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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322701/typhus-group-rickettsiosis-texas-usa-2003-2013
#1
Kristy O Murray, Nicole Evert, Bonny Mayes, Eric Fonken, Timothy Erickson, Melissa N Garcia, Tom Sidwa
We characterized the epidemiology of typhus group rickettsiosis in Texas, USA. During 2003-2013, a total of 1,762 cases were reported to the state health department. The number of diagnosed cases and geographic expansion increased over time. Physician awareness is critical to diagnose and effectively treat rickettsial infections.
April 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301394/effects-on-the-anti-abo-titers-of-military-blood-donors-from-a-predeployment-vaccination-program
#2
Olle Berséus
BACKGROUND: The use of blood group O as "universal blood" for emergency whole blood transfusions carries the risk for a hemolytic transfusion reaction mediated by incompatible A-/B-antibodies. This risk can be minimized by assuring that the donor has a low titer of anti-A and anti-B. The level of these naturally occurring antibodies have been shown to be increased by vaccination with most biologically derived vaccines. This boostering effect has been investigated for the new generation of vaccines...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298367/incidence-risk-factors-and-clinical-outcomes-of-acute-kidney-injury-associated-with-scrub-typhus-a-retrospective-study-of-510-consecutive-patients-in-south-korea-2001-2013
#3
Kyungo Hwang, Ha Nee Jang, Tae Won Lee, Hyun Seop Cho, Eunjin Bae, Se-Ho Chang, Dong Jun Park
OBJECTIVES: Renal involvement in scrub typhus ranges from simple urinary abnormalities to acute kidney injury (AKI) leading to death. This study evaluated the incidence, predictors and prognosis of AKI associated with scrub typhus according to the RIFLE (risk, injury, failure, loss, end-stage kidney disease) criteria. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated the medical records of patients diagnosed with scrub typhus from January 2001 to November 2013 in Gyeongsang National University Hospital...
March 15, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291501/lateral-flow-rapid-test-for-accurate-and-early-diagnosis-of-scrub-typhus-a-febrile-illness-of-historically-military-importance-in-the-pacific-rim
#4
Chien-Chung Chao, Zhiwen Zhangm, Giulia Weissenberger, Hua-Wei Chen, Wei-Mei Ching
Scrub typhus (ST) is an infection caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi. Historically, ST was ranked as the second most important arthropod-borne medical problem only behind malaria during World War II and the Vietnam War. The disease occurs mainly in Southeast Asia and has been shown to emerge and reemerge in new areas, implying the increased risk for U.S. military and civilian personnel deployed to these regions. ST can effectively be treated by doxycycline provided the diagnosis is made early, before the development of severe complications...
March 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289147/gfpuv-expressing-recombinant-rickettsia-typhi-a-useful-tool-for-the-study-of-pathogenesis-and-cd8-t-cell-immunology-in-rickettsia-typhi-infection
#5
Matthias Hauptmann, Nicole Burkhardt, Ulrike Munderloh, Svenja Kuehl, Ulricke Richardt, Susanne Krasemann, Kristin Hartmann, Till Krech, Bernhard Fleischer, Christian Keller, Anke Osterloh
Rickettsia (R) typhi is the causative agent of endemic typhus, a disease that occurs wordwide with increasing incidence and can be fatal. Because of its obligate intracellular life style, genetic manipulation of this pathogen is difficult. Nonetheless, in recent years genetic manipulation tools have been successfully applied to rickettsiae. We describe here for the first time the transformation of R. typhi with the pRAM18dRGA plasmid that originally derives from R. amblyommatis and encodes for the expression of GFP(uv) Transformed R...
March 13, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282373/murine-models-of-scrub-typhus-associated-with-host-control-of-orientia-tsutsugamushi-infection
#6
Nicole L Mendell, Donald H Bouyer, David H Walker
BACKGROUND: Scrub typhus, a febrile illness of substantial incidence and mortality, is caused by infection with the obligately intracellular bacterium Orientia tsutsugamushi. It is estimated that there are more than one million cases annually transmitted by the parasitic larval stage of trombiculid mites in the Asia-Pacific region. The antigenic and genetic diversity of the multiple strains of O. tsutsugamushi hinders the advancement of laboratory diagnosis, development of long-lasting vaccine-induced protection, and interpretation of clinical infection...
March 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273989/healthcare-associated-infections-in-a-resource-limited-setting
#7
Chanaveerappa Bammigatti, Saikumar Doradla, Harish Narasimha Belgode, Harichandra Kumar, Rathinam Palamalai Swaminathan
INTRODUCTION: Health Care associated Infections (HAI) are the most common complications affecting the hospitalized patients. HAI are more common in developing and under developed countries. However, there are no systematic surveillance programs in these countries. AIM: To find out the burden, predisposing factors and multidrug resistant organisms causing HAI in a resource limited setting. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective observational study was done at Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research (JIPMER)...
