka
The ability to "read" the information about facial identity, expressed emotions, and intentions is crucial for non‑verbal social interaction. Neuroimaging and clinical studies consequently link face perception with fusiform gyrus (FG) and occipital face area (OFA) activity. Here we investigated face processing in an adult, patient PK, diagnosed with both high functioning autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and developmental prosopagnosia (DP). Both disorders have a significant impact on face perception and recognition, thus creating a unique neurodevelopmental condition...
2018: Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis
Phoebe E Bailey, Brooke Brady, Natalie C Ebner, Ted Ruffman
Objectives: The degree to which older adults experience emotional empathy and show subsequent prosocial behavior versus experience personal distress in response to another's distress remains unclear. Method: Young (n = 40; 17-29 years) and older (n = 39; 61-82 years) adults watched videos of individuals expressing pain or no pain. Pain mimicry was recorded using facial electromyography. Participants were then asked if they would spend the remaining time helping the experimenter...
July 17, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
Jun Shi, Mengxin Cai, Yufeng Si, Jianshi Zhang, Shaojun Du
The fusion of myoblasts into multinucleated muscle fibers is vital to skeletal muscle development, maintenance, and regeneration. Genetic mutations in the Myomaker (mymk) gene cause Carey-Fineman-Ziter syndrome in human populations. To study the regulation of myomaker gene expression and function, we generated three myomaker mutant alleles in zebrafish using CRISPR and analyzed the effects of myomaker knockout on muscle development and growth. Our studies demonstrated that knockout of myomaker resulted in defective myoblast fusion in zebrafish embryos and increased mortality at larval stage around 35-45 days post-fertilization...
July 17, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
Yan-Fei Li, Xiao-Yan Chen, Tie-Chi Lei
The aim of the present study wasto investigate the potential inhibitory effect of timolol on topical glucocorticoid‑induced skin telangiectasia. In rabbits, flumethasone ointment was used to induce skin telangiectasia in the inner ear. Subsequently, timolol maleate (0.5%) eye drops (TMEDs) were administered twice daily for 4 weeks. Expression of the antibacterial peptides 37‑amino acid peptide (LL‑37) and kallikrein‑5 (KLK5) was detected using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and semi‑quantitative reverse transcription‑PCR...
July 9, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Amy J D Hampton, Thomas Hadjistavropoulos, Michelle M Gagon
We aimed to examine the effects of contextual factors (i.e., observers' training background and priming texts) on decoding facial pain expressions of younger and older adults. A total of 165 participants (82 nursing students and 83 non-health professionals) were randomly assigned to one of three priming conditions: (1) information about the possibility of secondary gain [misuse]; (2) information about the frequency and undertreatment of pain in the older adult [undertreament]; or (3) neutral information [control]...
July 12, 2018: Pain
Anna Lena Sundell, Agneta Marcusson
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to assess orofacial profiles in 5- and 10-year-old children with cleft lip and/or palate (CL/P) compared to controls and to estimate a possible association between orofacial dysfunction and caries frequency. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 133 children with CL/P (77 5-year-olds and 56 10-year-olds) and 308 controls (142 5-year-olds and 166 10-year-olds) were included in the study. Orofacial function was evaluated with Nordic Orofacial Test-Screening (NOT-S), and caries were scored according to the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS)...
July 16, 2018: Clinical Oral Investigations
Hugh J McMillan, Aida Telegrafi, Amanda Singleton, Megan T Cho, Daniel Lelli, Francis C Lynn, Julie Griffin, Alexander Asamoah, Tuula Rinne, Corrie E Erasmus, David A Koolen, Charlotte A Haaxma, Boris Keren, Diane Doummar, Cyril Mignot, Islay Thompson, Lea Velsher, Mohammadreza Dehghani, Mohammad Yahya Vahidi Mehrjardi, Reza Maroofian, Michel Tchan, Cas Simons, John Christodoulou, Elena Martín-Hernández, Maria J Guillen Sacoto, Lindsay B Henderson, Heather McLaughlin, Laurie L Molday, Robert S Molday, Grace Yoon
BACKGROUND: ATP8A2 mutations have recently been described in several patients with severe, early-onset hypotonia and cognitive impairment. The aim of our study was to characterize the clinical phenotype of patients with ATP8A2 mutations. METHODS: An observational study was conducted at multiple diagnostic centres. Clinical data is presented from 9 unreported and 2 previously reported patients with ATP8A2 mutations. We compare their features with 3 additional patients that have been previously reported in the medical literature...
