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MAIT cell

Ornella Sortino, Elizabeth Richards, Joana Dias, Edwin Leeansyah, Johan K Sandberg, Irini Sereti
: Chronic HIV-1 infection is associated with lower frequencies and functional impairment of mucosa-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells. We evaluated IL-7 treatment to restore MAIT cells in peripheral blood of chronically HIV-1-infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy. IL-7 led to increased relative and absolute levels of MAIT cells, and this expansion occurred primarily in the CD8 subset. These results suggest that IL-7 may represent a therapeutic intervention for the restoration of MAIT cells in chronic HIV-1 infection...
March 27, 2018: AIDS
Bianca Braz Mattos, Caroline Montebianco, Elisson Romanel, Tatiane da Franca Silva, Renato Barroso Bernabé, Fernanda Simas-Tosin, Lauro M Souza, Guilherme L Sassaki, Maite F S Vaslin, Eliana Barreto-Bergter
Cladosporium herbarum is a plant pathogen associated with passion fruit scab and mild diseases in pea and soybean. In this study, a peptidogalactomannan (pGM) of C. herbarum mycelium was isolated and structurally characterized, and its role in plant-fungus interactions was evaluated. C. herbarum pGM is composed of carbohydrates (76%) and contains mannose, galactose and glucose as its main monosaccharides (molar ratio, 52:36:12). Methylation and13 C-nuclear magnetic resonance (13 C-NMR) spectroscopy analysis have shown the presence of a main chain containing (1 → 6)-linked α-D-Manp residues, and β-D-Galf residues are present as (1 → 5)-interlinked side chains...
March 2, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Maite Ramírez, Saritza Santos, Osmarie Martínez, Ricardo Rodríguez, Eric Miranda, Willy D Ramos-Perez, Miguel Otero
Poxviruses are complex dsDNA viruses with over 200 genes, many of them with unknown role in the stimulation of immune responses. Among these, the vaccinia virus (VACV) L3L ORF encodes an essential protein for the transcription of the VACV early genes. To the best of our knowledge, the immune response elicited by L3 has not been characterized. In this regard, our data describes a DNA L3-coding plasmid (pL3L) that stimulates both, humoral- and cell-mediated immune responses in a mouse model. Cell-mediated immune responses were measured by IFN-γ and IL-4 ELISPOT assays...
March 7, 2018: Vaccine
Antonin Dréan, Shai Rosenberg, François-Xavier Lejeune, Larissa Goli, Aravindan Arun Nadaradjane, Jérémy Guehennec, Charlotte Schmitt, Maïté Verreault, Franck Bielle, Karima Mokhtari, Sanson Marc, Alexandre Carpentier, Delattre Jean-Yves, Ahmed Idbaih
ATP-binding cassette transporters (ABC transporters) regulate traffic of multiple compounds, including chemotherapeutic agents, through biological membranes. They are expressed by multiple cell types and have been implicated in the drug resistance of some cancer cells. Despite significant research in ABC transporters in the context of many diseases, little is known about their expression and clinical value in glioblastoma (GBM). We analyzed expression of 49 ABC transporters in both commercial and patient-derived GBM cell lines as well as from 51 human GBM tumor biopsies...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Neuro-oncology
Nicholas A Gherardin, Liyen Loh, Lorenztino Admojo, Alexander J Davenport, Kelden Richardson, Amy Rogers, Phillip K Darcy, Misty R Jenkins, H Miles Prince, Simon J Harrison, Hang Quach, David P Fairlie, Katherine Kedzierska, James McCluskey, Adam P Uldrich, Paul J Neeson, David S Ritchie, Dale I Godfrey
Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are T cells that recognise vitamin-B derivative Ag presented by the MHC-related-protein 1 (MR1) antigen-presenting molecule. While MAIT cells are highly abundant in humans, their role in tumour immunity remains unknown. Here we have analysed the frequency and function of MAIT cells in multiple myeloma (MM) patients. We show that MAIT cell frequency in blood is reduced compared to healthy adult donors, but comparable to elderly healthy control donors. Furthermore, there was no evidence that MAIT cells accumulated at the disease site (bone marrow) of these patients...
