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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160804/residual-endodontic-filling-material-after-post-space-preparation-a-confocal-microscopic-study
#1
Yu-Yao Teoh, Laurence J Walsh
This laboratory study assessed removability of endodontic alkaline cements and resin sealers using coronal cross-sectional slices of roots with single canals. Materials were labelled with 0.1% (w/w) sodium fluorescein prior to mixing so that confocal microscopy could be used to quantify material remaining on the walls of post spaces, to assess cleanliness. Roots of extracted teeth were prepared using rotary NiTi instruments then obturated using lateral condensation with gutta percha and epoxy resin sealers (AH-Plus™ or Zirmix™), or were filled by injecting mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) cement (GC Nex™ MTA or MTAmix™) or a hard-setting calcium hydroxide cement (Supercal™)...
November 21, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159836/mechanisms-of-calcium-sequestration-by-isolated-malpighian-tubules-of-the-house-cricket-acheta-domesticus
#2
Austin Browne, Michael J O'Donnell
Hemolymph calcium homeostasis in insects is achieved by the Malpighian tubules, primarily by sequestering excess Ca(2+) within internal calcium stores (Ca-rich granules) most often located within type I (principal) tubule cells. Using both the scanning ion-selective electrode technique and the Ramsay secretion assay this study provides the first measurements of basolateral and transepithelial Ca(2+) fluxes across the Malpighian tubules of an Orthopteran insect, the house cricket Acheta domesticus. Ca(2+) transport was specific to midtubule segments, where 97% of the Ca(2+) entering the tubule is sequestered within intracellular calcium stores and the remaining 3% is secreted into the lumen...
November 21, 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159026/highlights-for-the-6th-international-ion-channel-conference-ion-channel-structure-function-disease-and-therapeutics
#3
Limei Wang, Kewei Wang
To foster communication and interactions amongst international scholars and scientists in the field of ion channel research, the 6th International Ion Channel Conference (IICC-2017) was held between June 23-27, 2017 in the eastern coastal city of Qingdao, China. The meeting consisted of 450 attendees and 130 speakers and poster presenters. The program consisted of research progress, new findings and ongoing studies that were focused on (1) Ion channel structure and function; (2) Ion channel physiology and human diseases; (3) Ion channels as targets for drug discovery; (4) Technological advances in ion channel research...
November 2017: Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158540/calcium-binding-and-voltage-gating-in-cx46-hemichannels
#4
Bernardo I Pinto, Amaury Pupo, Isaac E García, Karel Mena-Ulecia, Agustín D Martínez, Ramón Latorre, Carlos Gonzalez
The opening of connexin (Cx) hemichannels in the membrane is tightly regulated by calcium (Ca(2+)) and membrane voltage. Electrophysiological and atomic force microscopy experiments indicate that Ca(2+) stabilizes the hemichannel closed state. However, structural data show that Ca(2+) binding induces an electrostatic seal preventing ion transport without significant structural rearrangements. In agreement with the closed-state stabilization hypothesis, we found that the apparent Ca(2+) sensitivity is increased as the voltage is made more negative...
November 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158500/use-dependent-potentiation-of-voltage-gated-calcium-channels-rescues-neurotransmission-in-nerve-terminals-intoxicated-by-botulinum-neurotoxin-serotype-a
#5
Phillip H Beske, Katie M Hoffman, James B Machamer, Margaret R Eisen, Patrick M McNutt
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are highly potent toxins that cleave neuronal SNARE proteins required for neurotransmission, causing flaccid paralysis and death by asphyxiation. Currently, there are no clinical treatments to delay or reverse BoNT-induced blockade of neuromuscular transmission. While aminopyridines have demonstrated varying efficacy in transiently reducing paralysis following BoNT poisoning, the precise mechanisms by which aminopyridines symptomatically treat botulism are not understood. Here we found that activity-dependent potentiation of presynaptic voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) underlies 3,4-diaminopyridine (3,4-DAP)-mediated rescue of neurotransmission in central nervous system synapses and mouse diaphragm neuromuscular junctions fully intoxicated by BoNT serotype A...
