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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048284/bartonella-quintana-and-typhus-group-rickettsiae-exposure-among-homeless-persons-bogot%C3%A3-colombia
#1
Álvaro A Faccini-Martínez, Andrea C Márquez, Diana M Bravo-Estupiñan, Omar-Javier Calixto, Christian A López-Castillo, Carlos A Botero-García, Marylin Hidalgo, Claudia Cuervo
In 2015, we investigated Bartonella quintana and typhus group rickettsiae in body lice from homeless persons in Bogotá, Colombia. We found B. quintana-infected body lice and seroprevalence of this microorganism in 19% of homeless persons and typhus group rickettsiae in 56%. Public health professionals should start preemptive measures and active vector control.
November 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037863/outer-membrane-protein-ompb-methylation-may-mediate-bacterial-virulence
#2
REVIEW
David C H Yang, Amila H Abeykoon, Bok-Eum Choi, Wei-Mei Ching, P Boon Chock
Methylation of outer membrane proteins (OMPs) has been implicated in bacterial virulence. Lysine methylation in rickettsial OmpB is correlated with rickettsial virulence, and N- and O-methylations are also observed in virulence-relevant OMPs from several pathogenic bacteria that cause typhus, leptospirosis, tuberculosis, and anaplasmosis. We summarize recent findings on the structure of methylated OmpB, biochemical characterization, and crystal structures of OmpB methyltransferases. Native rickettsial OmpB purified from highly virulent strains contains multiple clusters of trimethyllysine, in contrast with mostly monomethyllysine, and no trimethyllysine is found in an avirulent strain...
October 13, 2017: Trends in Biochemical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016300/relative-bradycardia-in-scrub-typhus
#3
Lae Young Jung, Mir Jeon, Seung Hee Choi, Joo-Hee Hwang, Chang-Seop Lee, Kyoung-Suk Rhee
To investigate the relationship between heart rate and temperature, we examined 493 febrile patients with documented disease. These patients were diagnosed serologically and analyzed retrospectively: 337 (68.4%) responded to fever with increased heart rate < 10 beats/minute/°C (relative bradycardia [RB]), and 156 patients had a heart rate response ≥ 10 beats/minute/°C (general heart rate increase [GHRI]). The RB group had a higher median resting heart rate and lower heart rate at maximum temperature than the GHRI group...
September 25, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985768/immune-thrombocytopenia-with-multi-organ-dysfunction-syndrome-as-a-rare-presentation-of-scrub-typhus-a-case-report
#4
Abraham M Ittyachen, Saramma P Abraham, Smitha Krishnamoorthy, Anuroopa Vijayan, Jayamohan Kokkat
BACKGROUND: Scrub typhus is an acute infectious illness caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi. It is endemic to a part of the world known as the "tsutsugamushi triangle". Humans are accidental hosts in this zoonotic disease. About a third of patients admitted with scrub typhus have evidence of multi-organ dysfunction. Multi-organ dysfunction secondary to scrub typhus carries a high mortality rate. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a 65-year old lady who was admitted in a Tertiary Care Center in the state of Kerala in India, with 7 day history of fever, myalgia and reduced urine output...
October 6, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981880/new-record-of-the-scrub-typhus-vector-leptotrombidium-rubellum-in-southwest-china
#5
Pei Y Peng, Xian G Guo, Dao C Jin, Wen G Dong, Ti J Qian, Feng Qin, Zhi H Yang
There are several main vectors of scrub typhus in China, and Leptotrombidium rubellum Wang et Liao, 1984 is one of them, which was previously considered to be restricted to the coastal regions of Changle to Xiamen, Fujian province of east China. Ecological investigation of chigger mites in recent years demonstrated the presence of L. rubellum also in Yunnan province. Chigger mites were collected from 34 counties, in which 127,460 larval mites were collected from 14,381 small mammal hosts. A total of 277 species belonging to 26 genera and three subfamilies were identified...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979015/scrub-typhus-in-southern-districts-of-west-bengal
#6
Nilendu Sarma, Sayantani Chakraborty
Scrub typhus has been previously reported from north and eastern Indian states and areas such as Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Assam, Sikkim, and Darjeeling district of West Bengal. It has also been known to be endemic in some parts of South India (Eastern and Western Ghats). However, no cases have ever been reported from the southern districts of West Bengal. Here, we report five cases of scrub typhus from South 24 Parganas and Kolkata, two districts in the southern part of West Bengal, India.
