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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915566/synergistic-antibiotic-effect-of-looped-antimicrobial-peptide-clp-19-with-bactericidal-and-bacteriostatic-agents
#1
Di Li, Ya Yang, Zhiqiang Tian, Jun Lv, Fengjun Sun, Qian Wang, Yao Liu, Peiyuan Xia
The treatment of drug-resistant infections is complicated and the alarming rise in infectious diseases poses a unique challenge for development of effective therapeutic strategies. Antibiotic-induced liberation of the bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) may have immediate adverse effects promoting septic shock in patients. In the present study, we first confirmed our previous finding that looped antimicrobial peptide CLP-19 exerts non-specific direct antibacterial activity with no toxic to mammalian cells and second revealed that CLP-19 has synergistic effect to enhance the antibacterial activities of other conventional bactericidal (ampicillin and ceftazidime) and bacteriostatic (erythromycin and levofloxacin) agents...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914846/-analysis-of-the-efficiency-of-antimicrobial-treatment-for-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-clinical-practice
#2
O V Zhukova, O V Ruina, S V Kononova, T M Konyshkina
AIM: To analyze actual drug consumption based on the defined daily dose (DDD analysis) and to analyze the utilization of drugs based on their proportion of the total defined daily doses (DU90% analysis) for the antimicrobial therapy of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in clinical practice at a hospital in Russia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The investigation materials were the data of 117 case histories of male (51.3%) and female (48.7%) patients hospitalized with CAP at Nizhny Novgorod City Clinical Hospital Five in 2015...
2017: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914844/-molecular-genetic-predictors-of-resistance-to-anti-helicobacter-pylori-therapy
#3
I V Maev, D N Andreev
In current clinical practice, there is no optimal empirical therapy for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and there is a progressive decrease in the efficiency of classical eradication therapy (ET) regimens. The variability in the efficiency of ET in a specific patient is largely due to the heterogeneous molecular genetic mechanisms underlying the resistance of the microorganism to the components of the treatment regimens. The basis of the mechanisms for antibiotic resistance in H. pylori is mainly the point mutations in some genes, which determine alterations in the mechanisms of action of drugs, such as clarithromycin (domain V of 23S rRNA), metronidazole (rdxA, frxA), amoxicillin (pbp1A), tetracycline (16S rRNA), and levofloxacin (gyrA)...
2017: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913872/high-primary-antibiotic-resistance-of-helicobacter-pylori-strains-isolated-from-dyspeptic-patients-a-prevalence-cross-sectional-study-in-spain
#4
Fernando Macías-García, José Llovo-Taboada, Mario Díaz-López, Iria Bastón-Rey, Juan Enrique Domínguez-Muñoz
BACKGROUND: The rate of H. pylori resistance to different antibiotics is increasing and determines the selection of eradication therapy. The aim of this study was to determine the resistance patterns of H. pylori strains in our area. METHODS: Biopsies from gastric corpus for microbiological culture and antibiotic resistance were obtained in patients undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy for dyspepsia. Selective Agar Pylori for isolation of the bacteria and Agar Mueller-Hinton supplemented with blood to test the sensitivity to antibiotics were used...
September 15, 2017: Helicobacter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912822/a-rare-case-of-cavitary-lesion-of-the-lung-caused-by-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-in-an-immunocompetent-patient
#5
Muhammad Kashif, Rizwan Ahmed Dudekula, Misbahuddin Khaja
Mycoplasma pneumoniae is an atypical bacterium that most commonly causes upper respiratory tract infections, but it can also cause pneumonia, referred to as "walking pneumonia." Although cavitary lesions are present in a wide variety of infectious and noninfectious processes, those attributable to M. pneumoniae are extremely uncommon; thus, to date, epidemiological studies are lacking. Here, we present a rare case of a 20-year-old male, referred to us from a psychiatric facility for evaluation of a cough, who was found to have a cavitary lesion in the right upper lobe...
2017: Case Reports in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900525/a-case-of-legionella-pneumophila-evaluated-with-ct-and-ultrasound
#6
Alessio D'Angelo, Chiara De Simone, Marco Pagnottella, Stefano Rossi, Raffaele Pepe, Giacomo Ruggieri, Giulio Cocco, Cosima Schiavone
A 36-year-old man was admitted to the emergency department of "SS Annunziata" hospital in Chieti complaining of a sharp chest pain arisen some hours before admission. On examination, the patient looked sweaty; his vital signs showed tachycardia and augmented breath rate; sinus tachycardia and normal ventricular repolarization were observed on ECG, and no abnormalities were observed in the echoscan of the hearth. According to the clinical and electrocardiographic findings, and to previous episode of DVT in anamnesis, a thorax CT scan was performed in order to rule out pulmonary embolism...
