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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633893/genes-encoding-cuticular-proteins-are-components-of-the-nimrod-gene-cluster-in-drosophila
#1
Gyöngyi Cinege, János Zsámboki, Maite Vidal-Quadras, Anne Uv, Gábor Csordás, Viktor Honti, Erika Gábor, Zoltán Hegedűs, Gergely I B Varga, Attila L Kovács, Gábor Juhász, Michael J Williams, István Andó, Éva Kurucz
The Nimrod gene cluster, located on the second chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster, is the largest synthenic unit of the Drosophila genome. Nimrod genes show blood cell specific expression and code for phagocytosis receptors that play a major role in fruit fly innate immune functions. We previously identified three homologous genes (vajk-1, vajk-2 and vajk-3) located within the Nimrod cluster, which are unrelated to the Nimrod genes, but are homologous to a fourth gene (vajk-4) located outside the cluster...
June 17, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632753/mait-cells-launch-a-rapid-robust-and-distinct-hyperinflammatory-response-to-bacterial-superantigens-and-quickly-acquire-an-anergic-phenotype-that-impedes-their-cognate-antimicrobial-function-defining-a-novel-mechanism-of-superantigen-induced-immunopathology
#2
Christopher R Shaler, Joshua Choi, Patrick T Rudak, Arash Memarnejadian, Peter A Szabo, Mauro E Tun-Abraham, Jamie Rossjohn, Alexandra J Corbett, James McCluskey, John K McCormick, Olivier Lantz, Roberto Hernandez-Alejandro, S M Mansour Haeryfar
Superantigens (SAgs) are potent exotoxins secreted by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes. They target a large fraction of T cell pools to set in motion a "cytokine storm" with severe and sometimes life-threatening consequences typically encountered in toxic shock syndrome (TSS). Given the rapidity with which TSS develops, designing timely and truly targeted therapies for this syndrome requires identification of key mediators of the cytokine storm's initial wave. Equally important, early host responses to SAgs can be accompanied or followed by a state of immunosuppression, which in turn jeopardizes the host's ability to combat and clear infections...
June 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630305/multiple-layers-of-heterogeneity-and-subset-diversity-in-human-mait-cell-responses-to-distinct-microorganisms-and-to-innate-cytokines
#3
Joana Dias, Edwin Leeansyah, Johan K Sandberg
Mucosa-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are a large innate-like T-cell subset in humans defined by invariant TCR Vα7.2 use and expression of CD161. MAIT cells recognize microbial riboflavin metabolites of bacterial or fungal origin presented by the monomorphic MR1 molecule. The extraordinary level of evolutionary conservation of MR1 and the limited known diversity of riboflavin metabolite antigens have suggested that MAIT cells are relatively homogeneous and uniform in responses against diverse microbes carrying the riboflavin biosynthesis pathway...
June 19, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617821/supplementation-with-small-extracellular-vesicles-from-ovarian-follicular-fluid-during-in-vitro-production-modulates-bovine-embryo-development
#4
Juliano C da Silveira, Gabriella M Andrade, Maite Del Collado, Rafael V Sampaio, Juliano R Sangalli, Luciano A Silva, Fábio V L Pinaffi, Izabelle B Jardim, Marcelo C Cesar, Marcelo F G Nogueira, Aline S M Cesar, Luiz L Coutinho, Rinaldo W Pereira, Felipe Perecin, Flávio V Meirelles
Pregnancy success results from the interaction of multiple factors, among them are folliculogenesis and early embryonic development. Failure during these different processes can lead to difficulties in conception. Alternatives to overcome these problems are based on assisted reproductive techniques. Extracellular vesicles are cell-secreted vesicles present in different body fluids and contain bioactive materials, such as messenger RNA, microRNAs (miRNAs), and proteins. Thus, our hypothesis is that extracellular vesicles from follicular fluid from 3-6 mm ovarian follicles can modulate bovine embryo development in vitro...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606013/decrease-of-cd69-levels-on-tcr-v%C3%AE-7-2-cd4-innate-like-lymphocytes-is-associated-with-impaired-cytotoxic-functions-in-chronic-hepatitis-b-virus-infected-patients
#5
Yean K Yong, Hong Y Tan, Alireza Saeidi, Mohamed Rosmawati, Nadia Atiya, Abdul W Ansari, Jayakumar Rajarajeswaran, Jamuna Vadivelu, Vijayakumar Velu, Marie Larsson, Esaki M Shankar
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major cause of chronic liver disease that may progress to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Host immune responses represent the key determinants of HBV clearance or persistence. Here, we investigated the role of the early activation marker, CD69 and effector cytokines, granzyme B (GrB) and IFN-γ in the exhaustion of innate-like TCR Vα7.2(+)CD4(+)T cells, in 15 individuals with chronic HBV (CHB) infection where six were HBV DNA(+) and nine were HBV DNA(-)...
