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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150757/invisible-side-of-emotions-somato-motor-responses-to-affective-facial-displays-in-alexithymia
#1
Cristina Scarpazza, Elisabetta Làdavas, Luigi Cattaneo
According to recent theories, the detection of emotions involves somatic experiences. In this study, we investigated the relation between somatic responses to affective stimuli, emotion perception, and alexithymia. Variations in automatic rapid facial reactions (RFRs) were measured in a selected population of participants with high and low levels of alexithymia (HA and LA, respectively). Electromyographic activity was recorded from the corrugator supercilii and the zygomaticus major, while participants performed a gender classification task on faces expressing various emotional states...
November 17, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147671/distal-22q11-2-microduplication-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#2
Elana Pinchefsky, Laurence Laneuville, Myriam Srour
Distal chromosome 22q11.2 microduplications are associated with a wide range of phenotypes and unclear pathogenicity. The authors report on a 3-year-old girl with global developmental delay harboring a de novo 1.24 Mb distal chromosome 22q11.2 microduplication and a paternally inherited 0.25 Mb chromosome 4p14 microduplication. The authors review clinical features of 30 reported cases of distal 22q11.2 duplications. Common features include developmental delay (93%), neuropsychiatric features (26%), and nonspecific facial dysmorphisms (74%)...
January 2017: Child neurology open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146147/age-induced-and-photoinduced-changes-in-gene-expression-profiles-in-facial-skin-of-caucasian-females-across-6%C3%A2-decades-of-age
#3
Alexa B Kimball, Maria B Alora-Palli, Makio Tamura, Lisa A Mullins, Chieko Soh, Robert L Binder, Neil A Houston, Emily D Conley, Joyce Y Tung, Nikki E Annunziata, Charles C Bascom, Robert J Isfort, Bradley B Jarrold, Raghu Kainkaryam, Heather L Rocchetta, Dionne D Swift, Jay P Tiesman, Kazumi Toyama, Jun Xu, Xianghong Yan, Rosemarie Osborne
BACKGROUND: Intrinsic and extrinsic factors, including ultraviolet irradiation, lead to visible signs of skin aging. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated molecular changes occurring in photoexposed and photoprotected skin of white women 20 to 74 years of age, some of whom appeared substantially younger than their chronologic age. METHODS: Histologic and transcriptomics profiling were conducted on skin biopsy samples of photoexposed (face and dorsal forearm) or photoprotected (buttocks) body sites from 158 women...
November 14, 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146105/content-validation-of-behaviours-and-autonomic-responses-for-the-assessment-of-pain-in-critically-ill-adults-with-a-brain-injury
#4
Céline Gélinas, Kathleen A Puntillo, Madalina Boitor, Mélanie Bérubé, Jane Topolovec-Vranic, Anne-Sylvie Ramelet, Aaron M Joffe, Melissa Richard-Lalonde, Francis Bernard, David L Streiner
BACKGROUND: The evidence shows that brain-injured patients express behaviours that are related to their level of consciousness (LOC), and different from other patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). Therefore, existing behavioural scales should be revised to enhance their content and validity for use in these patients. OBJECTIVES: The aim was to evaluate the content relevance of behaviours and autonomic responses for pain assessment of brain-injured ICU patients from the perspective of critical care clinicians...
November 13, 2017: Australian Critical Care: Official Journal of the Confederation of Australian Critical Care Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146033/analgesics-in-small-mammals
#5
REVIEW
Paul Flecknell
Managing pain effectively in any species is challenging, but small mammals present particular problems. Methods of pain assessment are still under development in these species, so the efficacy of analgesic therapy cannot be evaluated fully. Methods of assessing abdominal pain are established; however, applying these can be challenging. Alternative methods, using assessment of facial expression, may be more applicable to a range of painful procedures and across species. Multimodal and preventive analgesic strategies are most likely to be effective...
