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Mammary gland tumor review

Carrie S Shemanko, Yingying Cong, Amanda Forsyth
The normal developmental program that prolactin generates in the mammary gland is usurped in the cancerous process and can be used out of its normal cellular context at a site of secondary metastasis. Prolactin is a pleiotropic peptide hormone and cytokine that is secreted from the pituitary gland, as well as from normal and cancerous breast cells. Experimental and epidemiologic data suggest that prolactin is associated with mammary gland development, and also the increased risk of breast tumors and metastatic disease in postmenopausal women...
October 22, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Sayaka Yoshiba, Takashi Saotome, Tetsuya Mikogami, Tatsuo Shirota
Phyllodes tumor is a rare breast tumor described by Müller (1938) as a lesion comprising leaflike stromal fibrous components and narrow cysts. The frequency of distant metastasis from this entity is reportedly approximately 20%, and no effective therapy has been established, so the prognosis is poor. This report describes the case of a 60-year-old woman with a history of left lung resection who showed metastasis of a mammary gland malignant phyllodes tumor to the oral cavity. Intraoral examination showed an elastic, hard mass measuring 28 × 27 mm in the gingiva around the left mandibular second molar...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Sapna M Amin, Adam Beattie, Xia Ling, Lawrence J Jennings, Joan Guitart
Mammary analog secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a recently described tumor of the salivary glands named for its morphological and molecular similarity to secretory carcinoma of the breast. Many primary carcinomas arising from the adnexal glands also share similar morphology to those arising from the breast. Brandt et al first described primary cutaneous MASC in 2009 and since then only 2 other cases have been reported. Herein, we describe a long-standing mass on the arm of an otherwise healthy 40-year-old female...
November 2016: American Journal of Dermatopathology
Judit Fazekas, Irene Fürdös, Josef Singer, Erika Jensen-Jarolim
Human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2) is a well-established target for anticancer anticancerprecision medicine in humans. A HER-2 homologue with 92% amino acid identity has been described in canine mammary tumors, which whichis termed here as 'dog epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (DER-2)', with similar biological implications as those in human breast cancer. Both antigens can principally be immunologically targeted by anti-HER-2 antibodies, such as trastuzumab; however, the in vivo application applicationof humanized antibodies to other species would lead to specific hypersensitivity reactions...
October 2016: Oncology Letters
Saksith Smithason, Richard A Prayson, Jeffry P Mullin, J Jordi Rowe, Alireza M Mohammadi
BACKGROUND: Myofibroblastoma is a rare benign soft tissue tumor comprised of contractile myiod cells mostly in mammary gland. Only four prior cases arising in the central nervous system have been reported in the literature. We present a case of myofibroblastoma with a cystic component. CASE DESCRIPTION: The patient is a 76-year-old male with a history of Parkinson disease. The tumor was found incidentally after a minor fall. MRI revealed a 6.7 cm well circumscribed, partly cystic mass with a 2...
September 19, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Debarshi Banerjee
Gap junctions are cell-to-cell junctions that are located in the basolateral surface of two adjoining cells. A gap junction channel is composed of a family of proteins called connexins. Gap junction channels maintain intercellular communication between two cells through the exchange of ions, small metabolites, and electrical signals. Gap junction channels or connexins are widespread in terms of their expression and function in maintaining the development, differentiation, and homeostasis of vertebrate tissues...
2016: International Journal of Cell Biology
Warapen Treekitkarnmongkol, Hiroshi Katayama, Kazuharu Kai, Kaori Sasai, Jennifer Carter Jones, Jing Wang, Li Shen, Aysegul A Sahin, Mihai Gagea, Naoto T Ueno, Chad J Creighton, Subrata Sen
Recent data from The Cancer Genome Atlas analysis have revealed that Aurora kinase A (AURKA) amplification and overexpression characterize a distinct subset of human tumors across multiple cancer types. Although elevated expression of AURKA has been shown to induce oncogenic phenotypes in cells in vitro, findings from transgenic mouse models of Aurora-A overexpression in mammary glands have been distinct depending on the models generated. In the present study, we report that prolonged overexpression of AURKA transgene in mammary epithelium driven by ovine β-lactoglobulin promoter, activated through multiple pregnancy and lactation cycles, results in the development of mammary adenocarcinomas with alterations in cancer-relevant genes and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition...