November 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158357/evidence-for-a-role-of-vascular-endothelium-in-the-control-of-arterial-wall-viscosity-in-humans
#6
Frederic Roca, Michele Iacob, Isabelle Remy-Jouet, Jeremy Bellien, Robinson Joannides
Arterial wall viscosity (AWV) is a major cause of energy dissipation along the arterial tree. Its determinants remain controversial but an active endothelial regulation has been suggested. Our objective was to assess in humans the physiological role of endothelium-derived nitric oxide (NO), epoxyeicosatrienoic acids and the effect of modulating smooth muscle tone in the regulation of AWV. We simultaneously measured radial artery diameter, wall thickness, and arterial pressure in healthy volunteers during the local infusion of inhibitors of NO-synthase (N(G)-monomethyl-l-arginine), epoxyeicosatrienoic acids synthesis by cytochrome P450 (fluconazole), the epoxyeicosatrienoic acids cellular targets calcium-activated potassium channels (tetraethylammonium), alone and in combination...
November 20, 2017: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158256/heart-failure-induced-activation-of-phospholipase-ipla2%C3%AE-%C3%A2-generates-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic-acids-opening-the-mitochondrial-permeability-transition-pore
#7
Sung Ho Moon, Xinping Liu, Ari M Cedars, Kui Yang, Michael A Kiebish, Susan M Joseph, John Kelley, Christopher M Jenkins, Richard W Gross
Congestive heart failure typically arises from cardiac myocyte necrosis/apoptosis, associated with the pathological opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP). mPTP opening decreases the mitochondrial membrane potential leading to the activation of Ca(2+)-independent phospholipase A2γ (iPLA2γ) and the production of downstream toxic metabolites. However, the array of enzymatic mediators and the exact chemical mechanisms responsible for modulating myocardial mPTP opening remain unclear...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157865/peptide-yy-3-36-modulates-intracellular-calcium-through-activation-of-the-phosphatidylinositol-pathway-in-hippocampal-neurons
#8
Michelle Flores Domingues, Dênis Reis de Assis, Angela Regina Piovesan, Cháriston André Dal Belo, Jaderson Costa da Costa
Peptide YY (PYY) belongs to the neuropeptide Y (NPY) family, which also includes the pancreatic polypeptide (PP) and NPY. PYY is secreted by the intestinal L cells, being present in the blood stream in two active forms capable of crossing the blood brain barrier, PYY (1-36) and its cleavage product, PYY (3-36). PYY is a selective agonist for the Y2 receptor (Y2R) and these receptors are abundant in the hippocampus. Here we investigated the mechanisms by which PYY (3-36) regulates intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations ([Ca(2+)]i) in hippocampal neurons by employing a calcium imaging technique in hippocampal cultures...
November 7, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157833/vasodilatory-effect-of-asafoetida-essential-oil-on-rat-aorta-rings-the-role-of-nitric-oxide-prostacyclin-and-calcium-channels
#9
Hassan Esmaeili, Mozhdeh Sharifi, Mansour Esmailidehaj, Mohammad Ebrahim Rezvani, Zeynab Hafizibarjin
BACKGROUND: Asafoetida is an oleo-gum resin mainly obtained from Ferula assa-foetida L. species in the apiaceae family. Previous studies have shown that it has antispasmodic effects on rat's and pig's ileums. PURPOSE: The main goals of this study were to assess the vasodilatory effect of asafoetida essential oil (AEO) on the contractile response of rat's aorta rings and to find the role of nitric oxide, cyclooxygenase, and calcium channels. Thoracic aorta rings were stretched under a steady-state tension of 1 g in an organ bath apparatus for 1 h and then precontracted by KCl (80 mM) in the presence and absence of AEO...
December 1, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157811/bud-extracts-from-salix-caprea-l-inhibit-voltage-gated-calcium-channels-and-catecholamines-secretion-in-mouse-chromaffin-cells
#10
Chiara Calorio, Dario Donno, Claudio Franchino, Valentina Carabelli, Andrea Marcantoni
BACKGROUND: Salix caprea L. is an ornamental plant with prominent antioxidant activity. In the last decades Salix caprea bud extracts (SCBEs) have been used for the treatment of oxidative stress related disorders. PURPOSE: A large part of cellular functions depends on the amount of intracellular Ca(2+) concentration which in turn is mainly determined by Ca(2+) ions movements across plasma membrane as well as by Ca(2+) released from the stores. For better evaluating the mechanism of action of SCBEs, we focused on the effect of SCBEs on voltage gated Ca(2+) channels (VGCCs) functioning and related catecholamines secretion in mouse chromaffin cells (MCCs)...
