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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431817/pneumococcal-carriage-among-children-after-four-years-of-routine-10-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-use-in-brazil-the-emergence-of-multidrug-resistant-serotype-6c
#1
Felipe P G Neves, Nayara T Cardoso, Robert E Snyder, Mariel A Marlow, Claudete A A Cardoso, Lúcia M Teixeira, Lee W Riley
BACKGROUND: In 2010, the 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) was introduced free of charge in Brazil as part of the public immunization program. Here we investigated the carriage prevalence, colonization risk factors, capsular types, and antimicrobial resistance among pneumococcal isolates obtained from children in Brazil four years after routine PCV10 use. METHODS: Between September and December 2014, we conducted a cross-sectional study among children<6years old who attended one public and two private clinics in Niterói, RJ, Brazil to evaluate pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage...
April 18, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427611/experimental-study-on-the-influence-of-low-frequency-and-low-intensity-ultrasound-on-the-permeability-of-the-mycobacterium-smegmatis-cytoderm-and-potentiation-with-levofloxacin
#2
Yu Dong, Hang Su, Hexun Jiang, Huimin Zheng, Yonghong Du, Junru Wu, Dairong Li
Tuberculosis is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium M. tuberculosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the bactericidal effect and underlying mechanisms of low-frequency and low-intensity ultrasound combined with levofloxacin treatment against M. smegmatis (a surrogate of M. tuberculosis). As part of this study, M. smegmatis was continuously irradiated with low frequency ultrasound (42kHz) using several different doses whereby both intensity (0.138, 0.190 and 0.329W/cm(2)) and exposure time (5, 15 and 20min) were varied...
July 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426811/procalcitonin-for-selecting-the-antibiotic-regimen-in-outpatients-with-low-risk-community-acquired-pneumonia-using-a-rapid-point-of-care-testing-a-single-arm-clinical-trial
#3
Mar Masiá, Sergio Padilla, Victoria Ortiz de la Tabla, Matilde González, Cristina Bas, Félix Gutiérrez
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess the role of procalcitonin (PCT) to guide the initial selection of the antibiotic regimen for low-risk community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). METHODS: A single-arm clinical trial was conducted including outpatients with CAP and Pneumonia Severity Index risk classes I-II. Antimicrobial selection was based on the results of PCT measured with a rapid point-of-care testing. According to serum PCT levels, patients were assigned to two treatment strategies: oral azithromycin if PCT was <0...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421576/-confusion-caused-by-dietary-supplement-lithium-orotate
#4
G van Weringh, E B Uitvlugt, G H M Ponjee, G M Jalink
A 38-year-old woman was referred to our hospital with pelvic inflammatory disease. She had been diagnosed as having a tubo-ovarian abscess, for which antibiotic therapy with metronidazole and levofloxacin was indicated. Because the patient was already taking lithium she was prescribed clindamycin instead of metronidazole, a drug that interacts with lithium. For the same reason, naproxen could not be prescribed to reduce pain. However, the lithium taken by the patient turned out to be a dietary supplement containing lithium orotate which she had obtained via the Internet...
2017: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420384/molecular-characteristic-of-mcr-1-producing-escherichia-coli-in-a-chinese-university-hospital
#5
Qing-Wen He, Xiao-Hong Xu, Fang-Jun Lan, Zhi-Chang Zhao, Zhi-Yun Wu, Ying-Ping Cao, Bin Li
BACKGROUND: Colistin has been considered as a last-line treatment option in severe infections caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) gram-negative pathogens. However, the emergence of the mobile colistin resistance gene (mcr-1) has challenged this viewpoint. The aim of this study is to explore the prevalence of mcr-1 in Escherichia coli (E. coli) in a Chinese teaching hospital, and investigate their molecular characteristics. METHODS: A total of 700 E. coli isolates were used to screen mcr-1 by PCR and sequencing in a Chinese university hospital from August 2014 to August 2015...