March 7, 2018: Scientific Reports
Eric Jesteadt, Irma Zhang, Huifeng Yu, Anda Meierovics, Wei-Jen Chua Yankelevich, Siobhan Cowley
Mucosa-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are an innate T cell subset that expresses a semi-invariant Vα chain paired with limited Vβ chains. MAIT cells are activated by riboflavin metabolite derivatives presented by MR1. The precise mechanisms required to activate MAIT cells are an area of intense interest. Here we used two closely related intracellular pathogens with distinct inflammasome activation phenotypes to probe the role of innate cytokines in MAIT cell activation. Using an in vitro assay containing transgenic murine MAIT cells, we show that macrophages infected with Francisella novicida , a strong inflammasome activator, released high levels of IL-18 and stimulated high levels of MAIT cell IFN-γ through a partially MR1-independent pathway...
March 5, 2018: Infection and Immunity
Oihane K Arriortua, Maite Insausti, Luis Lezama, Izaskun Gil de Muro, Eneko Garaio, Jesus Martínez de la Fuente, Raluca M Fratila, Maria P Morales, Rocío Costa, Maite Eceiza, Maialen Sagartzazu-Aizpurua, Jesus M Aizpurua
To improve the selectivity of magnetic nanoparticles for tumor treatment by hyperthermia, Fe3 O4 nanoparticles have been functionalized with a peptide of the type arginine-glycine-aspartate (RGD) following a "click" chemistry approach. The RGD peptide was linked onto the previously coated nanoparticles in order to target αv β3 integrin receptors over-expressed in angiogenic cancer cells. Different coatings have been analyzed to enhance the biocompatibility of magnetic nanoparticles. Monodispersed and homogeneous magnetite nanoparticles have been synthesized by the seed growth method and have been characterized using X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and magnetic measurements...
February 15, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Inés Luis de Redín, Carolina Boiero, María Cristina Martínez-Ohárriz, Maite Agüeros, Rocío Ramos, Iván Peñuelas, Daniel Allemandi, Juan M Llabot, Juan M Irache
Bevacizumab-loaded nanoparticles (B-NP) were prepared by a desolvation process followed by freeze-drying, without any chemical, physical or enzymatic cross-linkage. Compared with typical HSA nanoparticles cross-linked with glutaraldehyde (B-NP-GLU), B-NP displayed a significantly higher mean size (310 nm vs. 180 nm) and a lower negative zeta potential (-15 mV vs. -36 mV). On the contrary, B-NP displayed a high payload of approximately 13% when measured by a specific ELISA, whereas B-NP-GLU presented a very low bevacizumab loading (0...
February 23, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Li Li, Pieter C van Breugel, Fabricio Loayza-Puch, Alejandro Pineiro Ugalde, Gozde Korkmaz, Naama Messika-Gold, Ruiqi Han, Rui Lopes, Eric P Barbera, Hans Teunissen, Elzo de Wit, Ricardo J Soares, Boye S Nielsen, Kim Holmstrøm, Dannys J Martínez-Herrera, Maite Huarte, Annita Louloupi, Jarno Drost, Ran Elkon, Reuven Agami
Oncogene-induced senescence (OIS), provoked in response to oncogenic activation, is considered an important tumor suppressor mechanism. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are transcripts longer than 200 nt without a protein-coding capacity. Functional studies showed that deregulated lncRNA expression promote tumorigenesis and metastasis and that lncRNAs may exhibit tumor-suppressive and oncogenic function. Here, we first identified lncRNAs that were differentially expressed between senescent and non-senescent human fibroblast cells...