January 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145524/tumor-necrosis-factor-alpha-signaling-in-trigeminal-ganglion-contributes-to-mechanical-hypersensitivity-in-masseter-muscle-during-temporomandibular-joint-inflammation
#6
Reio Ito, Masamichi Shinoda, Kuniya Honda, Kentaro Urata, Jun Lee, Mitsuru Maruno, Kumi Soma, Shinji Okada, Nobuhito Gionhaku, Koichi Iwata
AIMS: To determine the involvement of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) signaling in the trigeminal ganglion (TG) in the mechanical hypersensitivity of the masseter muscle during temporomandibular joint (TMJ) inflammation. METHODS: A total of 55 male Sprague-Dawley rats were used. Following injection of Complete Freund's Adjuvant into the TMJ, the mechanical sensitivities of the masseter muscle and the overlying facial skin were measured. Satellite glial cell (SGC) activation and TNFα expression in the TG were investigated immunohistochemically, and the effects of their inhibition on the mechanical hypersensitivity of the masseter muscle were also examined...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Oral & Facial Pain and Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145277/tricho-hepato-enteric-syndrome-with-novel-skiv2l-gene-mutations-a-case-report
#7
Eitaro Hiejima, Takahiro Yasumi, Hiroshi Nakase, Minoru Matsuura, Yusuke Honzawa, Hirokazu Higuchi, Ikuo Okafuji, Tohru Yorifuji, Takayuki Tanaka, Kazushi Izawa, Tomoki Kawai, Ryuta Nishikomori, Toshio Heike
RATIONALE: Tricho-hepato-enteric syndrome (THES) is a rare disorder caused by mutations in the TTC37 or SKIV2L genes and characterized by chronic diarrhea, liver disease, hair abnormalities, and high mortality in early childhood due to severe infection or liver cirrhosis. PATIENT CONCERNS: The patient is the second child of three siblings born to non-consanguineous healthy Japanese parents. She had intrauterine growth retardation and was delivered at 33 weeks of gestation due to placental abruption...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145178/minor-hemisphere-major-syndromes
#8
Antonio Carota, Julien Bogousslavsky
A right "minor hemisphere" does not exist as the right hemisphere is dominant for awareness (nosognosia), spatial attention, emotional regulation, facial and voice expressions, visual recognition, and topographical orientation. Without the right hemisphere, the world would be flat, deprived of general and spatial attentions, pointing preferentially to the right side of the space, lacking visual experiences and emotions, exhibiting diminished awareness of the self and environment. Clinical-related syndromes of the right hemisphere are unilateral spatial neglect, object and face visual agnosia, the anosognosia for hemiparesis and/or hemianopia, misidentification syndromes, mania, and other obsessions for the food and the body...
2018: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144240/trial-of-music-sucrose-and-combination-therapy-for-pain-relief-during-heel-prick-procedures-in-neonates
#9
Swapnil R Shah, Shahajahan Kadage, John Sinn
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness of music, oral sucrose, and combination therapy for pain relief in neonates undergoing a heel prick procedure. STUDY DESIGN: This randomized, controlled, blinded crossover clinical trial included stable neonates >32 weeks of postmenstrual age. Each neonate crossed over to all 3 interventions in random order during consecutive heel pricks. A video camera on mute mode recorded facial expressions, starting 2 minutes before until 7 minutes after the heel prick...
November 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141085/the-contribution-of-foveal-and-peripheral-visual-information-to-ensemble-representation-of-face-race
#10
Wonmo Jung, Isabelle Bülthoff, Regine G M Armann
The brain can only attend to a fraction of all the information that is entering the visual system at any given moment. One way of overcoming the so-called bottleneck of selective attention (e.g., J. M. Wolfe, Võ, Evans, & Greene, 2011) is to make use of redundant visual information and extract summarized statistical information of the whole visual scene. Such ensemble representation occurs for low-level features of textures or simple objects, but it has also been reported for complex high-level properties...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140781/a-generative-audio-visual-prosodic-model-for-virtual-actors
#11
Adela Barbulescu, Remi Ronfard, Gerard Bailly
An important problem in computer animation of virtual characters is the expression of complex mental states during conversation using the coordinated prosody of voice, rhythm, facial expressions, and head and gaze motion. In this work, the authors propose an expressive conversion method for generating natural speech and facial animation in a variety of recognizable attitudes, using neutral speech and animation as input. Their method works by automatically learning prototypical prosodic contours at the sentence level from an original dataset of dramatic attitudes...
November 2017: IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140527/functional-organization-of-face-processing-in-the-human-superior-temporal-sulcus-a-7t-high-resolution-fmri-study
#12
Anne-Kathrin Schobert, Corrado Corradi-Dell'Acqua, Sascha Frühholz, Wietske van der Zwaag, Patrik Vuilleumier
The superior temporal sulcus (STS) is a major component of the human face perception network, implicated in processing dynamic changeable aspects of faces. However, it remains unknown whether STS holds functionally segregated subdivisions for different categories of facial movements. We used high-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) at 7T in 16 volunteers to compare STS activation to faces displaying angry or happy expressions, eye-gaze shifts, and lip-speech movements. Combining univariate and multivariate analyses, we show a systematic topological organization within STS, with gaze-related activity predominating in the most posterior and superior sector, speech-related activity in the anterior sector, and emotional expressions represented in the intermediate middle STS...
November 11, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138393/dogs-and-humans-respond-to-emotionally-competent-stimuli-by-producing-different-facial-actions
#13
Caeiro Cátia, Guo Kun, Mills Daniel
The commonality of facial expressions of emotion has been studied in different species since Darwin, with most of the research focusing on closely related primate species. However, it is unclear to what extent there exists common facial expression in species more phylogenetically distant, but sharing a need for common interspecific emotional understanding. Here we used the objective, anatomically-based tools, FACS and DogFACS (Facial Action Coding Systems), to quantify and compare human and domestic dog facial expressions in response to emotionally-competent stimuli associated with different categories of emotional arousal...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138108/analysis-of-social-process-in-two-inbred-strains-of-male-mice-a-predominance-of-contact-based-investigation-in-balb-c-mice
#14
Hiroyuki Arakawa
Developing mouse models for social communication deficits requires a better understanding of the nature of social investigatory processes between mice. Mice use different investigatory strategies based on a possibility of contacts with social sources. A detailed investigation of contact distance revealed strain differences in behavioral strategy between two male inbred C57BL/6 (B6) and BALB/c (BALB) mouse strains. When direct physical contact with stimulus mice was restricted, BALB mice displayed lower social approaches than B6 mice, accompanied by heightened innate anxiety in an unfamiliar environment...