April 19, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420285/dry-powders-for-the-inhalation-of-ciprofloxacin-or-levofloxacin-combined-with-a-mucolytic-agent-for-cystic-fibrosis-patients
#6
Yagmur Akdag Cayli, Selma Sahin, Francesca Buttini, Anna Giulia Balducci, Serena Montanari, Imran Vural, Levent Oner
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to design and characterize an inhalable dry powder of ciprofloxacin or levofloxacin combined with the mucolytics acetylcysteine and dornase alfa for the management of pulmonary infections in patients with cystic fibrosis. METHODS: Ball milling, homogenization in isopropyl alcohol, and spray drying processes were used to prepare dry powders for inhalation. Physico-chemical characteristics of the dry powders were assessed via thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffractometry, and scanning electron microscopy...
April 19, 2017: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416954/current-status-of-fluoroquinolone-use-for-treatment-of-tuberculosis-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-korea
#7
Bo Hyoung Kang, Kyung-Wook Jo, Tae Sun Shim
BACKGROUND: Fluoroquinolones are considered important substitutes for the treatment of tuberculosis. This study investigates the current status of fluoroquinolone for the treatment of tuberculosis. METHODS: In 2009, a retrospective analysis was performed at one tertiary referral center for 953 patients diagnosed with tuberculosis. RESULTS: A total of 226 patients (23.6%), who received fluoroquinolone at any time during treatment for tuberculosis, were enrolled in this study...
April 2017: Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415997/dusuqing-granules-dsq-suppress-inflammation-in-klebsiella-pneumonia-rat-via-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-mapk-signaling
#8
Xue Mei, Hao-Xun Wang, Jian-Sheng Li, Xiao-Hui Liu, Xiao-Fan Lu, Ya Li, Wei-Yu Zhang, Yan-Ge Tian
BACKGROUND: Dusuqing granules (DSQ) have been used in the treatment of bacterial pneumonia clinically, with remarkable benefits. This study was initiated to explore the effects of DSQ on pulmonary inflammation by regulating nuclear factor (NF)-κB/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling in bacterial pneumonia rats. METHODS: Rat model was duplicated with Klebsiella pneumonia by a one-time intratracheal injection. Rats were randomized into control, model, DSQ and levofloxacin (LVX) groups...
April 17, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414572/molecular-characterization-of-fluoroquinolone-resistant-haemophilus-parainfluenzae-clinical-isolates-in-spain
#9
Inmaculada López-Hernández, Jesús Machuca, Paula Díaz de Alba, Carolina Sarvisé, Frederic Gómez, José Manuel Rodríguez-Martínez, Alvaro Pascual
OBJECTIVE: The objective was to characterize a group of clinical isolates of fluoroquinolone-resistant Haemophilus parainfluenzae collected in Northern Spain (March-December 2014). METHODS: Twelve clinical isolates of H. parainfluenzae were studied by performing antimicrobial susceptibility testing and PCR amplification and nucleotide sequencing of the QRDR (quinolone resistance-determining region) of gyrA, parC, gyrB, and parE genes. Screening for plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) was also studied...
April 17, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413506/active-efflux-pump-adeb-is-involved-in-multidrug-resistance-of-acinetobacter-baumannii-induced-by-antibacterial-agents
#10
Tingting Zhang, Min Wang, Yixin Xie, Xianping Li, Zhihui Dong, Yanhua Liu, Ling Wang, Min Yang, Huan Song, Hong Cao, Wei Cao
The aim of the present study was to investigate the resistance of Acinetobacter baumannii, which was induced by cefepime (FEP), cefoperazone-sulbactam (SCF), tazobactam (TZP), levofloxacin (LEV), amikacin (AK), imipenem (IPM), and ciprofloxacin (CIP), in vitro. Multi-step drug resistance selection of 16 A. baumannii strains was performed using seven antibacterial agents (FEP, TZP, CIP, AK, IPM, SCF, and LEV). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined using the agar dilution method. Random amplified polymorphic DNA polymerase chain reaction was performed to analyze the genotypes and the carrying rates of aac(3)-I, aac(6')-I, ant(3)-I, aph(3)-Via, OXA-23, OXA-24, AmpC, TEM-1, metallo-β-lactamase gene (IMP), armA, rmtA, rmtB, parC, gyrA and adeB...