February 22, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Vaea Richard, Maite Aubry
Experimental studies on Zika virus (ZIKV) may require improvement of infectious titers in viral stocks obtained by cell culture amplification. We highlight here the use of centrifugal filter devices to increase infectious titers of ZIKV from cell-culture supernatants. A mean gain of 2.33 ± 0.12 log10 DICT50 /mL was easily and rapidly obtained with this process. This efficient method of ultrafiltration may be applied to other viruses and be useful in various experimental studies requiring high viral titers...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Virological Methods
Fabian J Bolte, Barbara Rehermann
The broadening field of microbiome research has led to a substantial reappraisal of the gut-liver axis and its role in chronic liver disease. The liver is a central immunologic organ that is continuously exposed to food and microbial-derived antigens from the gastrointestinal tract. Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are enriched in the human liver and can be activated by inflammatory cytokines and microbial antigens. In chronic inflammatory liver disease, MAIT cells are depleted suggesting an impaired MAIT cell-dependent protection against bacterial infections...
February 2018: Seminars in Liver Disease
S M Mansour Haeryfar, Christopher R Shaler, Patrick T Rudak
Mucosa-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are a subset of innate-like T lymphocytes known for their ability to respond to MHC-related protein 1 (MR1)-restricted stimuli and select cytokine signals. They are abundant in humans and especially enriched in mucosal layers, common sites of neoplastic transformation. MAIT cells have been found within primary and metastatic tumors. However, whether they promote malignancy or contribute to anticancer immunity is unclear. On the one hand, MAIT cells produce IL-17A in certain locations and under certain circumstances, which could in turn facilitate neoangiogenesis, intratumoral accumulation of immunosuppressive cell populations, and cancer progression...
February 22, 2018: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
Chang Hoon Lee, Hongwei H Zhang, Satya P Singh, Lily Koo, Juraj Kabat, Hsinyi Tsang, Tej Pratap Singh, Joshua M Farber
Many mediators and regulators of extravasation by bona fide human memory-phenotype T cells remain undefined. Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are innate-like, anti-bacterial cells that we found excelled at crossing inflamed endothelium. They displayed abundant selectin ligands, with high expression of FUT7 and ST3GAL4 , and expressed CCR6, CCR5, and CCR2, which played non-redundant roles in trafficking on activated endothelial cells. MAIT cells selectively expressed CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein delta (C/EBPδ)...
February 22, 2018: ELife
Erin W Meermeier, Melanie J Harriff, Elham Karamooz, David M Lewinsohn
Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells, the most abundant T cell subset in humans, are increasingly being recognized for their importance in microbial immunity. MAIT cells accumulate in almost every mucosal tissue examined, including the lung, liver, and intestinal tract, where they can be activated through T cell receptor (TCR) triggering as well as cytokine stimulation in response to a host of microbial products. In this review, we specifically discuss MAIT cell responses to bacterial and fungal infections, with a focus on responses that are both MR1-dependent and -independent, the evidence for diversity in MAIT TCR usage in response to discrete microbial products, protective immunity induced by MAIT cells, and MAIT cell antimicrobial functions in the context of these infections...
February 16, 2018: Immunology and Cell Biology
Nicholas A Gherardin, Michael N T Souter, Hui-Fern Koay, Kirstie M Mangas, Torsten Seemann, Timothy P Stinear, Sidonia B G Eckle, Stuart P Berzins, Yves d'Udekem, Igor E Konstantinov, David P Fairlie, David S Ritchie, Paul J Neeson, Daniel G Pellicci, Adam P Uldrich, James McCluskey, Dale I Godfrey
Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells represent up to 10% of circulating human T-cells. They are usually defined using combinations of non-lineage-specific (surrogate) markers such as anti-TRAV1-2, CD161, IL-18Rα and CD26. The development of MR1-Ag tetramers now permits the specific identification of MAIT cells based on TCR specificity. Here, we compare these approaches for identifying MAIT cells and show that surrogate markers are not always accurate in identifying these cells, particularly the CD4 + fraction...