September 2017: Journal of Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895161/therapeutic-drug-monitoring-of-antitubercular-agents-for-disseminated-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-during-intermittent-haemodialysis-and-continuous-venovenous-haemofiltration
#7
J H Sin, R H Elshaboury, R M Hurtado, A R Letourneau, R G Gandhi
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: There is a lack of data regarding therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of antitubercular agents in the setting of continuous venovenous haemofiltration (CVVH). We describe TDM results of numerous antitubercular agents in a critically ill patient during CVVH and haemodialysis. CASE SUMMARY: A 49-year-old man was initiated on treatment for disseminated Mycobacterium tuberculosis. During hospital admission, the patient developed critical illness and required renal replacement therapy...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893357/fluoroquinolone-resistance-in-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-klebsiella-pneumoniae-in-a-japanese-tertiary-hospital-silent-shifting-to-ctx-m-15-producing-k-pneumoniae
#8
Masashi Higashino, Mika Murata, Yoshitomo Morinaga, Norihiko Akamatsu, Junichi Matsuda, Kazuaki Takeda, Norihito Kaku, Kosuke Kosai, Naoki Uno, Hiroo Hasegawa, Katsunori Yanagihara
PURPOSE: Fluoroquinolone resistance (FQ-r) in extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producers is an urgent health concern in countries where ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae (ESBL-Kpn) is prevalent. We investigated FQ-r in Japan where ESBL-Kpn is less prevalent. METHODOLOGY: Clinical ESBL-Kpn isolates from 2011 to 2013 were collected in Nagasaki University Hospital. The ESBL genotypes included CTX-M-15, and the mechanisms of FQ-r through plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) and mutations in quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) were examined...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892927/a-rare-instance-of-levofloxacin-induced-myoclonus
#9
Sushil Kiran Kunder, A Avinash, Veena Nayak, Amod Tilak
Levofloxacin is a widely used fluoroquinolone, mainly as a respiratory antimicrobial agent. It is employed as a second line therapeutic modality in pulmonary tuberculosis as well. The drug has been in use for ages, and is known to be both efficacious and safe. However, it is not free of adverse effects. The most dangerous ones are those involving the Central Nervous System (CNS). Although rare, levofloxacin can cause involuntary movements like chorea and myoclonus. Here by, we present a case of an elderly male patient who developed reversible myoclonus/chorea after a course of levofloxacin (which was initiated as part of his anti-tubercular therapy) following the development of peripheral neuropathy secondary to isoniazid...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890509/proposed-pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic-breakpoint-of-garenoxacin-and-other-quinolones
#10
Yuka Yamagishi, Tatsuya Shibata, Satoshi Nakagawa, Nobuhiko Nomura, Junichi Mitsuyama, Hiroshige Mikamo
The pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) breakpoints (BPs) of garenoxacin (GRNX) and other oral quinolones were calculated using the Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) based on the distribution of changes in their plasma concentrations. PK-PD BPs of 400 mg once a day (QD) of GRNX for the free area under the curve/minimum inhibitory concentration (fAUC/MIC) for 30 of Streptococcus pneumoniae and 100 of Gram-negative bacteria: (G (-)) were 0.5 and 0.125 μg/mL, respectively. PK-PD BPs of other quinolones for S. pneumoniae/G(-) were 1/0...
September 11, 2017: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890180/effectiveness-of-meibomian-gland-massage-combined-with-topical-levofloxacin-against-ocular-surface-flora-in-patients-before-penetrating-ocular-surgery
#11
Shao Dan Zhang, Jing Na He, Tong Tong Niu, Shan Shan Liu, Chiu Yeung Chan, Chun Yang Ren, Chi Liu, Chi Pui Pang, Yang Qu, Ruo Xi Li, Hai Lin Wang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the bacterial profile in the conjunctiva and meibomian glands in patients before penetrating ocular surgeries, and to compare the anti-bacterial efficacy of 0.5% levofloxacin and its combination with meibomian gland massage. DESIGN: Hospital-based, case-control study. PARTICIPANTS: Two hundred and twenty-six eyes from 226 patients with non-infective ocular diseases and scheduled for penetrating ocular surgeries. METHODS: Tested eyes were administered with topical 0...
September 7, 2017: Ocular Surface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889900/a-62-year-old-woman-with-wheezing-respiratory-failure-and-an-abnormal-ct%C3%A2-scan
#12
Peter Hountras, Hector Cajigas
A previously healthy 62-year-old woman was transferred to the ICU from the medical ward with acute bronchospastic respiratory failure requiring intubation and mechanical ventilation. Four weeks before, the patient was vacationing in Arizona and acquired a mildly productive cough as well as mild dyspnea. She presented to an urgent care facility and was diagnosed with community-acquired pneumonia. She received a 5-day course of azithromycin, with partial improvement of her symptoms. The patient returned home 1 week prior to admission, reporting worsening dyspnea, chest pressure, cough, and fever...
