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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339446/ontogeny-of-human-mucosal-associated-invariant-t-cells-and-related-t-cell-subsets
#1
Ghada Ben Youssef, Marie Tourret, Marion Salou, Liana Ghazarian, Véronique Houdouin, Stanislas Mondot, Yvonne Mburu, Marion Lambert, Saba Azarnoush, Jean-Sébastien Diana, Anne-Laure Virlouvet, Michel Peuchmaur, Thomas Schmitz, Jean-Hugues Dalle, Olivier Lantz, Valérie Biran, Sophie Caillat-Zucman
Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are semi-invariant Vα7.2+ CD161highCD4- T cells that recognize microbial riboflavin precursor derivatives such as 5-OP-RU presented by MR1. Human MAIT cells are abundant in adult blood, but there are very few in cord blood. We longitudinally studied Vα7.2+ CD161high T cell and related subset levels in infancy and after cord blood transplantation. We show that Vα7.2+ and Vα7.2- CD161high T cells are generated early during gestation and likely share a common prenatal developmental program...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328499/mait-cells-are-chronically-activated-in-patients-with-autoimmune-liver-disease-and-promote-pro-fibrogenic-hepatic-stellate-cell-activation
#2
Katrin Böttcher, Krista Rombouts, Francesca Saffioti, Davide Roccarina, Matteo Rosselli, Andrew Hall, TuVinh Luong, Emmanuel A Tsochatzis, Douglas Thorburn, Massimo Pinzani
Autoimmune liver diseases (AILD) are chronic liver pathologies characterised by fibrosis and cirrhosis due to immune-mediated liver damage. In this study, we addressed the question whether mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells, innate-like T cells, are functionally altered in patients with AILD and whether MAIT cells can promote liver fibrosis through activation of hepatic stellate cells. We analysed the phenotype and function of MAIT cells from AILD patients and healthy controls by multi-colour flow cytometry and investigated the interaction between human MAIT cells and primary human hepatic stellate cells (hHSCs)...
January 12, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304309/susceptibility-of-zebrafish-to-vesicular-stomatitis-virus-infection
#3
Jorge Guerra-Varela, Maite Baz-Martínez, Sabela Da Silva-Álvarez, Ana Paula Losada, María Isabel Quiroga, Manuel Collado, Carmen Rivas, Laura Sánchez
The zebrafish, Danio rerio, has become recognized as a valuable model for infectious diseases. Here we evaluated the susceptibility of zebrafish to be infected with the mammalian vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). Both zebrafish cells and embryos were highly susceptible to VSV infection. Mortalities exceeded 80% in infected embryos and were preceded by the invasion of the central nervous system by VSV. Live imaging of the infection with GFP-VSV as well as virus titration from infected fish confirmed the viral replication...
January 5, 2018: Zebrafish
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298833/production-of-il-17-by-mait-cells-is-increased-in-multiple-sclerosis-and-is-associated-with-il-7-receptor-expression
#4
Anne Willing, Jan Jäger, Stefanie Reinhardt, Nina Kursawe, Manuel A Friese
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a T cell-driven inflammatory disease of the CNS. Research on T cell subsets involved in MS pathogenesis has mainly focused on classical CD4+ T cells, especially Th17 cells, as they produce the proinflammatory, MS-associated cytokine IL-17. However, the abundant unconventional mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are also able to produce IL-17. MAIT cells are characterized by high CD161 expression and a semi-invariant Vα7.2 TCR, with which they recognize bacterial and yeast Ags derived from the riboflavin (vitamin B2) metabolism...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277697/characterization-and-gene-expression-analysis-of-pacu-piaractus-mesopotamicus-inducible-nitric-oxide-synthase-inos-following-aeromonas-dhakensis-infection
#5
Mateus M Carriero, Flávio Henrique-Silva, Alexandre Rodrigues Caetano, Francisco Pereira Lobo, Anderson Luis Alves, Eduardo Sousa Varela, Maite Del Collado, Gabriel S A Moreira, Antonio A M Maia
Nitric oxide (NO) is an important effector molecule which is involved in a myriad of biological processes, including immune responses against pathogens such as parasites, virus and bacteria. During the inflammatory processes in vertebrates, NO is produced by the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) enzyme in practically all nucleated cells to suppress or kill intracellular pathogens. The aim of the present study was to characterize the full coding region of the iNOS gene of pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus), an economically and ecologically important South American fish species, and to analyze mRNA expression levels following intraperitoneal infection with the pathogenic bacterium Aeromonas dhakensis by means of quantitative real time PCR (qPCR)...
