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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087318/etiologies-of-community-onset-urinary-tract%C3%A2-infections-requiring-hospitalization-and%C3%A2-antimicrobial-susceptibilities-of%C3%A2-causative-microorganisms
#1
Chih-Chien Chiu, Tzu-Chao Lin, Rui-Xin Wu, Ya-Sung Yang, Po-Jen Hsiao, Yi Lee, Jung-Chung Lin, Feng-Yee Chang
BACKGROUND: Community-onset urinary tract infections (CoUTIs) are the most common bacterial infections, and a decline in antibiotic susceptibility causes many clinical challenges. Adequate empiric antibiotic treatment can decrease unnecessary hospital stays and complications, while reducing the antimicrobial resistance progression. METHODS: From October 2014 to April 2015, we retrospectively enrolled patients who were at least 18 years old and required hospitalization for CoUTIs...
December 18, 2016: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079686/number-of-bacteria-and-time-of-coincubation-with-bacteria-required-for-the-development-of-acanthamoeba-keratitis
#2
Hayate Nakagawa, Takaaki Hattori, Naohito Koike, Tomoko Ehara, Akitomo Narimatsu, Shigeto Kumakura, Tetsuya Matsumoto, Hiroshi Goto
PURPOSE: We hypothesized that bacteria may be a factor contributing to the development of Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK). We investigated interactions between Acanthamoeba and Pseudomonas aeruginosa for the development of keratitis in rabbit corneas. METHODS: Acanthamoeba castellanii (ATCC50492) and P. aeruginosa (PAO-1) were used. Two densities of P. aeruginosa (high, 1 × 10/mL; low, 3 × 10/mL) and 2 durations of coincubation (long, 6 h; short, 2 h) of Acanthamoeba with 1 × 10/mL of P...
January 11, 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079669/the-irish-helicobacter-pylori-working-group-consensus-for-the-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-h-pylori-infection-in-adult-patients-in-ireland
#3
Sinead Smith, Breida Boyle, Denise Brennan, Martin Buckley, Paul Crotty, Maeve Doyle, Richard Farrell, Mary Hussey, David Kevans, Peter Malfertheiner, Francis Megraud, Sean Nugent, Anthony O'Connor, Colm O'Morain, Shiobhan Weston, Deirdre McNamara
BACKGROUND: Irish eradication rates for Helicobacter pylori are decreasing and there is an increase in the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. These trends call into question current management strategies. OBJECTIVE: To establish an Irish Helicobacter pylori Working Group (IHPWG) to assess, revise and tailor current available recommendations. METHODS: Experts in the areas of gastroenterology and microbiology were invited to join the IHPWG...
January 10, 2017: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077699/antimicrobial-susceptibility-patterns-among-a-large-nationwide-cohort-of-abiotrophia-and-granulicatella-clinical-isolates
#4
Kunatum Prasidthrathsint, Mark A Fisher
Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns from 599 A. defectiva, G. adiacens and G. elegans clinical isolates were determined by broth microdilution. We observed significant differences in susceptibility across species, particularly to penicillin and ceftriaxone, and across geographical regions. A. defectiva was the least susceptible species overall to penicillin. All isolates were susceptible to vancomycin and >90% were susceptible to levofloxacin.
January 11, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076247/5-day-versus-10-day-course-of-fluoroquinolones-in-outpatient-males-with-a-urinary-tract-infection-uti
#5
Geoffrey A Mospan, Kurt A Wargo
INTRODUCTION: Current guidelines classify urinary tract infections (UTIs) in males as complicated and recommend longer treatment than for UTIs in females. The objective of this study is to demonstrate that males with UTIs may be successfully treated with an outpatient 5-day course of levofloxacin. METHODS: Data were obtained from a previously conducted clinical trial (www.clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT00210886), a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, noninferiority study comparing levofloxacin 750 mg intravenously/by mouth once daily for 5 days and ciprofloxacin 400/500 mg intravenously/by mouth twice daily for 10 days in complicated UTI (cUTI)...