November 11, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137990/affective-blindsight-in-the-absence-of-input-from-face-processing-regions-in-occipital-temporal-cortex
#15
Christopher L Striemer, Robert L Whitwell, Melvyn A Goodale
Previous research suggests that the implicit recognition of emotional expressions may be carried out by pathways that bypass primary visual cortex (V1) and project to the amygdala. Some of the strongest evidence supporting this claim comes from case studies of "affective blindsight" in which patients with V1 damage can correctly guess whether an unseen face was depicting a fearful or happy expression. In the current study, we report a new case of affective blindsight in patient MC who is cortically blind following extensive bilateral lesions to V1, as well as face and object processing regions in her ventral visual stream...
November 11, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136515/associations-between-feelings-of-social-anxiety-and-emotion-perception
#16
Spencer K Lynn, Eric Bui, Susanne S Hoeppner, Emily B O'Day, Sophie A Palitz, Lisa Feldman Barrett, Naomi M Simon
BACKGROUND: Abnormally biased perceptual judgment is a feature of many psychiatric disorders. Thus, individuals with social anxiety disorder are biased to recall or interpret social events negatively. Cognitive behavioral therapy addresses such bias by teaching patients, via verbal instruction, to become aware of and change pathological misjudgment. The present study examined whether targeting verbal instruction to specific decision parameters that influence perceptual judgment may affect changes in anger perception...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136514/rejection-sensitivity-interpersonal-rejection-and-attention-for-emotional-facial-expressions
#17
Morganne A Kraines, Lucas J A Kelberer, Tony T Wells
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Rejection sensitivity (RS), attention for depression-relevant stimuli, and interpersonal rejection are established risk factors for depression. RS has previously been associated with increased attention for socially threatening faces, but has not been examined in the context of specifically depression-relevant stimuli. The current study examined whether RS influences attention for emotional facial expressions in the context of social rejection or inclusion. METHODS: Participants (n = 180) completed a self-report measure of RS and a free viewing eye tracking task before and after an experimental task (Cyberball) in which participants were randomized to be included or rejected...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135364/mothers-neural-and-behavioral-responses-to-their-infants-distress-cues-the-role-of-secure-base-script-knowledge
#18
Ashley M Groh, Katherine C Haydon
This research examined mothers' secure base script knowledge-reflected in the ability to generate narratives in which attachment-relevant problems are recognized, competent help is offered, and problems are resolved-and its significance for early-stage processing of infants' distress cues, using event-related potentials in an emotion oddball task. Mothers with lower secure base script knowledge exhibited (a) a heightened P3b response-reflective of greater allocation of cognitive resources-to their infants' distressed (but not happy) target facial expressions; (b) a larger P3b response to their infants' distressed (compared with happy) target facial expressions, which is indicative of allocating disproportional attentional resources to processing their infants' distress; and (c) poorer accuracy in identifying their infants' distressed target facial expressions...
November 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131871/associations-between-facial-emotion-recognition-and-young-adolescents-behaviors-in-bullying
#19
Tiziana Pozzoli, Gianluca Gini, Gianmarco Altoè
This study investigated whether different behaviors young adolescents can act during bullying episodes were associated with their ability to recognize morphed facial expressions of the six basic emotions, expressed at high and low intensity. The sample included 117 middle-school students (45.3% girls; mean age = 12.4 years) who filled in a peer nomination questionnaire and individually performed a computerized emotion recognition task. Bayesian generalized mixed-effects models showed a complex picture, in which type and intensity of emotions, students' behavior and gender interacted in explaining recognition accuracy...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131565/protein-based-3d-microstructures-with-controllable-morphology-and-ph-responsive-properties
#20
Shuxin Wei, Jie Liu, Yuanyuan Zhao, Tingbin Zhang, Mei-Ling Zheng, Feng Jin, Xianzi Dong, Jinfeng Xing, Xuanming Duan
The microtechnology of controlling stimuli-responsive biomaterials at micrometer scale is crucial for biomedical applications. Here, we report bovine serum albumin (BSA)-based three-dimensional (3D) microstructures with tunable surface morphology and pH-responsive properties via two-photon polymerization (TPP) microfabrication technology. The laser processing parameters including laser power, scanning speed and layer distance are optimized for the fabrication of well-defined 3D BSA microstructures. The tunable morphology of BSA microstructures and a wide range pH response corresponding to the swelling ratio from 1...
November 13, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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