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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432866/shared-genetic-influences-among-childhood-shyness-social-competences-and-cortical-responses-to-emotions
#1
Marco Battaglia, Giorgia Michelini, Elettra Pezzica, Anna Ogliari, Corrado Fagnani, Maria-Antonietta Stazi, Eleonora Bertoletti, Simona Scaini
Visual event-related potentials (ERPs) evoked by facial expressions are useful to map socioemotional responses among shy children and to predict transition into social phobia. We investigated the sources of covariation among childhood shyness, social competences, and ERPs to other children's happy, neutral, and angry expressions. Electrophysiological and twin analyses examined the phenotypic and etiological association among an index of childhood shyness, an index of social competences, and ERP responses to facial expressions in 200 twins (mean age=9...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432314/the-effect-of-acute-social-stress-on-the-recognition-of-facial-expression-of-emotions
#2
Camille Daudelin-Peltier, Hélène Forget, Caroline Blais, Andréa Deschênes, Daniel Fiset
This study investigates the effect of acute social stress on the recognition of facial expression of emotions in healthy young men. Participants underwent both a standardized psychosocial laboratory stressor (TSST-G) and a control condition. Then, they performed a homemade version of the facial expressions megamix. All six basic emotions were included in the task. First, our results show a systematic increase in the intensity threshold for disgust following stress, meaning that the participants' performance with this emotion was impaired...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429707/the-human-amygdala-parametrically-encodes-the-intensity-of-specific-facial-emotions-and-their-categorical-ambiguity
#3
Shuo Wang, Rongjun Yu, J Michael Tyszka, Shanshan Zhen, Christopher Kovach, Sai Sun, Yi Huang, Rene Hurlemann, Ian B Ross, Jeffrey M Chung, Adam N Mamelak, Ralph Adolphs, Ueli Rutishauser
The human amygdala is a key structure for processing emotional facial expressions, but it remains unclear what aspects of emotion are processed. We investigated this question with three different approaches: behavioural analysis of 3 amygdala lesion patients, neuroimaging of 19 healthy adults, and single-neuron recordings in 9 neurosurgical patients. The lesion patients showed a shift in behavioural sensitivity to fear, and amygdala BOLD responses were modulated by both fear and emotion ambiguity (the uncertainty that a facial expression is categorized as fearful or happy)...
April 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429376/daily-crying-prevalence-and-associated-factors-in-older-adult-persons-living-in-nursing-homes-findings-from-a-regional-study
#4
Alvisa Palese, Arianna Simeoni, Antonio Ranieri Zuttion, Barbara Ferrario, Sandra Ponta, Elisa Ambrosi
OBJECTIVES: The study aims to evaluate the prevalence of nursing home (NH) resident crying and associated factors at the individual and NH levels. DESIGN: A regional retrospective study design has been used. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: A total of 8875 residents, living in 105 NHs, were included. MEASUREMENTS: The occurrence of an episode of crying on at least a daily basis in the last month was the dependent variable; independent variables were set at individual and at the NH levels as reported in the Val...
April 21, 2017: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425838/attending-to-emotional-expressions-no-evidence-for-automatic-capture-in-the-dot-probe-task
#5
Swantje Puls, Klaus Rothermund
Research on automatic attention to emotional faces offers mixed results. Therefore we examined validity effects for facial expressions of different emotions (compared to neutral faces) with a dot-probe paradigm in seven studies (total N = 308). Systematic variations of type of emotion, CTI, task, cue size, and masking allow for a differentiated assessment of attentional capture by emotions and possible moderating factors. Results indicate a general absence of emotional validity effects as well as a lack of significant interactions with either of the manipulated factors, indicating that facial expressions of emotions do not capture attention in a fully automatic fashion...
April 20, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425760/polar-phase-indices-of-perioral-muscle-reciprocity-during-syllable-production-in-parkinson-s-disease
#6
Shin Ying Chu, Steven M Barlow, Jaehoon Lee, Jingyan Wang
PURPOSE: This research characterised perioral muscle reciprocity and amplitude ratio in lower lip during bilabial syllable production [pa] at three rates to understand the neuromotor dynamics and scaling of motor speech patterns in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). METHOD: Electromyographic (EMG) signals of the orbicularis oris superior [OOS], orbicularis oris inferior [OOI] and depressor labii inferioris [DLI] were recorded during syllable production and expressed as polar-phase notations...
February 8, 2017: International Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423221/facial-asymmetry-in-head-and-neck-rhabdomyosarcoma-survivors
#7
Reineke A Schoot, Marinka L F Hol, Johannes H M Merks, Michael Suttie, Olga Slater, Marinde van Lennep, Saskia M J Hopman, David Dunaway, Jonathan Syme-Grant, Ludi E Smeele, Koos H Zwinderman, Huib N Caron, Peter Hammond
INTRODUCTION: Radiotherapy is essential for achieving and maintaining local control in head and neck rhabdomyosarcoma (HNRMS) patients. However, radiotherapy may cause outgrowth disturbances of facial bone and soft tissue, resulting in facial asymmetry. The aim of this study was to develop a method to visualize and measure facial asymmetry in HNRMS survivors using three-dimensional (3D) imaging techniques. METHODS: Facial deformity was evaluated in a multidisciplinary clinical assessment of 75 HNRMS survivors, treated with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT, n = 26) or Ablative surgery, MOulage brachytherapy, and REconstruction (AMORE, n = 49)...