January 1, 2017: Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603028/targeting-of-p32-in-peritoneal-carcinomatosis-with-intraperitoneal-lintt1-peptide-guided-pro-apoptotic-nanoparticles
#6
Hedi Hunt, Lorena Simón-Gracia, Allan Tobi, Venkata Ramana Kotamraju, Shweta Sharma, Mait Nigul, Kazuki N Sugahara, Erkki Ruoslahti, Tambet Teesalu
Gastrointestinal and gynecological malignancies disseminate in the peritoneal cavity - a condition known as peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC). Intraperitoneal (IP) administration can be used to improve therapeutic index of anticancer drugs used for PC treatment. Activity of IP anticancer drugs can be further potentiated by encapsulation in nanocarriers and/or affinity targeting with tumor-specific affinity ligands, such as tumor homing peptides. Here we evaluated a novel tumor penetrating peptide, linTT1 (AKRGARSTA), as a PC targeting ligand for nanoparticles...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583412/the-embryonic-development-of-hindbrain-respiratory-networks-is-unaffected-by-mutation-of-the-planar-polarity-protein-scribble
#7
Marc Chevalier, Laura Cardoit, Maïté Moreau, Nathalie Sans, John Simmers, Muriel Thoby-Brisson
The central command for breathing arises mainly from two interconnected rhythmogenic hindbrain networks, the parafacial respiratory group (pFRG or epF at embryonic stages) and the preBötzinger complex (preBötC), which are comprised of a limited number of neurons located in confined regions of the ventral medulla. In rodents, both networks become active towards the end of gestation but little is known about the signaling pathways involved in their anatomical and functional establishment during embryogenesis...
June 2, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579958/exploring-pharmacological-mechanisms-of-lavender-lavandula-angustifolia-essential-oil-on-central-nervous-system-targets
#8
Víctor López, Birgitte Nielsen, Maite Solas, Maria J Ramírez, Anna K Jäger
Lavender essential oil is traditionally used and approved by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) as herbal medicine to relieve stress and anxiety. Some animal and clinical studies reveal positive results in models of anxiety and depression although very little research has been done on molecular mechanisms. Our work consisted of evaluating the effects of lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) essential oil on central nervous system well-established targets, such as MAO-A, SERT, GABAAand NMDA receptors as well as in vitro models of neurotoxicity...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572619/fatty-acid-binding-protein-3-and-transzonal-projections-are-involved-in-lipid-accumulation-during-in-vitro-maturation-of-bovine-oocytes
#9
Maite Del Collado, Juliano Coelho da Silveira, Juliano Rodrigues Sangalli, Gabriella Mamede Andrade, Letícia Rabello da Silva Sousa, Luciano Andrade Silva, Flavio Vieira Meirelles, Felipe Perecin
Oocytes that undergo in vitro maturation (IVM) are metabolically abnormal and accumulate excess lipid content. However, the mechanism of lipid accumulation and the role of cumulus cells in this process are unclear. Recently, it was shown that fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) performed intra- and extracellular fatty acid transport. We postulated that FABP3 might be responsible for fatty acid transport from cumulus cells to the oocytes via transzonal projections (TZPs) during IVM. Transcript and protein levels of FABP3 were analyzed in both in vivo- and in vitro-matured cumulus-oocyte-complexes and were increased in IVM samples...
June 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566883/thiopurine-use-associated-with-reduced-b-and-natural-killer-cells-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#10
James D Lord, Donna M Shows
AIM: To identify which blood and mucosal lymphocyte populations are specifically depleted by thiopurine use in vivo. METHODS: The thiopurines azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine have been a mainstay of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) therapy for decades, but their mechanism of action in vivo remains obscure. Although thiopurines are lymphotoxic at high doses, and have been reported to cause T cell apoptosis in vitro, their ability to control IBD at lower doses suggests that they may selectively deplete particular lymphocyte populations...