September 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887289/baseline-resistance-and-cross-resistance-among-fluoroquinolones-in-multi-drug-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-isolates-at-a-national-reference-laboratory
#13
Mamatha H G, V Shanthi
OBJECTIVES: Pre-existing fluoroquinolone (FQ) resistance in Multiple Drug Resistant Tuberculosis (MDR TB) patients is a major threat in treating MDR TB. This study was conducted to assess the percentage of FQ resistance among MDR TB patients and to determine whether there is complete cross-resistance between FQs (ofloxacin, levofloxacin and moxifloxacin) used as second line drugs in TB treatment. METHODS: Among 879 MDR TB suspects tested, 68 were confirmed to be MDRTB and mono rifampicin resistant...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886537/a-probabilistic-approach-to-assess-antibiotic-resistance-development-risks-in-environmental-compartments-and-its-application-to-an-intensive-aquaculture-production-scenario
#14
Andreu Rico, Rianne Jacobs, Paul J Van den Brink, Alfredo Tello
Estimating antibiotic pollution and antibiotic resistance development risks in environmental compartments is important to design management strategies that advance our stewardship of antibiotics. In this study we propose a modelling approach to estimate the risk of antibiotic resistance development in environmental compartments and demonstrate its application in aquaculture production systems. We modelled exposure concentrations for 12 antibiotics used in Vietnamese Pangasius catfish production using the ERA-AQUA model...
September 5, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885920/antibiotic-therapy-for-acute-watery-diarrhea-and-dysentery
#15
David R Tribble
Diarrheal disease affects a large proportion of military personnel deployed to developing countries, resulting in decreased job performance and operational readiness. Travelers' diarrhea is self-limiting and generally resolves within 5 days; however, antibiotic treatment significantly reduces symptom severity and duration of illness. Presently, azithromycin is the preferred first-line antibiotic for the treatment of acute watery diarrhea (single dose 500 mg), as well as for febrile diarrhea and dysentery (single dose 1,000 mg)...
September 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883006/acute-fibrinous-and-organising-pneumonia
#16
João Rocha Gonçalves, Ricardo Marques, Paula Serra, Leila Cardoso
Acute fibrinous and organising pneumonia (AFOP) is a rare histological pattern of interstitial lung disease. The authors describe a 60-year-old woman admitted to the hospital for sustained fever, presenting with an alveolar opacity on chest X-ray, with the presumed diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia and the onset of antibiotics. Since serological results suggested that Legionella pneumophila was the infectious agent, she was discharged on levofloxacin. A week later, she was again admitted with fever...
September 7, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881550/-the-epidemiological-characteristics-and-drug-resistance-of-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-in-patients-with-community-acquired-pneumonia-during-2011-2015-in-5-sentinel-hospitals-in-beijing
#17
W X Shi, S S Wu, C Gong, A H Li, F Huang
Objective: To analyze the prevalence and drug resistance of mycoplasma pneumoniae in patients with community-acquired pneumonia during 2011-2015 in Beijing. Methods: Totally 2 272 mycoplasma pneumoniae samples were collected from patients with community-acquired pneumonia in 5 sentinel hospitals during 2011-2015. Mycoplasma pneumoniae were detected by real-time PCR. 142 copies of positive samples with Ct value under 30 were cultured to get the strains so that the genotypes based on the P1 gene sequence and the drug resistance based on the in vitro drug resistance test could be conducted...
September 6, 2017: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878761/effect-of-different-antibiotic-chemotherapies-on-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-infection-in-vitro-of-primary-human-corneal-fibroblast-cells
#18
Maria Del Mar Cendra, Myron Christodoulides, Parwez Hossain
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a major cause of bacterial keratitis (BK) worldwide. Inappropriate or non-optimal antibiotic chemotherapy can lead to corneal perforation and rapid sight loss. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that P. aeruginosa strain PAO1 invades primary human corneal fibroblasts (hCFs) in vitro and persists intracellularly, despite chemotherapy with antibiotics used commonly to treat BK. In rank order, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin and polymyxin B showed the highest activity against planktonic PAO1 growth (100% inhibitory concentration ≤10 μg/mL; 50% inhibitory concentration ≤1 μg/mL), followed by gentamicin and ofloxacin (100% inhibitory concentration ≤50 μg/mL; 50% inhibitory concentration ≤10 μg/mL)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878521/time-to-positivity-and-antibiotic-sensitivity-of-neonatal-blood-cultures
#19
Sarah Magdy Abdelhamid
BACKGROUND: Sepsis is a commonly encountered and potentially life-threatening problem in neonatal intensive care units, blood culture of neonatal sepsis helps in either optimizing treatment or terminating antibiotics. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We determined the causative agent, time to positivity (TTP), and antibiogram of neonatal blood cultures collected in a tertiary care center, to investigate difference between early- and late-onset neonatal sepsis and to establish the time at which a blood culture could safely be considered negative, using the BacT/ALERT(®) 3D 60...
July 2017: Journal of Global Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877088/efficacy-and-tolerability-of-culture-guided-treatment-for-helicobacter-pylori-infection
#20
Samuel Costa, João-Bruno Soares, Raquel Gonçalves
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy/tolerability of a culture-guided approach in the eradication of Helicobacter pylori and identify factors associated with antibiotic resistance/treatment failure. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This retrospective single-center study included patients who underwent culture-guided treatment for H. pylori infection, after two ineffective eradication attempts, between October 2012 and December 2016. We assessed the following demographic and clinical data of the patients: sex, age, BMI, alcohol and tobacco consumption, history of dyspepsia, peptic ulceration and first-degree relatives with gastric cancer, antibiotic susceptibility results, treatment composition, tolerability, and success...
September 4, 2017: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
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