April 19, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422994/the-sheep-grimace-scale-as-an-indicator-of-post-operative-distress-and-pain-in-laboratory-sheep
#8
C Häger, S Biernot, M Buettner, S Glage, L M Keubler, N Held, E M Bleich, K Otto, C W Müller, S Decker, S R Talbot, A Bleich
The EU Directive 2010/63/EU changed the requirements regarding the use of laboratory animals and raised important issues related to assessing the severity of all procedures undertaken on laboratory animals. However, quantifiable parameters to assess severity are rare, and improved assessment strategies need to be developed. Hence, a Sheep Grimace Scale (SGS) was herein established by observing and interpreting sheep facial expressions as a consequence of pain and distress following unilateral tibia osteotomy...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422963/a-large-scale-analysis-of-sex-differences-in-facial-expressions
#9
Daniel McDuff, Evan Kodra, Rana El Kaliouby, Marianne LaFrance
There exists a stereotype that women are more expressive than men; however, research has almost exclusively focused on a single facial behavior, smiling. A large-scale study examines whether women are consistently more expressive than men or whether the effects are dependent on the emotion expressed. Studies of gender differences in expressivity have been somewhat restricted to data collected in lab settings or which required labor-intensive manual coding. In the present study, we analyze gender differences in facial behaviors as over 2,000 viewers watch a set of video advertisements in their home environments...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422173/critical-involvement-of-zeb2-in-collagen-fibrillogenesis-the-molecular-similarity-between-mowat-wilson-syndrome-and-ehlers-danlos-syndrome
#10
Mika Teraishi, Mikiro Takaishi, Kimiko Nakajima, Mitsunori Ikeda, Yujiro Higashi, Shinji Shimoda, Yoshinobu Asada, Atsushi Hijikata, Osamu Ohara, Yoko Hiraki, Seiji Mizuno, Toshiyuki Fukada, Takahisa Furukawa, Nobuaki Wakamatsu, Shigetoshi Sano
Mowat-Wilson syndrome (MOWS) is a congenital disease caused by de novo heterozygous loss of function mutations or deletions of the ZEB2 gene. MOWS patients show multiple anomalies including intellectual disability, a distinctive facial appearance, microcephaly, congenital heart defects and Hirschsprung disease. However, the skin manifestation(s) of patients with MOWS has not been documented in detail. Here, we recognized that MOWS patients exhibit many Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS)-like symptoms, such as skin hyperextensibility, atrophic scars and joint hypermobility...
April 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419862/the-effect-of-tdcs-over-the-right-temporo-parietal-junction-on-pain-empathy
#11
Michel-Pierre Coll, Marie-Pier B Tremblay, Philip L Jackson
Empathy is a complex psychological phenomenon crucial for social perception and interactions. Several lines of evidence suggest that the right temporo-parietal junction is involved in self-other control mechanisms that play an important role in empathic responses. However, limited direct evidence of the involvement of this region in empathic responses is currently available. In this study, inhibitory transcranial direct current stimulation over this region influenced empathic responses to others' pain. It was found that compared to participants that received anodal or sham transcranial direct current stimulation, participants who received cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation over the right temporo-parietal junction perceived the pain of others as less intense compared to sham stimulation and showed decreased late event related potentials to facial expressions of pain...
April 15, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419785/internal-noise-estimates-correlate-with-autistic-traits
#12
Greta Vilidaite, Miaomiao Yu, Daniel H Baker
Previous neuroimaging research has reported increased internal (neural) noise in sensory systems of autistic individuals. However, it is unclear if this difference has behavioural or perceptual consequences, as previous attempts at measuring internal noise in ASD psychophysically have been indirect. Here, we use a "gold standard" psychophysical double-pass paradigm to investigate the relationship between internal noise and autistic traits in the neurotypical population (n = 43). We measured internal noise in three tasks (contrast perception, facial expression intensity perception, and number summation) to estimate a global internal noise factor using principal components analysis...
April 17, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416452/associated-motivational-salience-impacts-early-sensory-processing-of-human-faces
#13
Wiebke Hammerschmidt, Holger Sennhenn-Reulen, Annekathrin Schacht
Facial expressions of emotion have an undeniable processing advantage over neutral faces, discernible both at behavioral level and in emotion-related modulations of several event-related potentials (ERPs). Recently it was proposed that also inherently neutral stimuli might gain salience through associative learning mechanisms. The present study investigated whether acquired motivational salience leads to processing advantages similar to biologically determined origins of inherent emotional salience by applying an associative learning paradigm to human face processing...