December 22, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250077/mucosal-associated-invariant-t-cells-in-regenerative-medicine
#6
REVIEW
Hiroshi Wakao, Chie Sugimoto, Shinzo Kimura, Rika Wakao
Although antibiotics to inhibit bacterial growth and small compounds to interfere with the productive life cycle of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have successfully been used to control HIV infection, the recent emergence of the drug-resistant bacteria and viruses poses a serious concern for worldwide public health. Despite intensive scrutiny in developing novel antibiotics and drugs to overcome these problems, there is a dilemma such that once novel antibiotics are launched in markets, sooner or later antibiotic-resistant strains emerge...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247515/intrahepatic-and-peripheral-blood-phenotypes-of-nk-and-t-cells-differential-surface-expression-of-kir-receptors
#7
Ariel Podhorzer, Andrés Machicote, Santiago Belen, Leandro Lauferman, Oscar Imventarza, Silvina Montal, Sebastián Marciano, Omar Galdame, Luis G Podesta, Leonardo Fainboim
Deep characterization of the frequencies, phenotypes and functionalities of liver and peripheral blood NK, NKT and T cells from healthy individuals is an essential step to further interpret changes in liver diseases. These data indicate that CCR7, a chemokine essential for cell migration through lymphoid organs, is almost absent in liver NK and T cells. CD56bright NK cells, which represent half of liver NK cells, showed lower expression of the inhibitory molecule NKG2A and an increased frequency of the activatory marker NKp44...
December 16, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238603/early-proteinuria-response-a-valid-real-life-situation-predictor-of-long-term-lupus-renal-outcome-in-an-ethnically-diverse-group-with-severe-biopsy-proven-nephritis
#8
Michelle R Ugolini-Lopes, Luciana Parente C Seguro, Maitê Xavier F Castro, Danielle Daffre, Alex C Lopes, Eduardo F Borba, Eloisa Bonfá
Objective: Two recent important lupus nephritis trials reported that proteinuria was a good predictor of renal outcome in Caucasians, but data on real-life situation, other races and severe nephritis are lacking to substantiate this finding as a simple test to guide clinical practice. The aim of this study was to validate proteinuria as a predictor of long-term renal outcome in real-life situation in a racially diverse group of patients with severe nephritis. Methods: Proteinuria, serum creatinine (SCr) and urine red blood cells were assessed at baseline and after 3, 6 and 12 months, as early predictors of long-term renal outcome (SCr <1...
