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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216863/efficacy-and-safety-of-povidone-iodine-pleurodesis-in-malignant-pleural-effusions
#1
Hadi Kahrom, Manouchehr Aghajanzadeh, Mohammad Reza Asgari, Mahdi Kahrom
INTRODUCTION: Malignant pleural effusion (MPE) is determined by the detection of malignant cells in pleural fluid or pleural tissue. Neoplasm of lung, breast, ovary and lymphoma are the causes of more than 75% of MPE. Pleurodesis is a usual technique in the management of MPE to achieve a symphysis between two layers of the pleura, and various chemical agents have been used in an attempt to produce pleurodesis. With regard to complications and limitations of these sclerosing agents, efficacy and safety of povidone-iodine have been investigated in this study...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192644/perioperative-antibiotics-for-prevention-of-acute-endophthalmitis-after-cataract-surgery
#2
REVIEW
Emily W Gower, Kristina Lindsley, Samantha E Tulenko, Afshan A Nanji, Ilya Leyngold, Peter J McDonnell
BACKGROUND: Endophthalmitis is a severe inflammation of the anterior or posterior (or both) chambers of the eye that may be sterile or associated with infection. It is a potentially vision-threatening complication of cataract surgery. Prophylactic measures for endophthalmitis are targeted against various sources of infection. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis for endophthalmitis following cataract surgery compared with no prophylaxis or other form of prophylaxis...
February 13, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186447/cranioplasty-with-autogenous-bone-flaps-cryopreserved-in-povidone-iodine-a-long-term-follow-up-study
#3
Jian Zhang, Fei Peng, Zhuang Liu, Jinli Luan, Xingming Liu, Chang Fei, Xueyuan Heng
OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to investigate the long-term therapeutic efficacy of cranioplasty with autogenous bone flaps cryopreserved in povidone iodine and explore the risk factors for bone resorption. METHODS Clinical data and follow-up results of 188 patients (with 211 bone flaps) who underwent cranioplasty with autogenous bone flaps cryopreserved in povidone-iodine were retrospectively analyzed. Bone flap resorption was classified into 3 types according to CT features, including bone flap thinning (Type I), reduced bone density (Type II), and osteolysis within the flaps (Type III)...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183858/comparison-of-topical-chlorhexidine-and-mupirocin-for-the-prevention-of-exit-site-infection-in-incident-peritoneal-dialysis-patients
#4
Htay Htay, David W Johnson, Sin Yan Wu, Elizabeth L Oei, Marjorie Wai Yin Foo, Jason C Choo
♦ Objective: Prevention of exit-site infection (ESI) is of paramount importance to peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of chlorhexidine in the prevention of ESI in incident PD patients compared with mupirocin. ♦ Methods: This retrospective, pre-test/post-test observational study included all incident PD patients at Singapore General Hospital from 2012 to 2015. Patients received daily topical exit-site application of either mupirocin (2012 - 2013) or chlorhexidine (2014 - 2015) in addition to routine exit-site cleaning with 10% povidone-iodine...
February 9, 2017: Peritoneal Dialysis International: Journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167295/a-minitablet-formulation-made-from-electrospun-nanofibers
#5
Bettina Poller, Clare Strachan, Roland Broadbent, Greg F Walker
The purpose of this study was to evaluate electrospun drug loaded nanofibers as a new matrix for minitablets. Prednisone, a poorly water-soluble drug, was loaded into povidone (polyvinylpyrrolidone, PVP) nanofibers using the process of electrospinning. The drug-loaded nanofiber mat was compressed into minitablets with a 2mm diameter and a height of 2.63±0.04mm. SEM analysis of the minitablet identified a nano-web structure with a nanofiber diameter in the range of 400-500nm. The minitablets met the requirements of the US Pharmacopeia with respect to content uniformity and friability...
February 4, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166657/ocular-surface-effects-of-repeated-application-of-povidone-iodine-in-patients-receiving-frequent-intravitreal-injections
#6
Habiba Saedon, Jennifer Nosek, Julian Phillips, Nirodhini Narendran, Yit C Yang
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the patient reported symptoms and objective signs of tear film and ocular surface abnormalities experienced by patients undergoing repeated exposure to povidone iodine as a consequence of requiring frequent intravitreal injections for wet macular degeneration. METHODS: This was a prospective study of consecutive patients who had received recent povidone 5% solution for sterile preparation of intravitreal injection less than 3 months prior to inclusion with a total of at least 3 intravitreal injections for macular degeneration...
February 6, 2017: Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161927/optimal-duration-for-the-use-of-0-5-levofloxacineye-drops-before-vitreoretinal-surgery
#7
Xiaoxin Li, Xiaoling Liang, Luosheng Tang, Junjun Zhang, Lijun Shen, Guanfang Su, Xiaorong Li
PURPOSE: To investigate various regimens of prophylactic antibiotic therapy for vitreoretinal surgery. DESIGN: This study compared different prophylactic therapies with 0.5% levofloxacin eye drops. METHODS: Two hundred nine patients from 7 hospitals scheduled to undergo vitreoretinal surgery were randomized into 3 groups to receive 0.5% levofloxacin eye drops for 1 day (6 times/d), 2 days (3 times/d), or 3 days (3 times/d) before surgery (groups 1D, 2D, and 3D, respectively)...
