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Fang Hua, Huixu Xie, Helen V Worthington, Susan Furness, Qi Zhang, Chunjie Li
BACKGROUND: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is defined as pneumonia developing in people who have received mechanical ventilation for at least 48 hours. VAP is a potentially serious complication in these patients who are already critically ill. Oral hygiene care (OHC), using either a mouthrinse, gel, toothbrush, or combination, together with aspiration of secretions, may reduce the risk of VAP in these patients. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of oral hygiene care on incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia in critically ill patients receiving mechanical ventilation in hospital intensive care units (ICUs)...
October 25, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Silke Schelenz, Ferry Hagen, Johanna L Rhodes, Alireza Abdolrasouli, Anuradha Chowdhary, Anne Hall, Lisa Ryan, Joanne Shackleton, Richard Trimlett, Jacques F Meis, Darius Armstrong-James, Matthew C Fisher
BACKGROUND: Candida auris is a globally emerging multidrug resistant fungal pathogen causing nosocomial transmission. We report an ongoing outbreak of C. auris in a London cardio-thoracic center between April 2015 and July 2016. This is the first report of C. auris in Europe and the largest outbreak so far. We describe the identification, investigation and implementation of control measures. METHODS: Data on C. auris case demographics, environmental screening, implementation of infection prevention/control measures, and antifungal susceptibility of patient isolates were prospectively recorded then analysed retrospectively...
2016: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Rafaela Fernandes Zancan, Rodrigo Ricci Vivan, Marcelo Ribeiro Milanda Lopes, Paulo Henrique Weckwerth, Flaviana Bombarda de Andrade, José Burgos Ponce, Marco Antonio Hungaro Duarte
INTRODUCTION: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the pH, calcium release, solubility, and antimicrobial action against biofilms of calcium hydroxide + saline solution, Calen (SS White Artigos Dentários Ltd, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) (CH/P), Calen camphorated paramonochlorophenol (CMCP) (CH/CMPC), and calcium hydroxide + chlorhexidine (CH/CHX) pastes. METHODS: The pH of the pastes was determined with a calibrated pH meter placed in direct contact with each paste...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Endodontics
Nial J Wheate, Kristie-Ann Dickson, Ryung Rae Kim, Alireza Nematollahi, René B Macquart, Veysel Kayser, Guocan Yu, W Bret Church, Deborah J Marsh
Pillar[n]arenes are a new family of nanocapsules that have shown application in a number of areas, but because of their poor water solubility their biomedical applications are limited. Recently, a method of synthesizing water-soluble pillar[n]arenes was developed. In this study, carboxylated pillar[n]arenes (WP[n], n = 6 or 7) have been examined for their ability to form host-guest complexes with compounds relevant to drug delivery and biodiagnostic applications. Both pillar[n]arenes form host-guest complexes with memantine, chlorhexidine hydrochloride, and proflavine by (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance and modeling...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Fabio Camacho-Alonso, P Salmerón-Lozano, Y Martínez-Beneyto
The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial effect of photodynamic therapy (PDT), 2 % chlorhexidine (CHX). The teeth were contaminated with 0.1 mL Enterococcus faecalis (3 × 10(8) cell/mL) and randomized into eight treatment groups: Group 1 (2.5 % NaOCl); Group 2 (PDT); Group 3 (2 % CHX); Group 4 (TAM); Group 5 (propolis), Group 6 (ozone), Group 7 (positive control) and Group 8 (negative control). Following treatment, the canal content was sampled. The samples were cultured in triplicate on blood agar plates to determine the number of colony forming units (CFU)/mL...
October 22, 2016: Odontology
Michaela L Sundqvist, Jon O Lundberg, Eddie Weitzberg
The nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway has emerged as a significant source of nitric oxide (NO) bioactivity. Dietary intake of inorganic nitrate has a number of cardiovascular effects as well as a decrease in oxygen cost during exercise and a reduction in resting metabolic rate (RMR). Oral bacteria have a key role in bioactivation of inorganic nitrate since they catalyse the conversion of salivary nitrate to the more reactive nitrite anion. Recent studies demonstrate that blood pressure increases with the use of an antiseptic mouthwash, indicating that endogenous, NO-synthase derived nitrate is recycled into nitrite and NO, sufficiently to modulate cardiovascular function...