February 13, 2018: Immunology and Cell Biology
Lindomar J C Albuquerque, Alex C Alavarse, Maria C Carlan da Silva, Morgana S Zilse, Maitê T Barth, Ismael C Bellettini, Fernando C Giacomelli
The use of sugar-functionalized polyplexes as a nonviral gene delivery vector with lower cytotoxicity than the well-known polymeric carrier branched polyethyleneimine (BPEI) is investigated. The substitution of primary amine groups in the BPEI chains with lactose residues leads to larger polyplexes, presumably due to the higher amount of polymer required to complete DNA condensation. Nevertheless, the sugar functionalization substantially reduces the cytotoxicity of the assemblies. The nanocomplexes are taken up by the cells to a greater extent, whereas the levels of gene expression are maintained compared to those obtained using BPEI, which is known for its excellent transfection efficiency...
February 2018: Macromolecular Bioscience
Shilpi Chandra, Gerhard Wingender, Jason A Greenbaum, Archana Khurana, Amin M Gholami, Anusha-Preethi Ganesan, Michael Rosenbach, Katy Jaffee, James E Gern, Robert Wood, George O'Connor, Megan Sandel, Meyer Kattan, Leonard Bacharier, Alkis Togias, Anthony A Horner, Mitchell Kronenberg
Humans have populations of innate-like T lymphocytes with an invariant TCR α-chain that recognize nonpeptide Ags, including invariant NKT (iNKT) cells and mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells. iNKT cell involvement in human asthma is controversial, whereas there has been little analysis of MAIT cells. Using peripheral blood cells from 110 participants from the Urban Environment and Childhood Asthma (URECA) birth cohort study, these cells were analyzed for number and function. We determined whether iNKT cell or MAIT cell frequency at 1 y is correlated with the cytokine polarization of mainstream CD4+ T cells and/or the development of asthma by age 7 y...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Xiang Jiang, Min Lian, Yanmei Li, Weici Zhang, Qixia Wang, Yiran Wei, Jun Zhang, Weihua Chen, Xiao Xiao, Qi Miao, Zhaolian Bian, Dekai Qiu, Jingyuan Fang, Aftab A Ansari, Patrick S C Leung, Ross L Coppel, Ruqi Tang, M Eric Gershwin, Xiong Ma
Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are novel innate-like T cells constituting a significant proportion of circulating and hepatic T cells. Herein, we extensively examine the phenotypical and functional alterations of MAIT cells and their regulation in a cohort of 56 patients with Primary Biliary Cholangitis (PBC) and 53 healthy controls (HC). Additionally alterations of MAIT cells were assessed before and after UDCA treatment. Finally the localization of MAIT cell in liver was examined using specific tetramer staining and the underlying mechanisms of these alterations in PBC were explored...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Autoimmunity
Madeleine E Zinser, Andrew J Highton, Ayako Kurioka, Barbara Kronsteiner, Joachim Hagel, Tianqi Leng, Emanuele Marchi, Chansavath Phetsouphanh, Chris B Willberg, Susanna J Dunachie, Paul Klenerman
Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are a well-characterized innate-like T cell population abundant in the human liver, peripheral tissues and blood. MAIT cells serve in the first line of defense against infections, through engagement of their T cell receptor, which recognizes microbial metabolites presented on MR1, and through cytokine-mediated triggering. Typically, they show a quiescent memory phenotype but can undergo rapid up-regulation of effector functions including cytolysis upon stimulation...
February 9, 2018: Immunology and Cell Biology
Roberto Muñoz, Enrique Santamaría, Idoya Rubio, Karina Ausín, Aiora Ostolaza, Alberto Labarga, Miren Roldán, Beatriz Zandio, Sergio Mayor, Rebeca Bermejo, Mónica Mendigaña, María Herrera, Nuria Aymerich, Jorge Olier, Jaime Gállego, Maite Mendioroz, Joaquín Fernández-Irigoyen
Thrombotic material retrieved from acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients represents a valuable source of biological information. In this study, we have developed a clinical proteomics workflow to characterize the protein cargo of thrombi derived from AIS patients. To analyze the thrombus proteome in a large-scale format, we developed a workflow that combines the isolation of thrombus by endovascular thrombectomy and peptide chromatographic fractionation coupled to mass-spectrometry. Using this workflow, we have characterized a specific proteomic expression profile derived from four AIS patients included in this study...
February 7, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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