January 2017: Asia-Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155135/influence-of-peroxide-impurities-in-povidone-on-the-stability-of-selected-%C3%AE-blockers-with-the-help-of-hplc
#8
Saklecha Prachi, Chaudhary Komal, Mehta J Priti
A present study was conducted to investigate compatibility of β-blocker drugs( like atenolol, labetalol hydrochloride, bisoprolol fumarate, metoprolol succinate, carvedilol and propranolol hydrochloride) with the pharmaceutical excipient povidone. To check the influence of peroxide impurity present in povidone on the stability of β-blockers, a binary mixture technique has been adopted. The binary mixtures (1:1) of β-blockers with povidone excipient were stored for the duration of 6 months at accelerated conditions (40°C and 75% RH) and analyzed with the technique of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)...
February 2, 2017: AAPS PharmSciTech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135108/reactive-melt-extrusion-to-improve-the-dissolution-performance-and-physical-stability-of-naproxen-amorphous-solid-dispersions
#9
Xu Liu, Lin Zhou, Feng Zhang
The purpose of this study was to investigate the reaction between naproxen (NPX) and meglumine (MEG) at elevated temperature and to study the effect of this reaction on the physical stabilities and in vitro drug-release properties of melt-extruded naproxen amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs). Differential scanning calorimetry, hot-stage polarized light microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses demonstrated that in situ salt formation with proton transfer between NPX and MEG occurred at elevated temperature during the melt extrusion process...
January 30, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132852/treatment-of-posttransplant-lymphocele-in-children
#10
Romy Gander, Marino Asensio, Gloria Fatou Royo, Jose Andrés Molino, Ramón Vilalta, Ana Coma, Mercedes Perez, Gema Ariceta
OBJECTIVE: To review our single-center experience in managing posttransplant lymphoceles in pediatric kidney recipients. Lymphoceles are well-known complications after pediatric kidney transplantation (KT). However, there is no standard treatment for lymphoceles, and the literature lacks consensus on which is the most appropriate approach. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed our retrospective institutional database for recipients of pediatric KT performed between January 2000 and December 2015 who developed lymphoceles...
January 26, 2017: Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124850/a-quality-improvement-approach-to-reducing-the-caesarean-section-surgical-site-infection-rate-in-a-regional-hospital
#11
M O'Hanlon, C McKenna, E Carton, D Diviney, M R Costello, L O'Sullivan, J Fitzsimons, L Toland, G Dornikova, R Curran, C McCann, L O'Sullivan, T Doherty, C Crowley, S O'Coigligh
Surgical site infection (SSI) rates are used extensively by hospitals as a basis for quality improvement. A 30-day post-discharge SSI programme for Caesarean section operations has been implemented in Our Lady of Lourdes Hospital since 2011. It has been shown that skin antisepsis and antibiotic prophylaxis are key factors in the prevention of SSI. Using quality improvement methodology, an infection prevention bundle was introduced to address these two factors. Skin antisepsis was changed from povidone-iodine to chlorhexidine-alcohol...
September 9, 2016: Irish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121963/the-effect-of-vancomycin-and-gentamicin-antibiotics-on-human-osteoblast-proliferation-metabolic-function-and-bone-mineralization
#12
Ashleigh M Philp, Saroop Raja, Andrew Philp, Matthew P Newton Ede, Simon W Jones
STUDY DESIGN: The present study investigates the effect of vancomycin and gentamicin antibiotics on primary human osteoblasts. Osteoblasts were incubated with vancomycin, gentamicin, or with povidone-iodine (PVI), at concentrations advocated for wound irrigation. Osteoblast proliferation, metabolic function, and bone mineralization were measured. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to model gentamicin and vancomycin wound irrigation in vitro and to examine the effect on osteoblast viability and cellular function in comparison to 0...
February 2017: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094301/the-occurrence-rate-of-acute-onset-postoperative-endophthalmitis-after-cataract-surgery-in-chinese-small-and-medium-scale-departments-of-ophthalmology
#13
Yanan Zhu, Xinyi Chen, Peiqing Chen, Jianjun Wu, Huixia Hua, Ke Yao
Endophthalmitis can be a devastating complication after cataract surgery. Therefore, this study sought to better understand the occurrence rate of acute-onset postoperative endophthalmitis after cataract surgery in Chinese small and medium-scale departments of ophthalmology, as well as identify its risk factors and assess the treatment options. This investigation revealed 52 postoperative endophthalmitis cases in 46,185 operations at 30 hospitals from 2011 to 2013, at an occurrence rate of 0.11%. A small cataract surgery volume of less than 500 cases per year (OR 2...