May 31, 2018: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
Nazil Perveen, Debaditya Roy, C Krishna Mohan
Spontaneous expression recognition refers to recognizing non-posed human expressions. In literature, most of the existing approaches for expression recognition mainly rely on manual annotations by experts, which is both time-consuming and difficult to obtain. Hence, we propose an unsupervised framework for spontaneous expression recognition that preserves discriminative information for the videos of each expression without using annotations. Initially, a large Gaussian mixture model called universal attribute model (UAM) is trained to learn the attributes of various expressions implicitly...
July 16, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
Amy Dawel, Luke Wright, Rachael Dumbleton, Elinor McKone
In everyday life, other peoples' distress is sometimes genuine (e.g., real sadness) and sometimes pretended (e.g., feigned sadness aimed at manipulating others). Here, we present the first study of how psychopathic traits affect responses to genuine versus posed distress. Using facial expression stimuli and testing individual differences across the general population ( N = 140), we focus on the affective features of psychopathy (e.g., callousness, poor empathy, shallow affect). Results show that although individuals low on affective psychopathy report greater arousal and intent to help toward faces displaying genuine relative to posed distress, these differences weakened or disappeared with higher levels of affective psychopathy...
July 16, 2018: Personality Disorders
Vladimir Kosonogov, Alisa Titova
To study different aspects of facial emotion recognition, valid methods are needed. The more widespread methods have some limitations. We propose a more ecological method that consists of presenting dynamic faces and measuring verbal reaction times. We presented 120 video clips depicting a gradual change from a neutral expression to a basic emotion (anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness and surprise), and recorded hit rates and reaction times of verbal labelling of emotions. Our results showed that verbal responses to six basic emotions differed in hit rates and reaction times: happiness > surprise > disgust > anger > sadness > fear (this means these emotional responses were more accurate and faster)...
July 16, 2018: International Journal of Psychology: Journal International de Psychologie
A Kehrer, S Engelmann, M Ruewe, S Geis, C Taeger, M Kehrer, E R Tamm, R L A W Bleys, L Prantl, V Mandlik
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Early persistent facial paralysis is characterized by intact muscles of facial expression through maintained perfusion but lacking nerve supply. In facial reanimation procedures aiming at restoration of facial tone and dynamics, neurotization through a donor nerve is performed. Critical for reanimating target muscles is axonal capacity of both donor and recipient nerves. In cases of complete paralysis, the proximal stump of the extratemporal facial nerve trunk may be selected as a recipient site for coaptation...
July 13, 2018: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
Kim M Curby, Stephen D Smith, Denise Moerel, Amy Dyson
Previous research has identified numerous factors affecting the capacity and accuracy of visual working memory (VWM). One potentially important factor is the emotionality of the stimuli to be encoded and held in VWM. We often must hold in VWM information that is emotionally charged, but much is still unknown about how the emotionality of stimuli impacts VWM performance. In the current research, we performed four studies examining the impact of fearful facial expressions on VWM for faces. Fearful expressions were found to produce a consistent cost to VWM performance...
July 13, 2018: British Journal of Psychology
Xianwei Che, Cash Robin, Chung Sungwook, B Fitzgerald Paul, M Fitzgibbon Bernadette
Social support is demonstrated to have mixed effects on both pain and related physiological arousal. In this study, a meta-analysis was conducted to characterise these effects. A total of 2416 studies were identified in a systematic search, among which 21 were eligible for the quantitative review. The mere presence of another person was not sufficient to modulate pain perception. However, stranger presence was identified to decrease pain-related arousal (SMD = -0.31), and the presence of a significant other increased facial expression of pain (SMD = 0...
July 10, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Catarina C Kordsachia, Izelle Labuschagne, Sophie C Andrews, Julie C Stout
(Huntington's disease HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder associated with impaired facial emotion recognition and altered subjective experience of emotion. These impairments likely result from the effects of the disease on underlying neurobiological mechanisms. Studies using self-report to examine emotional experiences have been ambiguous regarding whether experiences are diminished or exaggerated, possibly due to cognitive impairment and lack of insight in HD. To infer affective states more objectively and overcome the limitations of self-report, we used facial EMG to measure muscle responses to emotionally-evocative scenes...
June 7, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Leah M Mayo, Johan Lindé, Håkan Olausson, Markus Heilig, India Morrison
Touch plays a central role in interpersonal behavior, especially in its capacity to convey-and induce- changes in affect. Previous research has established that slow, caress-like stroking over the skin elicits positive subjective affective responses, with higher ratings of "pleasantness" compared to a faster-moving touch stimulus. Ratings of pleasantness are associated with increased activity of a distinct class of nerve fibers: C-tactile (CT) afferents. Here, we used facial electromyography (EMG) to determine if touch that optimally activates CT afferents also influences facial muscle activity believed to reflect changes in affect...
July 9, 2018: Biological Psychology
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