January 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273079/climate-variability-animal-reservoir-and-transmission-of-scrub-typhus-in-southern-china
#8
Yuehong Wei, Yong Huang, Xiaoning Li, Yu Ma, Xia Tao, Xinwei Wu, Zhicong Yang
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to evaluate the relationships between climate variability, animal reservoirs and scrub typhus incidence in Southern China. METHODS: We obtained data on scrub typhus cases in Guangzhou every month from 2006 to 2014 from the Chinese communicable disease network. Time-series Poisson regression models and distributed lag nonlinear models (DLNM) were used to evaluate the relationship between risk factors and scrub typhus. RESULTS: Wavelet analysis found the incidence of scrub typhus cycled with a period of approximately 8-12 months and long-term trends with a period of approximately 24-36 months...
March 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264003/significance-of-major-international-seaports-in-the-distribution-of-murine-typhus-in-taiwan
#9
Chi-Chien Kuo, Nicola Wardrop, Chung-Te Chang, Hsi-Chieh Wang, Peter M Atkinson
BACKGROUND: International seaports are hotspots for disease invasion and pathogens can persist in seaports even after ports are abandoned. Transmitted by fleas infected by Rickettsia typhi, murine typhus, a largely neglected and easily misdiagnosed disease, is known to occur primarily in large seaports. However, the significance of seaports in the occurrence of murine typhus has never been validated quantitatively. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied the spatial distribution of murine typhus, a notifiable disease, in Taiwan...
March 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260341/-study-of-epidemic-area-on-tsutsugamushi-disease-in-taizhou-from-2013-to-2014
#10
Y L He, H Y Yang, C X Yu, X Zhang, Q H Yi, Z L Ma, J Cha, X B Xu, Q Zhang, W J Dai, W J Qian, J Yin, S J Zhu, Z Xu
Objective: To study the epidemiological characteristics of tsutsugamushi disease, and to confirm the existence of the disease's epidemic foci in Taizhou. Methods: From 2013 to 2014, Dongxing town hospital and Xingqiao town hospital were selected as specimen collection sites in Jingjiang city. Blood samples (5 ml) were collected from 40 patients with acute tsutsugamushi disease. A total of 59 rodents were captured with cage night method in the survey sites at 5, 7, 9, 10, and 11 months in 2013, from which, the spleen, liver, and kidney specimens were selected...
March 6, 2017: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259176/molecular-and-serological-evidence-of-flea-associated-typhus-group-and-spotted-fever-group-rickettsial-infections-in-madagascar
#11
Rado J L Rakotonanahary, Alan Harrison, Alice N Maina, Ju Jiang, Allen L Richards, Minoarisoa Rajerison, Sandra Telfer
BACKGROUND: Rickettsiae are obligate intracellular bacteria responsible for many febrile syndromes around the world, including in sub-Saharan Africa. Vectors of these pathogens include ticks, lice, mites and fleas. In order to assess exposure to flea-associated Rickettsia species in Madagascar, human and small mammal samples from an urban and a rural area, and their associated fleas were tested. RESULTS: Anti-typhus group (TGR)- and anti-spotted fever group rickettsiae (SFGR)-specific IgG were detected in 24 (39%) and 21 (34%) of 62 human serum samples, respectively, using indirect ELISAs, with six individuals seropositive for both...
March 4, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256470/molecular-characterization-of-orientia-tsutsugamushi-serotypes-causing-scrub-typhus-outbreak-in-southern-region-of-andhra-pradesh-india
#12
K Usha, E Kumar, Usha Kalawat, B Siddhartha Kumar, A Chaudhury, D V R Sai Gopal
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Scrub typhus is a vector-borne zoonotic infection caused by Orientiatsutsugamushi. Local epidemiology of the circulating serotypes of scrub typhus is not available from most parts of India. We conducted this study for the diagnosis of scrub typhus using IgM ELISA and to detect O. tsutsugamushi serotypes circulating in southern Andhra Pradesh, India. METHODS: Samples were collected from patients clinically suspected to have scrub typhus and were subjected to IgM ELISA to measure IgM antibodies against O...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250620/clinical-score-to-differentiate-scrub-typhus-and-dengue-a-tool-to-differentiate-scrub-typhus-and-dengue
#13
Shubhanker Mitra, Ira Gautam, Mohan Jambugulam, Kundavaram Paul Prabhakar Abhilash, Vishalakshi Jayaseeelan
BACKGROUND: Dengue and scrub typhus share similar clinical and epidemiological features, and are difficult to differentiate at initial presentation. Many places are endemic to both these infections where they comprise the majority of acute undifferentiated febrile illnesses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We aimed to develop a score that can differentiate scrub typhus from dengue. In this cross-sectional study, 188 cases of scrub typhus and 201 cases of dengue infection who presented to the emergency department or medicine outpatient clinic from September 2012 to April 2013 were included...