January 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088378/antimicrobial-coated-implants-in-trauma-and-orthopaedics-a-clinical-review-and-risk-benefit-analysis
#14
REVIEW
Volker Alt
Implant-associated infections remain a major issue in orthopaedics and antimicrobial functionalization of the implant surface by antibiotics or other anti-infective agents have gained interest. The goal of this article is to identify antimicrobial coatings, for which clinical data are available and to review their clinical need, safety profile, and their efficacy to reduce infection rates. PubMed database of the National Library of Medicine was searched for clinical studies on antimicrobial coated implants for internal fracture fixation devices and endoprostheses for bone surgery, for which study design, level of evidence, biocompatibility, development of resistance, and effectiveness to reduce infection rates were analyzed...
December 21, 2016: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072611/baby-shampoo-versus-povidone-iodine-or-isopropyl-alcohol-in-reducing-eyelid-skin-bacterial-load
#15
Giancarlo A Garcia, Christine V Nguyen, Marc A Yonkers, Jeremiah P Tao
PURPOSE: Baby shampoo is used as an alternative surgical skin preparation, but the evidence supporting its use is scarce with no descriptions of efficacy in the periocular region. The authors compare the efficacy of baby shampoo, povidone-iodine (PI, Betadine) and isopropyl alcohol (IA) in reducing eyelid skin bacterial load. METHODS: Prospective, randomized, comparative, and interventional trial. Bacterial load on adult, human eyelid skin was quantitated before and after cleansing with 1) dilute baby shampoo, 2) 10% PI, or 3) 70% IA...
January 6, 2017: Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058949/povidone-iodine-sclerotherapy-for-treatment-of-idiopathic-renal-hematuria-in-two-dogs
#16
Lauren B Adelman, Joseph Bartges, Jacqueline C Whittemore
CASE DESCRIPTION A 6-year-old spayed female Great Pyrenees (dog 1) and a 2-year-old spayed female German Shepherd Dog (dog 2) were evaluated because of gross hematuria of 5 and 2 months' duration, respectively. CLINICAL FINDINGS In both dogs, coagulation times were within reference limits, results of aerobic bacterial culture of urine samples were negative, echogenic debris could be seen within the urinary bladder ultrasonographically, and hematuric urine could be seen exiting the right ureterovesicular junction, with grossly normal urine exiting the left ureterovesicular junction, during cystoscopy...
January 15, 2017: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056807/evaluating-decontamination-protocols-for-the-isolation-of-mycobacterium-ulcerans-from-swabs
#17
Enid Owusu, Mercy J Newman, Amos Akumwena, Elizabeth Bannerman, Gerd Pluschke
BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium ulcerans (M. ulcerans) is the causative agent of Buruli Ulcer (BU) disease. In order to inhibit the growth of the microbial contaminants during culture of M. ulcerans, it is necessary to decontaminate BU samples with effective chemical agents. This study aimed at investigating some selected chemicals as potential decontamination agents for the isolation of M. ulcerans from swabs. RESULTS: Povidone iodine at 0.5 and 1% exhibited the lowest contamination and recovery rate for microbial contaminants and M...
January 5, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042266/a-self-disinfecting-irreversible-hydrocolloid-impression-material-mixed-with-povidone-iodine-powder
#18
Hussien Abdalfatah Ismail, Hani Asfour, Souaad Abdulelah Shikho
OBJECTIVES: The aim was to evaluate the effect of adding povidone (PVP) iodine powder with different concentrations to irreversible hydrocolloid on both microbiological and dimensional stability. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Regular set of (alginate) irreversible hydrocolloid was selected as control group. PVP-iodine powder was mixed with the alginate powder at concentrations of 1, 5, 10, 15, and 20% by weight (test groups). All specimens were tested for their antimicrobial effect against Streptococcus mutans and Staphylococcus aureus as well as dimensional stability...
October 2016: European Journal of Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040299/reimplantation-of-a-large-extruded-segment-of-bone-in-an-open-fracture
#19
REVIEW
Ahmadreza Afshar
Replacing an extruded segment of bone in an open fracture imposes a challenging decision concerning the best and safest patient management. There are numerous advantages to restoring the patient's own extruded bone segment to its original location, particularly when the bone segment is of structural importance. However, reimplantation of contaminated and avascular extruded bone segments can potentially result in serious infection or nonunion. There is no conclusive evidence regarding the best decontamination protocol for the safest use of the recovered bone segment as an autologous graft...
February 2017: Journal of Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28010129/pharmaceutical-development-of-an-amorphous-solid-dispersion-formulation-of-elacridar-hydrochloride-for-proof-of-concept-clinical-studies
#20
E Sawicki, J H M Schellens, J H Beijnen, B Nuijen
OBJECTIVE: A novel tablet formulation containing an amorphous solid dispersion (ASD) of elacridar hydrochloride was developed with the purpose to resolve the drug's low solubility in water and to conduct proof-of-concept clinical studies. SIGNIFICANCE: Elacridar is highly demanded for proof-of-concept clinical trials that study the drug's suitability to boost brain penetration and bioavailability of numerous anticancer agents. Previously, clinical trials with elacridar were performed with a tablet containing elacridar hydrochloride...
April 2017: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
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