September 2017: Indian Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979009/scrub-typhus-an-emerging-threat
#7
Sayantani Chakraborty, Nilendu Sarma
Scrub typhus is caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi (formerly Rickettsia) and is transmitted to humans by an arthropod vector of the Trombiculidae family (Leptotrombidium deliense and L. akamushi). It is the most common re-emerging Rickettsial infection in India and many other South East Asian countries. In fact, scrub typhus is confined geographically to the Asia Pacific region, a billion people are at risk and nearly a million cases are reported every year. Scrub typhus appears particularly to be distributed in the tsutsugamushi triangle which is distributed over a very wide area of 13 million km(2) bound by Japan in the east, through China, the Philippines, tropical Australia in the south, and west through India, Pakistan, possibly to Tibet to Afghanistan, and southern parts of the USSR in the north...
September 2017: Indian Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978319/acute-undifferentiated-fever-in-india-a-multicentre-study-of-aetiology-and-diagnostic-accuracy
#8
Kristine Mørch, Anand Manoharan, Sara Chandy, Novin Chacko, Gerardo Alvarez-Uria, Suvarna Patil, Anil Henry, Joel Nesaraj, Cijoy Kuriakose, Ashita Singh, Siby Kurian, Christel Gill Haanshuus, Nina Langeland, Bjørn Blomberg, George Vasanthan Antony, Dilip Mathai
BACKGROUND: The objectives of this study were to determine the proportion of malaria, bacteraemia, scrub typhus, leptospirosis, chikungunya and dengue among hospitalized patients with acute undifferentiated fever in India, and to describe the performance of standard diagnostic methods. METHODS: During April 2011-November 2012, 1564 patients aged ≥5 years with febrile illness for 2-14 days were consecutively included in an observational study at seven community hospitals in six states in India...
October 4, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969659/co-trimoxazole-versus-azithromycin-for-the-treatment-of-undifferentiated-febrile-illness-in-nepal-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#9
Sunil Pokharel, Buddha Basnyat, Amit Arjyal, Saruna Pathak Mahat, Raj Kumar Kc, Abhusani Bhuju, Buddhi Poudyal, Evelyne Kestelyn, Ritu Shrestha, Dung Nguyen Thi Phuong, Rajkumar Thapa, Manan Karki, Sabina Dongol, Abhilasha Karkey, Marcel Wolbers, Stephen Baker, Guy Thwaites
BACKGROUND: Undifferentiated febrile illness (UFI) includes typhoid and typhus fevers and generally designates fever without any localizing signs. UFI is a great therapeutic challenge in countries like Nepal because of the lack of available point-of-care, rapid diagnostic tests. Often patients are empirically treated as presumed enteric fever. Due to the development of high-level resistance to traditionally used fluoroquinolones against enteric fever, azithromycin is now commonly used to treat enteric fever/UFI...
October 2, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969232/scrub-typhus-in-a-new-born
#10
Mamta Jajoo, Dipti Kumar, Sameeksha Manchanda
Scrub typhus is an acute febrile mite-born rickettsial infection caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi (formely called Rickettsiatsutsugamushi). This infection is very uncommon in neonates. We report a case of 19-day-old newborn presenting with clinical features mimicking severe sepsis but was subsequently diagnosed with primary scrub typhus infection. The timely treatment resulted in dramatic response and complete recovery.