December 1, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156699/cell-specific-regulation-of-proliferation-by-ano1-tmem16a-in-breast-cancer-with-different-er-pr-and-her2-status
#11
Huizhe Wu, Hui Wang, Shu Guan, Jing Zhang, Qiuchen Chen, Xiaodong Wang, Ke Ma, Pengfei Zhao, Haishan Zhao, Weifan Yao, Feng Jin, Qinghuan Xiao, Minjie Wei
The calcium-activated chloride channel Ano1 (TMEM16A) is overexpressed in many tumors. However, conflicting data exist regarding the role of Ano1 in cell proliferation. Here, we performed immunohistochemistry to investigate the expression of Ano1 and Ki67 in 403 patients with breast cancer, and analyzed the association between the expression of Ano1 and Ki67 in breast cancer subtypes categorized according to estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)...
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156097/4-aminopyridine-a-pan-kv-channel-inhibitor-that-enhances-kv7-4-currents-and-inhibits-noradrenaline-mediated-contraction-of-rat-mesenteric-small-arteries
#12
Makhala M Khammy, Sukhan Kim, Bo H Bentzen, Soojung Lee, Inyeoung Choi, Christian Aalkjaer, Thomas A Jepps
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Kv7.4 and Kv7.5 channels are regulators of vascular tone. 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) is considered a broad inhibitor of voltage-gated potassium (KV ) channels, with little inhibitory effect on Kv7 family members at millimolar concentrations. However, the effect of 4-AP on Kv7 channels has not been systematically studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the pharmacological activity of 4-AP on Kv7.4 and Kv7.5 channels and characterise the effect of 4-AP on rat resistance arteries...
November 20, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155306/reverse-t3-interacts-with-%C3%AE-v%C3%AE-3-integrin-receptor-and-restores-enzyme-activities-in-the-hippocampus-of-hypothyroid-developing-rats-insight-on-signaling-mechanisms
#13
Juliana Tonietto Domingues, Daiane Cattani, Patricia Acordi Cesconetto, Bianka Alzira Nascimento de Almeida, Paula Peirozan, Guilherme Razzera, Fátima Regina Mena Barreto Silva, Regina Pessoa-Pureur, Ariane Zamoner
In the present study we provide evidence that 3,3',5'-triiodothyronine (reverse T3, rT3) restores neurochemical parameters induced by congenital hypothyroidism in rat hippocampus. Congenital hypothyroidism was induced by adding 0.05% propylthiouracil in the drinking water from gestation day 8 and continually up to lactation day 15. In the in vivo rT3 exposure, hypothyroid 12-day old pups were daily injected with rT3 (50 ng/kg body weight) or saline until day 14. In the ex vivo rT3 treatment, hippocampal slices from 15-day-old hypothyroid pups were incubated for 30 min with or without rT3 (1 nM)...
November 16, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155298/mechanisms-of-l-alpha-lysophosphatidylinositol-induced-relaxation-in-human-pulmonary-arteries
#14
Olga Karpińska, Marta Baranowska-Kuczko, Barbara Malinowska, Monika Kloza, Magdalena Kusaczuk, Agnieszka Gęgotek, Paweł Golec, Irena Kasacka, Hanna Kozłowska
AIMS: l-Alpha-lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI) is an endogenous agonist of G protein-coupled receptor 55 (GPR55) which relaxes mesenteric arteries on activation. The aim of the present study was to determine the influence and underlying mechanisms of LPI-induced relaxation in human pulmonary arteries (hPAs). MAIN METHODS: Functional studies were performed in isolated hPAs using organ bath technique. The expression of GPR55 in hPAs and bronchioles was determined by real-time qPCR, Western blot analysis, and immunohistochemistry...
