Read by QxMD icon Read

Facial expression

Daphne Everaerd, Floris Klumpers, Richard Oude Voshaar, Guillén Fernández, Indira Tendolkar
BACKGROUND: Healthy aging has been associated with stable emotional well-being and attenuated brain responses to negative stimuli. At the same time, depressive symptoms are common in older adults. The neural mechanisms behind this paradox remain to be clarified. We hypothesized that acute stress could alter emotion processing in healthy aging brain and constitute a pathway to vulnerability. METHODS: Using a randomized, controlled crossover design, we explored the influence of acute stress on brain responses to happy and fearful facial expressions in 25 older adults (60-75 years of age) and 25 young (18-30 years of age) control subjects...
October 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Cheong-Yong Yun, Seon Mi Ko, Yong Pyo Choi, Beom Joon Kim, Jungno Lee, Jae Mun Kim, Ju Yeon Kim, Jin Yong Song, Song-Hee Kim, Bang Yeon Hwang, Jin Tae Hong, Sang-Bae Han, Youngsoo Kim
Rationale: cAMP up-regulates microphthalmia-associated transcription factor subtype M (MITF-M) and tyrosinase (Tyro) in the generation of heavily pigmented melanosomes. Here, we communicate a therapeutic mechanism of hyperpigmented disorder by α-viniferin, an active constituent of Caragana sinica . Methods: We used cAMP-elevated melanocyte cultures or facial hyperpigmented patches for pigmentation assays, and applied immunoprecipitation, immunobloting, RT-PCR or reporter gene for elucidation of the antimelanogenic mechanism...
2018: Theranostics
Katrin Elisabeth Giel, Sarah Paganini, Irena Schank, Paul Enck, Stephan Zipfel, Florian Junne
Objective: Problems in emotion processing potentially contribute to the development and maintenance of chronic pain. Theories focusing on attentional processing have suggested that dysfunctional attention deployment toward emotional information, i.e., attentional biases for negative emotions, might entail one potential developmental and/or maintenance factor of chronic pain. Methods: We assessed self-reported alexithymia, attentional orienting to and maintenance on emotional stimuli using eye tracking in 17 patients with chronic pain disorder (CP) and two age- and sex-matched control groups, 17 healthy individuals (HC) and 17 individuals who were matched to CP according to depressive symptoms (DC)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Huixia Zhou, Bibing Dai, Sonja Rossi, Juan Li
Background: Depressed populations demonstrate a greater tendency to have negative interpretations on ambiguous situations. Cognitive theories concerning depression proposed that such a negative bias plays an important role in developing and maintaining depression. There is now fairly consistent evidence arising from different stimuli and assessment methods that depression is featured by such a bias. The current study aimed to explore the neural signatures associated with the interpretation bias in the elderly with depressive symptoms confronted with different facial expressions using event-related brain potentials (ERPs)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Carlos F Benitez-Quiroz, Ramprakash Srinivasan, Aleix M Martinez
Facial expressions of emotion in humans are believed to be produced by contracting one's facial muscles, generally called action units. However, the surface of the face is also innervated with a large network of blood vessels. Blood flow variations in these vessels yield visible color changes on the face. Here, we study the hypothesis that these visible facial colors allow observers to successfully transmit and visually interpret emotion even in the absence of facial muscle activation. To study this hypothesis, we address the following two questions...
March 19, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Dorit Kliemann, Hilary Richardson, Stefano Anzellotti, Dima Ayyash, Amanda J Haskins, John D E Gabrieli, Rebecca R Saxe
Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) report difficulties extracting meaningful information from dynamic and complex social cues, like facial expressions. The nature and mechanisms of these difficulties remain unclear. Here we tested whether that difficulty can be traced to the pattern of activity in "social brain" regions, when viewing dynamic facial expressions. In two studies, adult participants (male and female) watched brief videos of a range of positive and negative facial expressions, while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (Study 1: ASD n = 16, control n = 21; Study 2: ASD n = 22, control n = 30)...
February 21, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Xin Yu, Fatih Porikli
We tackle the challenge of constructing 64 pixels for each individual pixel of a thumbnail face image. We show that such an aggressive super-resolution objective can be attained by taking advantage of the global context and making the best use of the prior information portrayed by the image class. Our input image is so small (e.g., pixels) that it can be considered as a patch of itself. Thus, conventional patch-matching-based super-resolution solutions are unsuitable. In order to enhance the resolution while enforcing the global context, we incorporate a pixel-wise appearance similarity objective into a deconvolutional neural network, which allows efficient learning of mappings between low-resolution input images and their high-resolution counterparts in the training data set...