2017: Lupus Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237845/human-cytomegalovirus-replication-is-inhibited-by-the-autophagy-inducing-compounds-trehalose-and-smer28-through-distinctively-different-mechanisms
#9
Alex E Clark, Maite Sabalza, Philip L S M Gordts, Deborah H Spector
Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is the top viral cause of birth defects worldwide, and current therapies have high toxicity. We previously published that the mTOR-independent autophagy-inducing disaccharide trehalose inhibits HCMV replication in multiple cell types. Here, we examine the mechanism of inhibition and introduce the autophagy inducer SMER28 as an additional inhibitor of HCMV acting through a different mechanism. We find that trehalose induces vacuolation and acidification of vacuoles, and that debris, including debris consistent in appearance with abnormal virions, is present in multivesicular bodies...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212942/factors-leading-to-the-loss-of-natural-elite-control-of-hiv-1-infection
#10
María Pernas, Laura Tarancón-Diez, Esther Rodríguez-Gallego, Josep Gómez, Julia G Prado, Concepción Casado, Beatriz Dominguez-Molina, Isabel Olivares, Maite Coiras, Agathe León, Carmen Rodriguez, Jose Miguel Benito, Norma Rallón, Montserrat Plana, Onofre Martinez-Madrid, Marta Dapena, Jose Antonio Iribarren, Jorge Del Romero, Felipe García, José Alcamí, M Ángeles Muñoz-Fernández, Francisco Vidal, Manuel Leal, Cecilio Lopez-Galindez, Ezequiel Ruiz-Mateos
HIV-1 elite controllers (EC) maintain undetectable viral load (VL) in the absence of antiretroviral treatment. However, these subjects have heterogeneous clinical outcomes including a proportion loosing HIV-1 control over time. In this work we compared, in a longitudinal design, transient EC, analyzed before and after the loss of virological control, versus persistent EC. The aim was to identify factors leading to the loss of natural virological control of HIV-1-infection with a longitudinal retrospective study design...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211981/mait-cells-a-link-between-gut-integrity-and-type-1-diabetes
#11
Elke Gülden, Noah Palm, Kevan C Herold
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a multifactorial autoimmune disease whose etiology involves complex interactions between the immune system and the intestinal microbiota. Recent studies by Rouxel et al. (2017) suggest that innate-like mucosal-associated invariant T cells (MAIT cells) may link gut integrity, the microbiota, and T1D.
December 5, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203558/seipin-proteins-mediate-lipid-droplet-biogenesis-to-promote-pollen-transmission-and-reduce-seed-dormancy
#12
Marco Taurino, Sara Costantini, Stefania De Domenico, Francesco Stefanelli, Guillermo Ruano, Maria Otilia Delgadillo, Jose J Sanchez-Serrano, Maite Sanmartín, Angelo Santino, Enrique Rojo
Lipid droplets (LDs) are ubiquitous organelles in plant cells, but their physiological roles are largely unknown. To gain insight into the function of LDs in plants, we have characterized the Arabidopsis homologues of SEIPIN proteins, which are crucial factors for LD biogenesis in yeast and animals. SEIPIN1 is expressed almost exclusively in embryos, while SEIPIN2 and SEIPIN3 have broader expression profiles with maximal levels in embryos and pollen, where LDs accumulate most abundantly. Genetic analysis demonstrates that all three SEIPINs contribute to proper LD biogenesis in embryos, whereas in pollen, only SEIPIN2 and SEIPIN3 play a significant role...
December 4, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197761/the-interaction-between-drought-and-elevated-co2-in-water-relations-in-two-grassland-species-is-species-specific
#13
Jon Miranda-Apodaca, Usue Pérez-López, Maite Lacuesta, Amaia Mena-Petite, Alberto Muñoz-Rueda
Climate change can have major consequences for grassland communities since the different species of the community utilize different mechanisms for adaptation to drought and elevated CO2 levels. In addition, contradictory data exist when the combined effects of elevated CO2 and drought are analyzed because the soil water content is not usually similar between CO2 concentrations. Thus, the objectives of this work have been to examine the effect of water stress on plant water relations in two grassland species (Trifolium pratense and Agrostis capillaris), analyzing the possible differences between the two species when soil water content is equal in all treatments, and to elucidate if development under elevated CO2 increases drought tolerance and if so, which are the underlying mechanisms...