November 2016: Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine: JABFM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071659/acg-clinical-guideline-treatment-of-helicobacter-pylori-infection
#6
William D Chey, Grigorios I Leontiadis, Colin W Howden, Steven F Moss
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is a common worldwide infection that is an important cause of peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. H. pylori may also have a role in uninvestigated and functional dyspepsia, ulcer risk in patients taking low-dose aspirin or starting therapy with a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medication, unexplained iron deficiency anemia, and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. While choosing a treatment regimen for H. pylori, patients should be asked about previous antibiotic exposure and this information should be incorporated into the decision-making process...
January 10, 2017: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070047/-clinical-analysis-for-patients-with-continuous-ambulatory-peritoneal-dialysis-associated-peritonitis
#7
Jian Liu, Xun Huang, Yao Liu, Hui Xu, Rui'e Gong, Chunhui Li
To analyze the clinical characteristics of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) associated peritonitis in the tertiary hospitals and to discuss the preventive and therapeutic strategy.
 Methods: The clinical characteristics, pathogens, resistance and outcomes of 126 CAPD associated peritonitis in 104 patients from Jan, 2013 to June, 2016, were retrospectively analyzed.
 Results: Among the patients, the incidence rates of abdominal pain, fever, diarrhea and emesis were 104 (82.54%), 56 (44.44%), 49 (38...
December 28, 2016: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065892/rapid-detection-of-the-plasmid-mediated-quinolone-resistance-determinant-aac-6-ib-cr-in-enterobacteriaceae-by-maldi-tof-ms-analysis
#8
Marina Oviaño, Jose Manuel Rodríguez-Martínez, Álvaro Pascual, Germán Bou
OBJECTIVES: Rapid detection of the plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance determinant AAC(6')-Ib-cr in Enterobacteriaceae by measuring acetyltransferase activity against fluoroquinolones by MALDI-TOF MS analysis. METHODS: The presence of the AAC(6')-Ib-cr enzyme was determined by MS by measuring the acetyltransferase activity of a collection of 81 isogenic Escherichia coli control strains [10 carrying the AAC(6')-Ib-cr enzyme during exposure to ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin and levofloxacin] and further analysis of 36 clinical isolates [25 carrying the AAC(6')-Ib-cr enzyme in addition to different combinations of quinolone resistance mechanisms]...
January 8, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064542/antibiotic-treatment-patterns-costs-and-resource-utilization-among-patients-with-community-acquired-pneumonia-a-us-cohort-study
#9
Christopher J Llop, Edward Tuttle, Glenn S Tillotson, Kerry LaPlante, Thomas M File
OBJECTIVES: The current treatment options for patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) often present a trade-off between the potential for treatment failure and safety concerns. We set out to investigate real-world outcomes associated with the use of currently available antimicrobial treatment options for CAP in both the outpatient and inpatient (non-intensive care unit [ICU]) settings. METHODS: This claims-based retrospective study included adult patients diagnosed with CAP and treated with antibiotic therapies, including any oral fluoroquinolone, macrolide, or beta-lactam monotherapy in the outpatient setting, and intravenous (IV) levofloxacin or IV azithromycin/ceftriaxone in the inpatient setting...
January 9, 2017: Hospital Practice (Minneapolis)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057059/invasive-pneumococcal-disease-caused-by-mucoid-serotype-3-streptococcus-pneumoniae-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#10
Naomi Sugimoto, Yuka Yamagishi, Jun Hirai, Daisuke Sakanashi, Hiroyuki Suematsu, Naoya Nishiyama, Yusuke Koizumi, Hiroshige Mikamo
BACKGROUND: Among the different serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae, serotype 3 has received global attention. We report the fatal case of a 76-year-old Japanese man who had an invasive pneumococcal disease associated with pneumonia caused by serotype 3 S. pneumoniae. CASE PRESENTATION: The patient had a history of hypertension, laryngeal cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Following a cerebral arteriovenous malformation hemorrhage, he underwent surgery to remove the hematoma and began rehabilitation...