October 18, 2016: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Wei Fan, Yanyun Li, Qing Sun, Tengjiao Ma, Bing Fan
BACKGROUND: In infected periapical tissues, Enterococcus faecalis is one of the most common dominant bacteria. Chlorhexidine has been proved to show strong antibacterial ability against E. faecalis but is ineffective in promoting mineralization for tissues around root apex. Mesoporous calcium-silicate nanoparticles are newly synthesized biomaterials with excellent ability to promote mineralization and carry-release bioactive molecules in a controlled manner. In this study, mesoporous calcium-silicate nanoparticles were functionalized with chlorhexidine and their releasing profile, antibacterial ability, effect on cell proliferation and in vitro mineralization property were evaluated...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Nanobiotechnology
Noha Samir Kabil, Amira Saad Badran, Mariem Osama Wassel
BACKGROUND: Antibacterial restorations can increase the success rate of minimum invasive dentistry especially in young permanent molars with deep carious lesions as an attempt to preserve maximum dental structure and avoid pulp exposure. Further research is warranted to evaluate different antibacterial agents. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of adding chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX) or aqueous miswak (Salvadora persica) extract on the clinical performance and in vivo antibacterial activity of conventional anhydrous glass ionomer cement (GIC)...
October 21, 2016: International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry
M García-Gargallo, M Zurlohe, E Montero, B Alonso, J Serrano, M Sanz, D Herrera
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of two newly formulated chlorhexidine (CHX) and cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) mouthrinses after scaling and root planing (SRP) in terms of clinical, microbiological, patient-based variables and adverse events, with a positive control with the same active components, already marketed and tested. METHODS: A pilot, randomized clinical trial, double-blind, parallel design with 1-month follow-up was conducted. Chronic periodontitis patients requiring non-surgical periodontal therapy were enrolled and randomly assigned to: (i) SRP and test-1 (new reformulation: 0...
October 20, 2016: International Journal of Dental Hygiene
E Espigares, E Moreno Roldan, M Espigares, R Abreu, B Castro, A L Dib, Á Arias
The aim of this research was to study the phenotypic resistances to disinfectants and antibiotics in strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) obtained from Canary black pigs. Analyses were performed on 54 strains of MRSA, isolated in Canary black pigs from the province of Tenerife (Spain); all of them carried the mecA gene. The strains were isolated by means of nasal swab samples of healthy pigs, collected under veterinarian supervision. Bactericidal activity of antiseptics and disinfectants was tested by means of the dilution-neutralization method...
October 20, 2016: Zoonoses and Public Health
Jelmer Sjollema, Heidrun Keul, Henny van der Mei, René Dijkstra, Minie Rustema-Abbing, Joop de Vries, Ton Loontjens, Ton Dirks, Henk Busscher
Various potential anti-infection strategies can be thought of for biomaterial implants and devices. Permanent, tissue-integrated implants such as artificial joint prostheses require a different anti-infection strategy than, for instance, removable urinary catheters. The different requirements set to biomaterials implants and devices in different clinical applications call for tailor-made strategies. Here, a modular coating-concept for biomaterials is reported, which in its full, trifunctional form comprises nonadhesiveness to bacteria and antimicrobial release, combined with enhanced tissue integration characteristics...
October 19, 2016: Macromolecular Bioscience
Paloma Horejs Bittencourt, Carlos Sidney Silva Pimentel, Bianca Sampaio Bonfim, Paulo José Marostica, Edna Lúcia Souza
In Brazil the knowledge about methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection in cystic fibrosis patients is scarce. This study aimed to determine the incidence of respiratory tract colonization and the identification rates after a standardized treatment. A retrospective cohort was performed highlighting the history of respiratory colonizations between January 2008 and June 2015. Patients under the age of 21 years with cystic fibrosis confirmed by sweat test or genetic study receiving care at the outpatient clinics of a Teaching Hospital were included...