November 23, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196148/circulating-il-17-producing-mucosal-associated-invariant-t-cells-mait-are-associated-with-symptoms-in-children-with-asthma
#14
Guillaume Lezmi, Rola Abou Taam, Céline Dietrich, Lucienne Chatenoud, Jacques de Blic, Maria Leite-de-Moraes
IL-17 and mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells have been involved in asthma pathogenesis. However, IL-17-producing MAIT cells (MAIT-17) were not evidenced. We aimed to determine whether circulating MAIT-17 were detectable in children with asthma, and whether they correlated with asthma symptoms or lung function. Children from the SPASM cohort of preschoolers with severe wheeze were reassessed for asthma at school age, and categorized as exacerbators (1 or more severe exacerbations in the previous 12months) or non-exacerbators...
November 28, 2017: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187338/effects-of-interleukin-17a-il-17a-neutralization-on-murine-hepatitis-virus-mhv-a59-infection
#15
José L Aparicio, Macarena Ottobre, Maite Duhalde Vega, Jean-Paul Coutelier, Jacques Van Snick, Lilia A Retegui
Mice infected with mouse hepatitis virus A59 (MHV-A59) develop hepatitis and autoantibodies (autoAb) to liver and kidney fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase (FAH), a fact closely related to the release of alarmins such as uric acid and/or high-mobility group box protein 1 (HMGB1). We studied the effect of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (MAb) against IL-17A in our model of mouse MHV-A59-infection. MAb anti-IL-17F and anti-IFNγ were used to complement the study. Results showed that transaminase levels markedly decreased in MHV-A59-infected mice treated with MAb anti-IL-17A whereas plasmatic Ig concentration sharply increased...
September 1, 2017: European Cytokine Network
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179729/deficiency-of-innate-like-t-lymphocytes-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#16
Mariann Szabó, Veronika Sárosi, Zoltán Balikó, Kornélia Bodó, Nelli Farkas, Tímea Berki, Péter Engelmann
BACKGROUND: Based on the phenotypic and functional characteristics unconventional T-lymphocytes such as invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells and mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells link the innate and adaptive immune responses. Up to now data are scarce about their involvement in pulmonary disorders including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This study explores simultaneously the frequencies of iNKT and MAIT cells in the peripheral blood and sputum of stable and exacerbating COPD patients...
November 28, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176983/mucosal-associated-invariant-t-cells-new-insights-into-antigen-recognition-and-activation
#17
REVIEW
Xingxing Xiao, Jianping Cai
Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells, a novel subpopulation of innate-like T cells that express an invariant T cell receptor (TCR)α chain and a diverse TCRβ chain, can recognize a distinct set of small molecules, vitamin B metabolites, derived from some bacteria, fungi but not viruses, in the context of an evolutionarily conserved major histocompatibility complex-related molecule 1 (MR1). This implies that MAIT cells may play unique and important roles in host immunity. Although viral antigens are not recognized by this limited TCR repertoire, MAIT cells are known to be activated in a TCR-independent mechanism during some viral infections, such as hepatitis C virus and influenza virus...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167178/mait-cells-a-novel-therapeutic-target-for-alcoholic-liver-disease
#18
EDITORIAL
Bin Gao, Jing Ma, Xiaogang Xiang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 22, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144503/mait-cells-in-type-1-diabetes-a-good-friend-turned-bad
#19
Lina Petersone, Lucy S K Walker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 16, 2017: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119385/intestinal-permeabiliy-in-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis
#20
REVIEW
M C Buscarinu, S Romano, R Mechelli, R Pizzolato Umeton, M Ferraldeschi, A Fornasiero, R Reniè, B Cerasoli, E Morena, C Romano, N D Loizzo, R Umeton, M Salvetti, G Ristori
Changes of intestinal permeability (IP) have been extensively investigated in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and celiac disease (CD), underpinned by a known unbalance between microbiota, IP and immune responses in the gut. Recently the influence of IP on brain function has greatly been appreciated. Previous works showed an increased IP that preceded experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis development and worsened during disease with disruption of TJ. Moreover, studying co-morbidity between Crohn's disease and MS, a report described increased IP in a minority of cases with MS...
November 8, 2017: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
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