May 14, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548080/discovery-of-first-in-class-reversible-dual-small-molecule-inhibitors-against-g9a-and-dnmts-in-hematological-malignancies
#11
Edurne San José-Enériz, Xabier Agirre, Obdulia Rabal, Amaia Vilas-Zornoza, Juan A Sanchez-Arias, Estibaliz Miranda, Ana Ugarte, Sergio Roa, Bruno Paiva, Ander Estella-Hermoso de Mendoza, Rosa María Alvarez, Noelia Casares, Victor Segura, José I Martín-Subero, François-Xavier Ogi, Pierre Soule, Clara M Santiveri, Ramón Campos-Olivas, Giancarlo Castellano, Maite Garcia Fernandez de Barrena, Juan Roberto Rodriguez-Madoz, Maria José García-Barchino, Juan Jose Lasarte, Matias A Avila, Jose Angel Martinez-Climent, Julen Oyarzabal, Felipe Prosper
The indisputable role of epigenetics in cancer and the fact that epigenetic alterations can be reversed have favoured development of epigenetic drugs. In this study, we design and synthesize potent novel, selective and reversible chemical probes that simultaneously inhibit the G9a and DNMTs methyltransferase activity. In vitro treatment of haematological neoplasia (acute myeloid leukaemia-AML, acute lymphoblastic leukaemia-ALL and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma-DLBCL) with the lead compound CM-272, inhibits cell proliferation and promotes apoptosis, inducing interferon-stimulated genes and immunogenic cell death...
May 26, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528702/detailed-characterization-of-mesenchymal-stem-stromal-cells-from-a-large-cohort-of-aml-patients-demonstrates-a-definitive-link-to-treatment-outcomes
#12
Rafael Diaz de la Guardia, Belen Lopez-Millan, Jessie R Lavoie, Clara Bueno, Julio Castaño, Maite Gómez-Casares, Susana Vives, Laura Palomo, Manel Juan, Julio Delgado, Maria L Blanco, Josep Nomdedeu, Alberto Chaparro, Jose Luis Fuster, Eduardo Anguita, Michael Rosu-Myles, Pablo Menéndez
Bone marrow mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (BM-MSCs) are key components of the hematopoietic niche thought to have a direct role in leukemia pathogenesis. BM-MSCs from patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) have been poorly characterized due to disease heterogeneity. We report a functional, genetic, and immunological characterization of BM-MSC cultures from 46 AML patients, stratified by molecular/cytogenetics into low-risk (LR), intermediate-risk (IR), and high-risk (HR) subgroups. Stable MSC cultures were successfully established and characterized from 40 of 46 AML patients irrespective of the risk subgroup...
June 6, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526582/mait-cells-a-tailor-made-mate-in-the-ancient-battle-against-infectious-diseases
#13
REVIEW
Marcela de Lima Moreira, Moriya Tsuji, Alexandra Jane Corbett, Márcio Sobreira Silva Araújo, Andréa Teixeira-Carvalho, Olindo Assis Martins-Filho, Vanessa Peruhype-Magalhães, Jordana Grazziela Coelho-Dos-Reis
It has been almost two decades since the discovery of mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT)-cells. Several advances in the field have been made such as the discovery of the antimicrobial activity of MAIT-cells, the abundance of these cells in human mucosa and in liver and the discovery of ligands able to bind MR1 and activate MAIT-cells. MAIT-cells are a unique subset of innate-like T-cells that express a canonical T-cell receptor with the alpha chain containing hAV7S2 and AJ33 in humans (TCRVα7.2Jα33) and respond to bacterial/fungus vitamin B2 metabolites by an MR1-dependent pathway...
May 16, 2017: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518215/the-tlr9-signaling-pathway-regulates-mr1-mediated-bacterial-antigen-presentation-in-b-cells
#14
Jianyun Liu, Randy R Brutkiewicz
Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are conserved T cells that express a semi-invariant TCR (Vα7.2 in humans and Vα19 in mice). The development of MAIT cells requires the antigen (Ag) presenting MHC-related protein 1 (MR1), as well as commensal bacteria. The mechanisms that regulate the functional expression of MR1 molecules and their loading with bacterial Ag in APCs are largely unknown. We have found that treating B cells with the TLR9 agonist CpG increases MR1 surface expression. Interestingly, activation of TLR9 by CpG-A (but not CpG-B) enhances MR1 surface expression...