November 16, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155014/resveratrol-dimer-trans-%C3%AE%C2%B5-viniferin-prevents-rotaviral-diarrhea-in-mice-by-inhibition-of-the-intestinal-calcium-activated-chloride-channel
#15
Bo Yu, Yu Jiang, Bo Zhang, Hong Yang, Tonghui Ma
We previously identified, by a natural-product screen, resveratrol oligomers as inhibitors of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel. Here, we report the resveratrol dimer trans-ε-viniferin (TV) and tetramer r-2-viniferin (RV) as inhibitors of the intestinal calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC) and demonstrate their antisecretory efficacy in a neonatal mouse model of rotaviral diarrhea. Short-circuit measurements show inhibition of CaCC current in the human colonic cell line HT-29 by TV and RV with IC50∼1 and 20μM, respectively...
November 14, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154951/regulation-of-neural-ion-channels-by-muscarinic-receptors
#16
REVIEW
David A Brown
The excitable behaviour of neurons is determined by the activity of their endogenous membrane ion channels. Since muscarinic receptors are not themselves ion channels, the acute effects of muscarinic receptor stimulation on neuronal function are governed by the effects of the receptors on these endogenous neuronal ion channels. This review considers some principles and factors determining the interaction between subtypes and classes of muscarinic receptors with neuronal ion channels, and summarizes the effects of muscarinic receptor stimulation on a number of different channels, the mechanisms of receptor - channel transduction and their direct consequences for neuronal activity...
November 15, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154907/an-integrated-mathematical-epithelial-cell-model-for-airway-surface-liquid-regulation-by-mechanical-forces
#17
Dan Wu, Richard C Boucher, Brian Button, Timothy Elston, Ching-Long Lin
A robust method based on reverse engineering was utilized to construct the ion-channel conductance functions for airway epithelial sodium channels (ENaC), the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), and calcium-activated chloride channels (CaCC). The ion-channel conductance models for both normal (NL) and cystic fibrosis (CF) airway epithelia were developed and then coupled to an adenosine triphosphate (ATP) metabolism model and a fluid transport model (collectively called the integrated cell model) to investigate airway surface liquid (ASL) volume regulation and hence mucus concentration, by mechanical forces in NL and CF human airways...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153114/cost-effectiveness-analyses-of-antihypertensive-medicines-a-systematic-review
#18
REVIEW
Chanhyun Park, Guijing Wang, Jefferey M Durthaler, Jing Fang
CONTEXT: Hypertension affects one third of the U.S. adult population. Although cost-effectiveness analyses of antihypertensive medicines have been published, a comprehensive systematic review across medicine classes is not available. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Health Technology Assessment were searched to identify original cost-effectiveness analyses published from 1990 through August 2016. Results were summarized by medicine class: angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs), angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), calcium channel blockers (CCBs), thiazide-type diuretics, β-blockers, and others...
December 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152668/the-role-of-astrocytic-calcium-and-trpv4-channels-in-neurovascular-coupling
#19
Allanah Kenny, Michael J Plank, Tim David
Neuronal activity evokes a localised change in cerebral blood flow in a response known as neurovascular coupling (NVC). Although NVC has been widely studied the exact mechanisms that mediate this response remain unclear; in particular the role of astrocytic calcium is controversial. Mathematical modelling can be a useful tool for investigating the contribution of various signalling pathways towards NVC and for analysing the underlying cellular mechanisms. The lumped parameter model of a neurovascular unit with both potassium and nitric oxide (NO) signalling pathways and comprised of neurons, astrocytes, and vascular cells has been extended to include the glutamate induced astrocytic calcium pathway with epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET) signalling and the stretch dependent TRPV4 calcium channel on the astrocytic endfoot...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152493/a-pilot-study-evaluating-biomarker-development-for-drug-induced-chronic-eczematous-eruptions-of-aging-individuals
#20
Erika Mae Summers, Nicholas Ray Blickenstaff, Garrett Curtis Coman, Thomas Bernd Martins, Harry Raymond Hill, Richard Dennis Sontheimer
Background: Identifying the drug(s) responsible for drug-induced chronic eczematous eruptions of aging individuals (CEEA) is a clinical challenge in patients on multiple medications. Reliable in vitro testing methods and biomarkers are needed to identify the causative agent and allow simultaneous assessment of T-cell responses to multiple drugs being taken concurrently. This study examined the feasibility of using in vitro, drug-specific T cell activation responses as a biomarker for drug-induced CEEA...
October 2017: Annals of Translational Medicine
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