October 15, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
Marika Rai, David Spratt, Paola R Gomez-Pereira, Jay Patel, Sean P Nair
Oral malodour is a common condition which affects a large proportion of the population, resulting in social, emotional and psychological stress. Certain oral bacteria form a coating called a biofilm on the tongue dorsum and degrade organic compounds releasing volatile sulfur compounds that are malodourous. Current chemical treatments for oral malodour such as mouthwashes containing chlorhexidine or essential oils, are not sufficiently effective at reducing the bacterial load on the tongue. One potential alternative to current chemical treatments for oral malodour is the use of light activated antimicrobial agents (LAAAs), which display no toxicity or antimicrobial activity in the dark, but when exposed to light of a specific wavelength produce reactive oxygen species which induce damage to target cells in a process known as photodynamic inactivation...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Breath Research
Ulla Forsgren-Brusk, Birgitta Yhlen, Marie Blomqvist, Peter Larsson
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate a pragmatic laboratory method to provide a technique for developing incontinence products better able to reduce malodor when used in the clinical setting. METHODS: Bacterial growth and bacterially formed ammonia in disposable absorbent incontinence products was measured by adding synthetic urine inoculated with bacteria to test samples cut from the crotch area of the product. The inhibitory effect's of low pH (4...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Wound, Ostomy, and Continence Nursing
Hendrik Naujokat, Burkhard Kunzendorf, Jörg Wiltfang
Dental implant surgery has developed to a widely used procedure for dental rehabilitation and is a secure and predictable procedure. Local and systemic risk factors can result in higher failure rates. Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease that goes in with hyperglycemia and causes multifarious side effects. Diabetes as a relative contraindication for implant surgery is controversially discussed. Because the number of patients suffering from diabetes increases, there are more diabetic patients demanding implant procedures...
December 2016: Int J Implant Dent
Juliana Hotta, Wilson Gustavo Cral, Vinicius Tatsuyuji Sakima, Vanessa Soares Lara, Vanessa Migliorini Urban, Karin Hermana Neppelenbroek
BACKGROUND: Antifungal agents incorporated into temporary denture resilient liners as drug carries and delivery have been suggested as an alternative treatment for denture stomatitis. However, to test the in vivo biocompatibility of this protocol, standardization of an intraoral device for optimal drug delivery is required. OBJECTIVE: Standardized criteria were produced to adjust an acrylic intraoral device (IOD) for rats feasible for denture stomatitis treatment by sustained drug-delivery based on minimal inhibitory drug concentrations (MICs) of antifungals for Candida albicans biofilm...
October 13, 2016: Current Drug Delivery
Hang Yang, Yongli Bi, Xiaoran Shang, Mengyue Wang, Sara B Linden, Yunpeng Li, Yuhong Li, Daniel C Nelson, Hongping Wei
Streptococcus mutans often survives as a biofilm on the tooth surface and contributes to the development of dental caries. We investigated the efficacy of ClyR, an engineered chimeolysin, against S. mutans biofilms in physiological and cariogenic conditions. Susceptibility tests showed that ClyR was active against all clinical S. mutans isolates tested as well as S. mutans biofilms that displayed resistance to penicillin. S. mutans biofilms formed on hydroxyapatite discs in physiological sugar conditions and cariogenic conditions were reduced ∼2 logs and 3 logs after treatment with 100 μg/ml ClyR, respectively...
October 10, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Mehmet Burak Guneser, Makbule Bilge Akbulut, Ayce Unverdi Eldeniz
The aim of the present study was to compare the antimicrobial effect of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), 2% chlorhexidine (CHX), a CHX/cetrimide solution (CHX+CTR), octenidine hydrochloride (OCT) and Salvia officinalis plant extract against Enterococcus faecalis. Seventy decoronated single-rooted human teeth were infected and divided into 6 test (n=10) and 2 control groups (n=5) (negative, sterile samples and positive, infected samples). Following irrigants were then applied to test groups: 2.5% NaOCl, 5.25% NaOCl, CHX, CHX+CTR, S...
2016: Dental Materials Journal
Haruna Hirata, Shintaro Fumoto, Hirotaka Miyamoto, Mikiro Nakashima, Morio Nakayama, Koyo Nishida
Long-term peritoneal dialysis (PD) frequently produces morphological and functional changes of the peritoneum, making continuation of PD difficult. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate peritoneal injury at an early stage and develop appropriate therapies. The aims of the present study were to evaluate peritoneal injury at an early stage and assess a drug for prevention of peritoneal injury using our previously developed novel evaluation method. Peritoneal injury was induced in model animals by intraperitoneal injection of methylglyoxal (MGO) for 1 to 5 consecutive days or chlorhexidine digluconate (CG) for 1 to 14 consecutive days...
2016: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Byalakere Rudraiah Chandra Shekar, Ramesh Nagarajappa, Rupal Singh, S Suma, Rupesh Thakur
BACKGROUND: The rise in disease incidence, increased resistance of pathogenic bacteria to currently used antibiotics and chemotherapeutics, opportunistic infections in immunocompromised individuals, and financial considerations in developing countries necessitates alternate preventive and treatment strategies for oral diseases. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study is to assess the antimicrobial efficacy of triple and quadruple combinations of Acacia nilotica (AN), Murraya koenigii (Linn...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Dental Research: Official Publication of Indian Society for Dental Research
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