September 13, 2016: Carcinogenesis
Olivia C Ihedioha, Robert P C Shiu, Jude E Uzonna, Yvonne Myal
The propensity for breast cancers to elicit immune responses in patients is well established. The accumulation of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes within the primary breast tumor has been linked to better prognosis and better response to therapy. The prolactin-inducible protein (PIP) is a 15 kD protein that is expressed under physiological conditions of the breast and is regarded as a marker of mammary differentiation. While highly expressed under pathological conditions of the mammary gland, including breast cancers, PIP is expressed in very few other cancers...
October 2016: DNA and Cell Biology
Alena Skálová, Petr Šteiner, Tomáš Vaneček
In recent years the discovery of translocations and the fusion oncogenes that they result in has changed the way diagnoses are made in salivary gland pathology. These genetic aberrations are recurrent; and at the very least serve as powerful diagnostic tools in salivary gland tumors diagnosis and classification. They also show promise as prognostic markers and hopefully as targets of therapy. In this review the 4 carcinomas currently known to harbor translocations will be discussed, namely mucoepidermoid carcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, mammary analogue secretory carcinoma, and hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma...
2016: Ceskoslovenská Patologie
Dürdal Us
Superantigens (SAgs) are microbial proteins produced by various microorganisms that elicit excessive and strong stimulation of T cells via an unconventional mechanism. They cause polyclonal activation of T cells in a non-specific manner, by binding to a particular variable-beta (Vβ) chain of T-cell receptor (TCR) and MHC class II molecule, in unprocessed form and outside of peptide-binding cleft, forming a bridge between the antigen presenting cell and the T cell. SAgs are classified into three groups, namely 1) exogenous (soluble proteins and exotoxins secreted by microorganisms), 2) endogenous (transmembrane proteins encoded by viruses which are integrated into the genome) and 3) B-cell SAgs (proteins which stimulate predominantly B cells)...
July 2016: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
Jennifer Dettloff, Raja R Seethala, Todd M Stevens, Margaret Brandwein-Gensler, Barbara A Centeno, Kristen Otto, Julia A Bridge, Justin A Bishop, Marino E Leon
Salivary gland-type tumors have been rarely described in the thyroid gland. Mammary Analog Secretory Carcinoma (MASC) is a recently defined type of salivary gland carcinoma characterized by a t(12;15)(p13;q25) resulting in an ETV6-NTRK3 fusion gene. We report 3 cases of MASC involving the thyroid gland without clinical evidence of a salivary gland or breast primary; the clinico-pathologic characteristics are reviewed. Assessment for rearrangement of the ETV6 (12p13) locus was conducted by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) on representative FFPE sections using an ETV6 break apart probe (Abbott Molecular, Des Plaines, IL, USA)...
July 11, 2016: Head and Neck Pathology
Carlis Rejon, Maia Al-Masri, Luke McCaffrey
Breast cancer, one of the leading causes of cancer related death in women worldwide, is a heterogeneous disease with diverse subtypes that have different properties and prognoses. The developing mammary gland is a highly proliferative and invasive tissue, and some of the developmental programs may be aberrantly activated to promote breast cancer progression. In the breast, luminal epithelial cells exhibit apical-basal polarity, and the failure to maintain this organizational structure, due to disruption of polarity complexes, is implicated in promoting hyperplasia and tumors...
October 2016: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Mary E Reyland, David N M Jones
The serine-threonine protein kinase, protein kinase C-δ (PKCδ), is emerging as a bi-functional regulator of cell death and proliferation. Studies in PKCδ-/- mice have confirmed a pro-apoptotic role for this kinase in response to DNA damage and a tumor promoter role in some oncogenic contexts. In non-transformed cells, inhibition of PKCδ suppresses the release of cytochrome c and caspase activation, indicating a function upstream of apoptotic pathways. Data from PKCδ-/- mice demonstrate a role for PKCδ in the execution of DNA damage-induced and physiologic apoptosis...
September 2016: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Ji-Won Choi, Hun-Young Yoon, Soon-Wuk Jeong
Medical records of 139 tumors from 114 dogs that underwent surgery from May 2010 through March 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Among 114 dogs, females (64.9%) were significantly more common than males (35.1%) (p<0.05). Dogs aged 6 to 10 years were more presented than non-tumor patients, however, there was no significant difference. The mean age (±SD) was 10.3±3.0 years. Although we found no significant difference of breed predisposition, the most common breed was Maltese (19.3%), followed by Shih-Tzu (14...