June 2018: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
Abeer A Nasir, Razan Salah, Abla Sayyed Ahmad, Samah Abu Hijleh, Sa'eed Abu Kattab, Alia Al Kurd, Rawan Al Sharif, Raed Amro, Ahmad Khatib, Hana' Mousa, Walaa Shamasnah, Khammisa Shqerat, Rita Giacaman
BACKGROUND: Hamm is an Arabic word that is used to express suffering. Idioms of distress are communicated differently in different contexts and cultures. Understanding idioms of distress and symptoms can help in diagnosis and lead to socioculturally sensitive health care. METHODS: In this qualitative study, we did semi-structured interviews with men and women of all age groups. Questions focused on the definition, causes, and consequences of Hamm. Responses were analysed by reading and re-reading interview transcripts until themes and subthemes emerged...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Hai-Tao Huang, Zhi-Gang Sun, Hua-Wei Liu, Jun-Tao Ma, Min Hu
Background: The in-vitro study indicated that ERK/MAPK and PI3K/AKT signal channels may play an important role in reparative regeneration process after peripheral nerve injury. But, relevant in-vivo study was infrequent. In particular, there has been no report on simultaneous activation of ERK/MAPK and PI3K/AKT signal channels in facial nerve cell and axon after facial nerve injury. Results: The expression of P-ERK enhanced in nerve cells at the injury side on the 1 d after the rat facial nerve was cut and kept on a higher level until 14 d, but decreased on 28 d...
December 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Morgwn Paris, Yatin Mahajan, Jeesun Kim, Tanya Meade
BACKGROUND: Deficits in emotional prosody processing have been observed in bipolar disorder (BD). While recent neural studies have explored impaired processing of facial expressions, little is known about deficits in emotional speech processing, or the specific stages of processing at which they occur. This study examined if pre-attentive detection and attention to emotional speech is impaired in BD, relative to healthy individuals. METHODS: The EEG data was collected from 14 individuals with BD and 14 healthy control (HC) participants while the auditory stimuli was presented via a passive three-stimulus oddball sequence which included emotionally (neutral, happy, sad) spoken syllables and acoustically matched nonvocal tones...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Guro E Løseth, Marie Eikemo, Peder Isager, Jostein Holmgren, Bruno Laeng, Vigdis Vindenes, Trine Hjørnevik, Siri Leknes
The μ-opioid system modulates responses to pain and psychosocial stress and mediates non-social and social reward. In humans, the μ-opioid agonist morphine can increase overt attention to the eye-region and visual exploration of faces with neutral expressions. However, little is known about how the human μ-opioid system influences sensitivity to and appraisal of subtle and explicit cues of social threats and reward. Here, we examined the effects of selective μ-opioid stimulation on perception of anger and happiness in faces with explicit, neutral or implicit emotion expressions...
March 1, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Zacharias Kontarakis, Andrea Rossi, Sophie Ramas, Michael T Dellinger, Didier Y R Stainier
Organ homeostasis relies upon cellular and molecular processes that restore tissue structure and function in a timely fashion. Lymphatic vessels help maintain fluid equilibrium by returning interstitial fluid that evades venous uptake back to the circulation. Despite its important role in tissue homeostasis, cancer metastasis, and close developmental origins with the blood vasculature, the number of molecular players known to control lymphatic system development is relatively low. Here we show, using genetic approaches in zebrafish and mice, that the endothelial specific microRNA mir-126, previously implicated in vascular integrity, regulates lymphatic development...
March 14, 2018: Developmental Biology
Irena Mladenovic, Jelena Krunic, Gordana Supic, Ruzica Kozomara, Dejan Bokonjic, Nikola Stojanovic, Zvonko Magic
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the associations of variability in pulp sensitivity with sex, psychosocial variables, the gene that encodes for the enzyme catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), and chronic painful conditions (temporomandibular disorders [TMDs]). METHODS: The study was composed of 97 subjects (68 women and 29 men aged 20-44 years). The electric (electric pulp tester) and cold (refrigerant spray) stimuli were performed on mandibular lateral incisors...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Endodontics
Ferid Krupić, Sahmir Sadić, Nail Seffo, Mirza Bišćevic, Mirsad Fazlić, Svemir Čustović, Kristian Samuelsson
Aim To explore the experience of registered nurses in assessing pain in hip fracture in patients with dementia in the postoperative setting. Methods The study questionnaire contained 23 items mainly addressing demographic and social data, information about communication and pain assessment, attention and awareness of the health-care professionals on the ward and suggestions for improving nursing. Results The nurses claimed that they began their assessment of pain in patients with dementia first by observing the patient and making a visual assessment of pain, after which they began to communicate with these patients; majority of dementia patients with hip fractures displayed more facial expressions of pain than patients without dementia...