January 4, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056828/pneumococcal-carriage-and-antibiotic-susceptibility-patterns-from-two-cross-sectional-colonization-surveys-among-children-aged-5-years-prior-to-the-introduction-of-10-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-kenya-2009-2010
#11
Miwako Kobayashi, Laura M Conklin, Godfrey Bigogo, Geofrey Jagero, Lee Hampton, Katherine E Fleming-Dutra, Muthoni Junghae, Maria da Gloria Carvalho, Fabiana Pimenta, Bernard Beall, Thomas Taylor, Kayla F Laserson, John Vulule, Chris Van Beneden, Lindsay Kim, Daniel R Feikin, Cynthia G Whitney, Robert F Breiman
BACKGROUND: Pneumococci are spread by persons with nasopharyngeal colonization, a necessary precursor to invasive disease. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines can prevent colonization with vaccine serotype strains. In 2011, Kenya became one of the first African countries to introduce the 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) into its national immunization program. Serial cross-sectional colonization surveys were conducted to assess baseline pneumococcal colonization, antibiotic resistance patterns, and factors associated with resistance...
January 5, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056440/fepo4-based-single-chamber-air-cathode-microbial-fuel-cell-for-online-monitoring-levofloxacin
#12
Libin Zeng, Xinyong Li, Yueran Shi, Yefei Qi, Daqiong Huang, Moses Tadé, Shaobin Wang, Shaomin Liu
A bio-electrochemical strategy was developed for constructing a simple and sensitive levofloxacin (LEV) sensor based on a single chamber microbial fuel cell (SC-MFC) using FePO4 nanoparticles (NPs) as the cathode catalyst instead of traditional Pt/C. In this assembled sensor device, FePO4 NPs dramatically promoted the electrooxidation of oxygen on the cathode, which helps to accelerate the voltage output from SC-MFC and can provide a powerful guarantee for LEV detection. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to fully characterize the FePO4 NPs...
December 9, 2016: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051952/antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-gram-negative-eskape-pathogens-isolated-from-hospitalized-patients-with-intra-abdominal-and-urinary-tract-infections-in-asia-pacific-countries-smart-2013-2015
#13
James A Karlowsky, Daryl J Hoban, Meredith A Hackel, Sibylle Lob, Daniel F Sahm
Gram-negative ESKAPE pathogens (Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter spp.) are responsible for increases in antimicrobial-resistant infections worldwide. We determined in vitro susceptibilities to eight parenteral antimicrobial agents using CLSI broth microdilution methodology for gram-negative ESKAPE pathogens isolated from hospitalized patients with intra-abdominal infections (IAI) (n = 3,052) and urinary tract infections (UTI) (n = 1,088) in 11 countries/regions from 2013-2015...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049892/maintenance-of-clinical-expertise-and-clinical-research-by-the-clinical-professors-at-gifu-pharmaceutical-university
#14
Tomoya Tachi, Yoshihiro Noguchi, Hitomi Teramachi
 The clinical professors at Gifu Pharmaceutical University (GPU) provide pharmaceutical services at GPU Pharmacy, Gifu University Hospital, and Gifu Municipal Hospital to keep their clinical skills up-to-date; they also perform clinical research in collaboration with many clinical institutes. The Laboratory of Clinical Pharmacy is part of the Department of Pharmacy Practice and Science, to which the clinical professors belong, and is composed of three clinical professors (a professor, an associate professor, and an assistant professor)...
2017: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032486/current-situation-of-antimicrobial-resistance-and-genetic-differences-in-stenotrophomonas-maltophilia-complex-isolates-by-multilocus-variable-number-of-tandem-repeat-analysis
#15
Ji Young Rhee, Jae Hoon Song, Kwan Soo Ko
BACKGROUND: Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is one of several opportunistic pathogens of growing significance. Several studies on the molecular epidemiology of S. maltophilia have shown clinical isolates to be genetically diverse. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 121 clinical isolates tentatively identified as S. malophilia from seven tertiary-care hospitals in Korea from 2007 to 2011 were included. Species and groups were identified using partial gyrB gene sequences and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using a broth microdilution method...