April 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413497/antibiotic-de-escalation-principle-in-elderly-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-complicated-with-severe-pneumonia
#11
Baohong Xiao, Mei Wang, Xiaoling Hu, Jinfeng Li, Fangfang Wang, Jiaxing Sun
The present study investigated the clinical effect of antibiotic de-escalation therapy in elderly patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) complicated with severe pneumonia. According to the parity method of hospitalization number, 86 cases were selected and divided into the observation and control group with 43 cases each. Based on empirical antibiotic application, levofloxacin and cephalosporin antibiotics were used in the control group. After treatment for 3 days, the regimen was adjusted to antibiotics active against Gram-positive (G+) and Gram-negative (G-) bacteria such as the third or fourth generation cephalosporin antibiotics, combined with aminoglycoside, or macrolide antibiotics according to their effects...
April 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410918/comparison-of-urinary-tract-infection-antibiograms-stratified-by-emergency-department-patient-disposition
#12
Lee Grodin, Alyssa Conigliaro, Song-Yi Lee, Michael Rose, Richard Sinert
OBJECTIVE: Institutional antibiograms guide Emergency Department (ED) clinicians' empiric antibiotic selection. For this study, we created and compared antibiograms of ED patients stratified by disposition (admitted or discharged). METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study at two hospitals for 2014, comparing antibiograms limited to Escherichia coli urinary tract infections. Study-Specific Antibiograms, created for the study, excluded polymicrobial samples and multiple cultures from the same patient...
March 23, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408304/analysis-of-imp-1-type-metallo-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-acinetobacter-radioresistens-isolated-from-companion-animals
#13
Yui Kimura, Tadashi Miyamoto, Kotaro Aoki, Yoshikazu Ishii, Kazuki Harada, Masahisa Watarai, Shingo Hatoya
IMP-1 type metallo-β-lactamase-producing (MBL-producing) Acinetobacter radioresistens was isolated from a dog with cystitis and a cat with conjunctivitis. The MBL-producing A. radioresistens isolates were resistant to all of the β-lactam antibiotics used in the sensitivity tests, but were susceptible to gentamicin, amikacin, and minocycline. Also, one of the two strains of A. radioresistens was susceptible to ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin. These two cases were cured by administration of tetracyclines and fluoroquinolones, which elicited a positive result in the sensitivity tests...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403679/levofloxacin-induced-acute-immune-mediated-thrombocytopenia-of-rapid-onset
#14
Andrew W Shih, Andy S Lam, Theodore E Warkentin
Drug-induced immune thrombocytopenia (D-ITP) typically occurs after the patient has been receiving the implicated drug for at least 1 week, due to newly forming drug-dependent antibodies ("typical-onset" D-ITP). A "rapid-onset" form of D-ITP can occur when previous sensitization has occurred, where antibodies have thus already been formed, and a precipitous platelet count fall occurs upon reexposure. Typical-onset D-ITP has been reported after levofloxacin, but the rapid-onset form with a well-documented previous exposure has not been described...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403114/prevalence-of-inappropriate-antibiotic-prescriptions-after-the-great-east-japan-earthquake-2011
#15
Kentaro Iwata, Takahiko Fukuchi, Midori Hirai, Kenichi Yoshimura, Yasuhiro Kanatani
Few studies have investigated the appropriateness of antibiotic use in postdisaster settings. We retrospectively evaluated clinical databases on health care delivered at clinics near shelters set up after the Great East Japan Earthquake, 2011. We defined appropriate, acceptable, and inappropriate antibiotic use for each diagnostic category, by applying and adopting precedent studies and clinical guidelines. From March to July, 2011, a total of 23,704 clinic visits occurred at 98 shelters with 7934 residents...