May 18, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513074/%C3%AE-myrtoxin-mp1a-is-a-helical-heterodimer-from-the-venom-of-the-jack-jumper-ant-with-antimicrobial-membrane-disrupting-and-nociceptive-activities
#15
Zoltan Dekan, Stephen J Heady, Martin Scanlon, Brian A Baldo, Tzong-Hsien Lee, Marie-Isabel Aguilar, Jennifer R Deuis, Irina Vetter, Alysha G Elliott, Maite Amado, Matthew A Cooper, Dianne Alewood, Paul Francis Alewood
Δ-Myrtoxin-Mp1a (Mp1a), a 49-residue heterodimeric peptide from the venom of Myrmecia pilosula is comprised of a 26-mer A chain and a 23-mer B chain connected by two disulfide bonds in an antiparallel arrangement. Combination of the individual synthetic chains via aerial oxidation remarkably resulted in the self-assembly of Mp1a as a homogenous product without the need for directed disulfide bond formation. NMR analysis revealed a well-defined, unique structure containing a pair of antiparallel α-helices...
May 17, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494326/mait-cells-and-mr1-antigen-recognition
#16
REVIEW
Andrew N Keller, Alexandra J Corbett, Jacinta M Wubben, James McCluskey, Jamie Rossjohn
Mucosal-associated invariant T cells (MAIT cells) are innate-like T cells that recognise antigens presented by the monomorphic MHC-I related molecule, MR1. Distinct from the conventional MHC-restricted T cell system, MR1 presents small-molecule precursors, derived from microbial biosynthesis of riboflavin, to activate the innate MAIT cell effector potential. Recent data demonstrates how: vitamin B precursors modulate intracellular trafficking of MR1 and impact on MAIT cell development; variation in the MAIT cell antigen receptor sequence impacts MR1-antigen recognition; and most notably, how MR1 can capture chemical identities distinct from riboflavin precursors, including drugs and drug-like molecules...
May 8, 2017: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487696/natural-killer-cells-in-graft-versus-host-disease-after-allogeneic-hematopoietic-cell-transplantation
#17
REVIEW
Federico Simonetta, Maite Alvarez, Robert S Negrin
Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is a well-established therapeutic modality effective for a variety of hematological malignancies but, unfortunately, is associated with significant morbidity and mortality related to cancer relapse as well as to transplant-related complications including graft-versus-host-disease (GvHD). Natural killer (NK) cells are the first donor-derived lymphocyte subset to recover after HCT, and their crucial role in protection against cancer relapse and infections is well established...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485401/foxp3-regulatory-t-cells-maintain-the-bone-marrow-microenvironment-for-b-cell-lymphopoiesis
#18
Antonio Pierini, Hidekazu Nishikii, Jeanette Baker, Takaharu Kimura, Hye-Sook Kwon, Yuqiong Pan, Yan Chen, Maite Alvarez, William Strober, Andrea Velardi, Judith A Shizuru, Joy Y Wu, Shigeru Chiba, Robert S Negrin
Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Treg cells) modulate the immune system and maintain self-tolerance, but whether they affect haematopoiesis or haematopoietic stem cell (HSC)-mediated reconstitution after transplantation is unclear. Here we show that B-cell lymphopoiesis is impaired in Treg-depleted mice, yet this reduced B-cell lymphopoiesis is rescued by adoptive transfer of affected HSCs or bone marrow cells into Treg-competent recipients. B-cell reconstitution is abrogated in both syngeneic and allogeneic transplantation using Treg-depleted mice as recipients...
May 9, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474257/a-cumulative-effect-involving-malfunction-of-the-pth1r-and-atp4a-genes-explains-a-familial-gastric-neuroendocrine-tumor-with-hypothyroidism-and-arthritis
#19
Oriol Calvete, Maite Herraiz, Jose Reyes, Ana Patiño, Javier Benitez
BACKGROUND: Type I gastric neuroendocrine tumors (gNETs) classically arise because of hypergastrinemia and involve destruction of parietal cells, which are responsible for gastric acid secretion through the ATP4A proton pump and for intrinsic factor production. METHODS: By whole exome sequencing, we studied a family with three members with gNETs plus hypothyroidism and rheumatoid arthritis to uncover their genetic origin. RESULTS: A heterozygous missense mutation in the ATP4A gene was identified...
May 4, 2017: Gastric Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470739/vitamin-d-treatment-modulates-immune-activation-in-cystic-fibrosis
#20
T Pincikova, D Paquin-Proulx, J K Sandberg, M Flodström-Tullberg, L Hjelte
Persistent inflammatory response in cystic fibrosis (CF) airways is believed to play a central role in the progression of lung damage. Anti-inflammatory treatment may slow lung disease progression, but adverse side effects have limited its use. Vitamin D has immunoregulatory properties. We randomized 16 CF patients to receive vitamin D2, vitamin D3 or to serve as controls, and investigated the effect of vitamin D supplementation on soluble immunological parameters, myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs) and T cell activation...
May 3, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
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