January 2017: Journal of Global Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248956/diversification-of-orientia-tsutsugamushi-genotypes-by-intragenic-recombination-and-their-potential-expansion-in-endemic-areas
#14
Gwanghun Kim, Na-Young Ha, Chan-Ki Min, Hong-Il Kim, Nguyen Thi Hai Yen, Keun-Hwa Lee, Inbo Oh, Jae-Seung Kang, Myung-Sik Choi, Ik-Sang Kim, Nam-Hyuk Cho
BACKGROUND: Scrub typhus is a mite-borne febrile disease caused by O. tsutsugamushi infection. Recently, emergence of scrub typhus has attracted considerable attention in several endemic countries in Asia and the western Pacific. In addition, the antigenic diversity of the intracellular pathogen has been a serious obstacle for developing effective diagnostics and vaccine. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To understand the evolutionary pathway of genotypic diversification of O...
March 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241043/use-of-eschar-swabbing-for-the-molecular-diagnosis-and-genotyping-of-orientia-tsutsugamushi-causing-scrub-typhus-in-quang-nam-province-vietnam
#15
Nhiem Le Viet, Maureen Laroche, Hoa L Thi Pham, Nho L Viet, Oleg Mediannikov, Didier Raoult, Philippe Parola
BACKGROUND: Scrub typhus is a rickettsiosis which is caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi and occurs throughout the Asia-Pacific region. Molecular diagnosis of rickettsioses using eschar swabs has recently emerged, and may be very useful for the diagnosis of these diseases in tropical settings. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was used to detect O. tsutsugamushi DNA in whole blood and eschar swab specimens of 67 patients who were clinically suspected of scrub typhus in Quang Nam province, Vietnam...
February 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239760/incidence-and-outcome-of-acute-cardiorenal-syndrome-in-hospitalized-children
#16
Vivek Athwani, Maneesha Bhargava, Rahul Chanchlani, Amar Jeet Mehta
OBJECTIVES: To determine the incidence, etiology and outcome of Cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) in hospitalized children. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was carried out in 242 children between 6 mo to 18 y of age hospitalized with primary cardiac, renal or any systemic disorder at a tertiary care center in India. The primary outcome was the development of CRS. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were performed to determine the risk of mortality secondary to CRS...
February 27, 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226202/predictors-of-acute-myocarditis-in-complicated-scrub-typhus-an-endemic-province-in-the-republic-of-korea
#17
Jung Yeon Chin, Ki-Woon Kang, Kyung Min Moon, Jongwoo Kim, Yu Jeong Choi
Background/Aims: Scrub typhus is known as a self-limited infectious disease. Cardiac complication is uncommon and usually not life-threatening. Until now, few cases of fulminant myocarditis by scrub typhus have been reported. So, we investigated incidence and predictors of acute myocarditis in severe scrub typhus. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 89 patients among 91 scrub typhus confirmed patients who examined an echocardiogram and cardiac biomarkers from 2005 to 2015 in the intensive care unit at our hospital...
February 23, 2017: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222146/cytotoxic-effector-functions-of-t-cells-are-not-required-for-protective-immunity-against-fatal-rickettsia-typhi-infection-in-a-murine-model-of-infection-role-of-th1-and-th17-cytokines-in-protection-and-pathology
#18
Kristin Moderzynski, Liza Heine, Jessica Rauch, Stefanie Papp, Svenja Kuehl, Ulricke Richardt, Bernhard Fleischer, Anke Osterloh
Endemic typhus caused by Rickettsia (R.) typhi is an emerging febrile disease that can be fatal due to multiple organ pathology. Here we analyzed the requirements for protection against R. typhi by T cells in the CB17 SCID model of infection. BALB/c wild-type mice generate CD4+ TH1 and cytotoxic CD8+ T cells both of which are sporadically reactivated in persistent infection. Either adoptively transferred CD8+ or CD4+ T cells protected R. typhi-infected CB17 SCID mice from death and provided long-term control...
February 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216718/indian-tick-typhus-presenting-as-purpura-fulminans-with-review-on-rickettsial-infections
#19
REVIEW
Manjunath Hulmani, P Alekya, V Jagannath Kumar
Rickettsial diseases are some of the most covert reemerging infections of the present times. They are generally incapacitating and notoriously difficult to diagnose; untreated cases can have fatality rates as high as 30%-35%, but when diagnosed properly, they are often easily treated but lack of definite diagnostic tools and the hazards of handling these microorganisms aggravate the difficulties of diagnosis and treatment.
January 2017: Indian Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202789/use-of-multiplex-real-time-pcr-to-diagnose-scrub-typhus
#20
Wiwit Tantibhedhyangkul, Ekkarat Wongsawat, Saowaluk Silpasakorn, Duangdao Waywa, Nuttawut Saenyasiri, Jintapa Suesuay, Wilawan Thipmontree, Yupin Suputtamongkol
Scrub typhus, caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi, is a common cause of acute undifferentiated febrile illness in the Asia--Pacific region. However, its non-specific clinical manifestation often prevents early diagnosis. We propose the use of PCR and serologic tests as diagnostic tools. Here, we developed a multiplex real-time PCR assay using hydrolysis (Taqman) probes targeting O. tsutsugamushi47-kDa, groEL, and human IFNB genes to improve early diagnosis of scrub typhus. The amplification efficiency was higher than 94%, and the lower detection limit was 10 copies per reaction...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
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