April 14, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413843/methodology-used-to-assess-acceptability-of-oral-pediatric-medicines-a-systematic-literature-search-and-narrative-review
#14
REVIEW
Punam Mistry, Hannah Batchelor
BACKGROUND: Regulatory guidelines require that any new medicine designed for a pediatric population must be demonstrated as being acceptable to that population. There is currently no guidance on how to conduct or report on acceptability testing. AIM: Our objective was to undertake a review of the methods used to assess the acceptability of medicines within a pediatric population and use this review to propose the most appropriate methodology. METHODS: We used a defined search strategy to identify literature reports of acceptability assessments of medicines conducted within pediatric populations and extracted information about the tools used in these studies for comparison across studies...
April 17, 2017: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413544/abdominal-schwannoma-in-a-case-of-neurofibromatosis-type-2-a-report-of-a-rare-combination
#15
Khandkar Ali Kawsar, Md Raziul Haque, Forhad Hossain Chowdhury
Neurofibromatosis-2 (NF2) is an autosomal-dominant disease, which is characterized by vestibular schwannomas (VSs) (acoustic neurinoma) as well as tumours of the peripheral and central nervous system, demonstrating a variety of expression. A 12-year-old girl presented to us with headache and ataxia for four months. We examined and found a lump in the right side of her abdomen. On magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of brain, a bilateral VS at the cerebellopontine (CP) angle was detected, and on computerized tomography (CT) scan and ultrasonography of her abdomen a large retroperitoneal schwannoma was revealed in the right side of her abdomen...
January 2017: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411472/thin-and-sexy-vs-muscular-and-dominant-prevalence-of-gendered-body-ideals-in-popular-dolls-and-action-figures
#16
Hope Boyd, Sarah K Murnen
We examined the extent to which popular dolls and action figures were portrayed with gendered body proportions, and the extent to which these gendered ideals were associated with heterosexual "success." We coded internet depictions of 72 popular female dolls and 71 popular male action figures from the websites of three national stores in the United States. Sixty-two percent of dolls had a noticeably thin body, while 42.3% of action figures had noticeably muscular bodies. Further, more thin dolls were portrayed with more sex object features than less thin dolls, including revealing, tight clothing and high-heeled shoes; bodies positioned with a curved spine, bent knee, and head cant; and with a sexually appealing facial expression...
April 12, 2017: Body Image
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411391/phenotypic-expression-of-19q13-32-microdeletions-report-of-a-new-patient-and-review-of-the-literature
#17
Laura Travan, Samuele Naviglio, Angela De Cunto, Andrea Pellegrin, Vanna Pecile, Alessandro Mauro Spinelli, Stefania Cappellani, Flavio Faletra
The phenotypic manifestations of microdeletions in the 19q13.32 region are still poorly known. In this paper we report a patient who presented with hypotonia, developmental delay, facial dysmorphism, micrognathia, kyphoscoliosis, and buried penis. Chromosomal microarray revealed an interstitial 327 kb de novo microdeletion in the 19q13.32 region comprising eight genes (ARGHAP35, NPAS1, TMEM160, ZC3H4, SAE1, BBC3, MIR3190, and MIR3191). Previously reported cases of microdeletions in the 19q13.32 region were reviewed and compared to our patient, highlighting the common features of a possible 19q13...
April 14, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407407/further-evidence-that-a-blepharophimosis-syndrome-phenotype-is-associated-with-a-specific-class-of-mutation-in-the-adnp-gene
#18
Toshiki Takenouchi, Tomoru Miwa, Yoshiaki Sakamoto, Yuri Sakaguchi, Tomoko Uehara, Takao Takahashi, Kenjiro Kosaki
Heterozygous truncating mutations in ADNP are associated with a syndromic form of intellectual disability known as Helsmoortel-van der Aa syndrome. Among 17 previously reported patients with Helsmoortel-van der Aa syndrome, one patient exhibited blepharophimosis. Whether blepharophimosis represents a phenotypic expression of the ADNP mutation spectrum or a chance association remains unclear. Herein, we report another patient with a de novo truncating mutation in ADNP who exhibited a combination of blepharophimosis and epicanthal folds...
April 13, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406957/event-related-potentials-to-changes-in-facial-expression-in-two-phase-transitions
#19
Michael J Wright, Lisa K Kuhn
The purpose of the study was to compare event-related potentials (ERPs) to different transitions between emotional and neutral facial expressions. The stimuli contained a single transition between two different images of the same face, giving a strong impression of changing expression though apparent motion whilst eliminating change in irrelevant stimulus variables such as image contrast or identity. Stimuli were calibrated for intensity, valence and perceived emotion category and only trials where the target emotion was correctly identified were included...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406679/gently-does-it-humans-outperform-a-software-classifier-in-recognizing-subtle-nonstereotypical-facial-expressions
#20
Neta Yitzhak, Nir Giladi, Tanya Gurevich, Daniel S Messinger, Emily B Prince, Katherine Martin, Hillel Aviezer
According to dominant theories of affect, humans innately and universally express a set of emotions using specific configurations of prototypical facial activity. Accordingly, thousands of studies have tested emotion recognition using sets of highly intense and stereotypical facial expressions, yet their incidence in real life is virtually unknown. In fact, a commonplace experience is that emotions are expressed in subtle and nonprototypical forms. Such facial expressions are at the focus of the current study...
April 13, 2017: Emotion
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