December 2016: Infection & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031677/durable-results-with-in-situ-graft-repair-of-ruptured-salmonella-aneurysm-in-a-patient-with-autoimmune-deficiency-syndrome
#16
Patrick C Thompson, Lisa Wang, Jesse Columbo, Andres Schanzer, William P Robinson
We describe a case of a 42-year-old male patient with advanced autoimmune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) (CD4 count of 16 cells/mm(3)) found to have a ruptured infected infrarenal aortic aneurysm. Emergent in situ repair was performed with a Hemashield Dacron graft (Boston Scientific, Natick, MA). Aortic tissue cultures grew group D Salmonella. Patient was placed initially on intravenous ciprofloxacin followed by lifelong oral levofloxacin and trimethoprim. Over 2 years following repair, he remains asymptomatic, with repair intact and no recurrent infection...
December 2016: International Journal of Angiology: Official Publication of the International College of Angiology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031199/population-pharmacokinetics-and-pharmacodynamics-of-levofloxacin-in-acutely-hospitalized-older-patients-with-various-degrees-of-renal-function-the-difficult-balance-between-efficacy-and-safety
#17
Pier Giorgio Cojutti, Virginia Ramos-Martin, Isabella Schiavon, Paolo Rossi, Massimo Baraldo, William Hope, Federico Pea
A retrospective study was conducted in a large sample of acutely hospitalized older patients who underwent therapeutic drug monitoring during levofloxacin treatment. The aim was to assess the population pharmacokinetics (popPK) and pharmacodynamics of levofloxacin among older patients.PopPK and Monte Carlo simulation were performed for defining the permissible doses in older patients according to various degrees of renal function. CART analysis was used to detect the cut-off AUC24h/MIC ratio that best correlated with clinical outcome...
December 28, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028885/antibiotic-spider-silk-site-specific-functionalization-of-recombinant-spider-silk-using-click-chemistry
#18
David Harvey, Philip Bardelang, Sara L Goodacre, Alan Cockayne, Neil R Thomas
In a new, versatile approach to fun-ction-alizing recombinant spider silk, L-azidohomoalanine is introduced residue-specifically in the minispidroin protein 4RepCT through expression in an E. coli methionine auxotroph. Both fluorophores and the antibiotic levofloxacin are attached to this bio-orthogonal amino acid using copper-catalyzed click chemistry, either before or after the silk fibers are self-assembled.
December 28, 2016: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025629/the-liver-as-another-possible-target-organ-for-bacillus-cereus-infection
#19
Mario Alessandri-Bonetti, Umberto Vespasiani-Gentilucci, Giacomo Luppi, Silvia Angeletti, Giordano Dicuonzo, Antonio Picardi
A case of liver abscess due to Bacillus cereus infection in an immunocompetent 59-year-old man is reported. Percutaneous drainage and antimicrobial therapy, with vancomycin and levofloxacin afterwards, have been demonstrated to be an appropriate treatment, leading to clinical and radiological cure.
2016: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018690/multiple-renal-abscesses-due-to-esbl-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing-escherichia-coli-causing-acute-pyelonephritis-and-bacteremia-a-case-report-with-a-good-outcome-no-drainage-required
#20
Abdalla Khalil, Musaad Qurash, Asem Saleh, Rasha Ali, Mohamed Elwakil
Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae urinary tract infections are challenging infections with increased mortality, morbidity, and failure of therapy. A 44-year-old Saudi male diabetic patient was seen at the ER of IMC Hospital with features of acute pyelonephritis: fever, burning urine, and left flank pain for three days. He was treated for cystitis at the Endocrine Clinic two weeks prior to his ER visit with nitrofurantoin and levofloxacin orally according to urine culture and sensitivity result...
2016: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
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