February 1, 2018: Medicinski Glasnik
Pascal Fleurkens, Agnes van Minnen, Eni S Becker, Iris van Oostrom, Anne Speckens, Mike Rinck, Janna N Vrijsen
Depression risk genes in combination with childhood events have been associated with biased processing as an intermediate phenotype for depression. The aim of the present conceptual replication study was to investigate the role of biased automatic approach-avoidance tendencies as a candidate intermediate phenotype for depression, in the context of genes (5-HTTLPR polymorphism) and childhood trauma. A naturalistic remitted depressed patients sample (N = 209) performed an Approach-Avoidance Task (AAT) with facial expressions (angry, sad, happy and neutral)...
2018: PloS One
Alexander H Tuttle, Mark J Molinaro, Jasmine F Jethwa, Susana G Sotocinal, Juan C Prieto, Martin A Styner, Jeffrey S Mogil, Mark J Zylka
Grimace scales quantify characteristic facial expressions associated with spontaneous pain in rodents and other mammals. However, these scales have not been widely adopted largely because of the time and effort required for highly trained humans to manually score the images. Convoluted neural networks were recently developed that distinguish individual humans and objects in images. Here, we trained one of these networks, the InceptionV3 convolutional neural net, with a large set of human-scored mouse images...
January 2018: Molecular Pain
Carlos Crivelli, Alan J Fridlund
Based on modern theories of signal evolution and animal communication, the behavioral ecology view of facial displays (BECV) reconceives our 'facial expressions of emotion' as social tools that serve as lead signs to contingent action in social negotiation. BECV offers an externalist, functionalist view of facial displays that is not bound to Western conceptions about either expressions or emotions. It easily accommodates recent findings of diversity in facial displays, their public context-dependency, and the curious but common occurrence of solitary facial behavior...
March 12, 2018: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
Margaret Addabbo, Elena Longhi, Ioana Cristina Marchis, Paolo Tagliabue, Chiara Turati
The ability to discriminate between different facial expressions is fundamental since the first stages of postnatal life. The aim of this study is to investigate whether 2-days-old newborns are capable to discriminate facial expressions of emotions as they naturally take place in everyday interactions, that is in motion. When two dynamic displays depicting a happy and a disgusted facial expression were simultaneously presented (i.e., visual preference paradigm), newborns did not manifest any visual preference (Experiment 1)...
2018: PloS One
Li Feng, Haiming Wang, Ming Lin
This study compared the effects of tooth extractions under novel painless single tooth anesthesia (STA) and conventional anesthesia on elderly patients with periodontal diseases, and the impact of painless STA on clinical indicators of the patients. Elderly patients (n=116) with periodontal diseases who were treated in Jinan Central Hospital were selected to undergo extraction operation on loose teeth; all the patients were randomly divided into two groups. The tooth extraction operations were performed after painless STA and cartridge anesthesia; the effects of the tooth extraction operations and the operation time were recorded; Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), Kuttner facial expression scale, Frankl treatment compliance scale and Houpt behavior rating scale were utilized to assess and record the clinical indicators of the patients during the operations; the impacts of the two anesthesia techniques on the effect of the tooth extraction of patients with periodontal diseases were comprehensively analyzed...
March 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Suzanne L K Stewart, Astrid Schepman, Matthew Haigh, Rhian McHugh, Andrew J Stewart
The recognition of emotional facial expressions is often subject to contextual influence, particularly when the face and the context convey similar emotions. We investigated whether spontaneous, incidental affective theory of mind inferences made while reading vignettes describing social situations would produce context effects on the identification of same-valenced emotions (Experiment 1) as well as differently-valenced emotions (Experiment 2) conveyed by subsequently presented faces. Crucially, we found an effect of context on reaction times in both experiments while, in line with previous work, we found evidence for a context effect on accuracy only in Experiment 1...
March 14, 2018: Cognition & Emotion
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"