April 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402182/analysis-of-point-mutations-in-the-pbp2x-pbp2b-and-pbp1a-genes-of-streptococcus-agalactiae-and-their-relation-with-a-reduced-susceptibility-to-cephalosporins
#16
Giorgio Piccinelli, Giuseppe Carlentini, Franco Gargiulo, Arnaldo Caruso, Maria Antonia De Francesco
The emergence of group B Streptococcus (GBS) isolates with reduced penicillin susceptibility (PRGBS) and their tendency to be nonsusceptible to fluoroquinolones prompted us to analyze the possible presence of amino acid mutations in penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) (PBP2X, PBP1A, and PBP2B) from a collection of fluoroquinolone-resistant GBS isolates. We analyzed 21 GBS isolates resistant to levofloxacin. Sequence analysis of genes for PBPs was performed. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for penicillin, ceftibuten, cefaclor, cefixime, cefotaxime, and ceftizoxime were performed by the Etest method and by broth microdilution method...
April 12, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400014/isolation-molecular-identification-and-quinolone-susceptibility-testing-of-arcobacter-spp-isolated-from-fresh-vegetables-in-spain
#17
Ana González, Isidro Favián Bayas Morejón, María Antonia Ferrús
Some species of the Arcobacter genus are considered emerging foodborne and waterborne enteropathogens. However, the presence of Arcobacter spp. in vegetables very little is known, because most studies have focused on foods of animal origin. On the other hand, quinolones are considered as first-line drugs for the treatment of infection by campylobacteria in human patients, but few data are currently available about the resistance levels to these antibiotics among Arcobacter species. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the presence and diversity of arcobacters isolated from fresh vegetables such as lettuces, spinaches, chards and cabbages...
August 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399856/factors-associated-with-staphylococcus-aureus-nasal-carriage-and-molecular-characteristics-among-the-general-population-at-a-medical-college-campus-in-guangzhou-south-china
#18
B J Chen, X Y Xie, L J Ni, X L Dai, Y Lu, X Q Wu, H Y Li, Y D Yao, S Y Huang
BACKGROUND: The nasal cavity is the main colonization site of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) in human body. Nasal carriage may be a strong risk factor for some serious infection. There was still limited information about the nasal carriage for S. aureus in south China. METHODS: Sought to determine the prevalence and molecular characteristics of S. aureus nasal carriage, 295 volunteers residing on a medicine campus were investigated and sampled the nasal cavity swab...
April 11, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395990/protective-effects-of-fluoroquinolones-on-uv-induced-damage-of-cultured-ocular-cell-lines
#19
Takashi Nishida, Yoshiki Kuse, Kiyofumi Mochizuki, Masamitsu Shimazawa, Tetsuya Yamamoto, Hideaki Hara
Although the fluoroquinolones have strong antibacterial effects, some of them also have adverse ocular effects such as diplopia, uveitis, optic neuropathy, and retinal detachment. The purpose of this study was to determine whether low concentrations of fluoroquinolones can lessen the cytotoxic effects of ultraviolet (UV) light on different kinds of cultured ocular cells. We studied cultured human corneal endothelial cells (HCECs), a retinal ganglion cell line (RGC-5), a mouse-derived photoreceptor cell line (661W), a human adult retinal pigment epithelial cell line (ARPE-19), primary retinal cells, and primary human RPE cells...
April 7, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391418/randomized-clinical-trial-esomeprazole-bismuth-levofloxacin-and-amoxicillin-or-cefuroxime-as-first-line-eradication-regimens-for-helicobacter-pylori-infection
#20
Wei Fu, Zhiqiang Song, Liya Zhou, Yan Xue, Yu Ding, Baojun Suo, Xueli Tian, Li Wang
BACKGROUND: The eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection remains a challenge, especially in the patients unsuitable to take penicillin. Cephalosporin has the potential to replace amoxicillin for H. pylori eradication. AIMS: To compare the effectiveness, safety, and compliance of amoxicillin- and cefuroxime-containing quadruple regimens in treatment-naïve patients. METHODS: In this open-label randomized control study, 400 patients with H...
April 8, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
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