August 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969124/improving-the-diagnosis-of-scrub-typhus-by-combining-groel-based-polymerase-chain-reaction-and-igm-elisa
#11
Karthikeyan Anitha Patricia, Sugeerappa Laxmanappa Hoti, Reba Kanungo, Purushothaman Jambulingam, Nair Shashikala, Ashok C Naik
INTRODUCTION: Scrub typhus, an acute febrile illness, caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi, is an important cause of pyrexia of unknown origin in regions of endemicity. This disease is mostly underdiagnosed or misdiagnosed, the reasons for this being a combination of factors which include clinical manifestations that can mimic other infections, lack of easy and reliable diagnostic methods and variation among strains in endemic areas. Hence, easy and reliable methods of diagnosis will contribute to rapid identification and treatment of the infection...
August 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945755/estimating-the-burden-of-scrub-typhus-a-systematic-review
#12
REVIEW
Ana Bonell, Yoel Lubell, Paul N Newton, John A Crump, Daniel H Paris
BACKGROUND: Scrub typhus is a vector-borne zoonotic disease that can be life-threatening. There are no licensed vaccines, or vector control efforts in place. Despite increasing awareness in endemic regions, the public health burden and global distribution of scrub typhus remains poorly known. METHODS: We systematically reviewed all literature from public health records, fever studies and reports available on the Ovid MEDLINE, Embase Classic + Embase and EconLit databases, to estimate the burden of scrub typhus since the year 2000...
September 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934071/prevalence-and-phylogenetic-analysis-of-orientia-tsutsugamushi-in-rodents-and-mites-from-central-india
#13
Ruchi Bhate, Nilesh Pansare, Sandeep P Chaudhari, Sukhadeo B Barbuddhe, Vijay K Choudhary, Nitin V Kurkure, Sunil W Kolte
Orientia tsutsugamushi, the causative agent of scrub typhus in humans, is an obligate intracytosolic bacterium transmitted among animals and to humans by some species of larval trombiculid mites (chiggers) and is hosted mainly by rodents. In this study, we attempted detection of O. tsutsugamushi from blood and tissue samples of rodents trapped from different locations in Central India using PCR targeting the 56 kDa outer membrane protein gene and the 47 kDa high temperature transmembrane protein gene. A total of 59 rodent samples comprising 38 of blood collected from domestic and public surroundings and 21 of tissue from agricultural farm were included in this study...
September 21, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928300/zoonotic-surveillance-for-rickettsiae-in-rodents-and-mapping-of-vectors-of-rickettsial-diseases-in-india-a-multi-centric-study
#14
Rina Tilak, Rajesh Kunwar, P K Tyagi, Anurag Khera, R K Joshi, Urmila B Wankhade
BACKGROUND: The global resurgence of rickettsial diseases and their potential to impact the fitness of military personnel and inflict widespread casualties amongst civil populations has emerged as a major cause of public health concern. Absence of surveillance system, lack of awareness amongst medical fraternity to rickettsial activity along with the difficulty in diagnosis because of their protean clinical manifestations are reasons for the outbreaks of these diseases. OBJECTIVES: To determine rickettsial activity amongst rodents and study vector diversity, abundance and their distribution to enable mapping of rickettsial hotspots...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892515/strong-interferon-gamma-mediated-cellular-immunity-to-scrub-typhus-demonstrated-using-a-novel-whole-cell-antigen-elispot-assay-in-rhesus-macaques-and-humans
#15
Manutsanun Sumonwiriya, Daniel H Paris, Piyanate Sunyakumthorn, Tippawan Anantatat, Kemajittra Jenjaroen, Suchintana Chumseng, Rawiwan Im-Erbsin, Ampai Tanganuchitcharnchai, Suthatip Jintaworn, Stuart D Blacksell, Fazle R Chowdhury, Barbara Kronsteiner, Prapit Teparrukkul, Robin L Burke, Eric D Lombardini, Allen L Richards, Carl J Mason, James W Jones, Nicholas P J Day, Susanna J Dunachie
Scrub typhus is a febrile infection caused by the obligate intracellular bacterium Orientia tsutsugamushi, which causes significant morbidity and mortality across the Asia-Pacific region. The control of this vector-borne disease is challenging due to humans being dead-end hosts, vertical maintenance of the pathogen in the vector itself, and a potentially large rodent reservoir of unclear significance, coupled with a lack of accurate diagnostic tests. Development of an effective vaccine is highly desirable. This however requires better characterization of the natural immune response of this neglected but important disease...