April 2016: Immune Network
Amin A Hedayat, Jason R Pettus, Jonathan D Marotti, Laura J Tafe, Stefan D Holubar, Mikhail Lisovsky
Mammary-like glands are normal appendages of anogenital skin and can give rise to epithelial and stromal tumors that closely resemble breast tumors. Cowden syndrome is an autosomal-dominant cancer-predisposition syndrome that is associated with increased risk of various benign and malignant tumors including breast cancers. Here, we report the first case of a proliferative lesion of mammary-like glands in the setting of Cowden syndrome. A 27-year-old female with Cowden syndrome (R130Q-PTEN mutation) presented with a 1-cm tender, polypoid perianal lesion...
August 2016: Journal of Cutaneous Pathology
Maria Cristina Rangel, Daniel Bertolette, Nadia P Castro, Malgorzata Klauzinska, Frank Cuttitta, David S Salomon
Cancer has been considered as temporal and spatial aberrations of normal development in tissues. Similarities between mammary embryonic development and cell transformation suggest that the underlying processes required for mammary gland development are also those perturbed during various stages of mammary tumorigenesis and breast cancer (BC) development. The master regulators of embryonic development Cripto-1, Notch/CSL, and Wnt/β-catenin play key roles in modulating mammary gland morphogenesis and cell fate specification in the embryo through fetal mammary stem cells (fMaSC) and in the adult organism particularly within the adult mammary stem cells (aMaSC), which determine mammary progenitor cell lineages that generate the basal/myoepithelial and luminal compartments of the adult mammary gland...
April 2016: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
Jinane El-Khoury, Marie-Hélène Renald, Françoise Plantier, Marie-Françoise Avril, Micheline Moyal-Barracco
BACKGROUND: Hidradenoma papilliferum (HP) is a benign tumor that primarily affects the anogenital area of adult women. Previously considered apocrine tumors, anogenital HP tumors are now interpreted as adenomas of mammary-like anogenital glands based on their histologic features. OBJECTIVE: This clinical study was undertaken to determine whether vulvar HP is located on mammary-like anogenital gland sites and to describe its morphologic features. METHODS: The clinical photographs of 52 histologically confirmed vulvar HP provided by 7 vulva specialists were analyzed...
August 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
Linda X Yin, Patrick K Ha
Salivary gland cancers are an incredibly heterogeneous group of tumors that include 24 histologically distinct tumor types. The use of new genetic methods has paved the way for promising advancements in our understanding of the molecular biology underlying each type of tumor. The objective of this review was to highlight common oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes, and cytogenetic and epigenetic changes associated with the most common tumor types: mucoepidermoid carcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, salivary duct carcinoma, mammary analogue secretory carcinoma, hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma, carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma, and acinic cell carcinoma...
June 15, 2016: Cancer
Vladimir N Uversky, Serge E Permyakov, Leonid Breydo, Elrashdy M Redwan, Hussein A Almehdar, Eugene A Permyakov
This is a second part of the three-part article from a series of reviews on the abundance and roles of intrinsic disorder in milk proteins. We continue to describe α-lactalbumin, a small globular Ca2+-binding protein, which besides being one of the two components of lactose synthase that catalyzes the final step of the lactose biosynthesis in the lactating mammary gland, possesses a multitude of other functions. In fact, recent studies indicated that some partially folded forms of this protein possess noticeable bactericidal activity and other forms might be related to induction of the apoptosis of tumor cells...
July 15, 2016: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Nicholas J Brady, Pavlina Chuntova, Kathryn L Schwertfeger
Macrophages are critical mediators of inflammation and important regulators of developmental processes. As a key phagocytic cell type, macrophages evolved as part of the innate immune system to engulf and process cell debris and pathogens. Macrophages produce factors that act directly on their microenvironment and also bridge innate immune responses to the adaptive immune system. Resident macrophages are important for acting as sensors for tissue damage and maintaining tissue homeostasis. It is now well-established that macrophages are an integral component of the breast tumor microenvironment, where they contribute to tumor growth and progression, likely through many of the mechanisms that are utilized during normal wound healing responses...
2016: Mediators of Inflammation
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