September 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890912/typhoid-and-scrub-typhus-coinfection-in-a-returned-traveler
#16
Christopher Wen-Xing Seow, Veena Logarajah, Natalie Woon Hui Tan
This is a case report of a 12-year-old returned traveler with typhoid and scrub typhus coinfection. The diagnosis of typhoid was made early with blood cultures and Widal Weil Felix serology. Persistent fever despite appropriate antibiotics for typhoid fever prompted a search for concomitant infection, which led to the diagnosis of scrub typhus confirmed by Orientia tsutsugamushi serology. The patient was given doxycycline with good clinical response. Scrub typhus infection should be an early consideration in the differential diagnoses of fever in a returned traveler from regions where it is endemic...
2017: Global Pediatric Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885357/comparative-effectiveness-of-azithromycin-for-treating-scrub-typhus-a-prisma-compliant-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#17
REVIEW
Szu-Chia Lee, Yu-Jyun Cheng, Chao-Hsu Lin, Wei-Te Lei, Hung-Yang Chang, Ming-Dar Lee, Jui-Ming Liu, Ren-Jun Hsu, Nan-Chang Chiu, Hsin Chi, Chun-Chih Peng, Te-Lung Tsai, Chien-Yu Lin
BACKGROUND: Scrub typhus is a zoonotic disease that remains an important health threat in endemic areas. Appropriate anti-rickettsial treatment ensures a successful recovery. Doxycycline is a recommended drug, but it is contraindicated in pregnant women and young children. Azithromycin is a safer alternative drug, but its effectiveness remains largely unclear. Herein, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the effectiveness of azithromycin. METHODS: Studies that investigated azithromycin in treating scrub typhus were systematically identified from electronic databases up to December 2016...
September 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878522/validation-of-geno-sen-s-scrub-typhus-real-time-polymerase-chain-reaction-kit-by-its-comparison-with-a-serological-elisa-test
#18
Velmurugan Anitharaj, Selvaraj Stephen, Jothimani Pradeep, Pratheesh Pooja, Sridharan Preethi
BACKGROUND: In the recent past, scrub typhus (ST) has been reported from different parts of India, based on Weil-Felix/enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)/indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA). Molecular tests are applied only by a few researchers. AIMS: Evaluation of a new commercial real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) kit for molecular diagnosis of ST by comparing it with the commonly used IgM ELISA is our aim. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: ST has been reported all over India including Puducherry and surrounding Tamil Nadu and identified as endemic for ST...
July 2017: Journal of Global Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854805/two-mice-models-for-transferability-of-zoonotic-bacteria-via-tick-vector
#19
B Sallay, T Vaculová, M Derdáková, V Rusňáková Tarageľová, E Špitalská, Ľ Škultéty
Spotted fever and typhus-related diseases caused by rickettsiae, Lyme borreliosis induced by spirochetes from Borrelia burgdorferii sensu lato complex, and Q fever evoked by Coxiella burnetii, are important zoonoses occurring worldwide. In order to study the pathogenesis of these infections, the efficacy of vaccines from the perspective of protection against the pathogens, pathogen - pathogen interactions during co-infections or pathogen-vector-host interrelationship, a suitable animal model should be established...
2017: Acta Virologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833968/endoscopic-characteristics-of-infection-associated-peptic-ulcers
#20
Seong-Hyung Choi, Dong-Min Kim, Jun Lee, Na Ra Yun
BACKGROUND: Aside from Helicobacter pylori, another cause for the development or worsening of gastrointestinal ulcers is scrub typhus, an acute febrile disease caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi. We aimed to compare the endoscopic characteristics of peptic ulcers caused by these infectious agents. METHODS: This retrospective case-control study involved patients who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy at Chosun University Hospital in Korea. We compared endoscopic features and demographic characteristics between patients with H...
August 18, 2017: Helicobacter
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