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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672769/legally-human-novel-beings-and-english-law
#1
David R Lawrence, Margaret Brazier
Novel beings-intelligent, conscious life-forms sapient in the same way or greater than are human beings-are no longer the preserve of science fiction. Through technologies such as artificial general intelligence, synthetic genomics, gene printing, cognitive enhancement, advanced neuroscience, and more, they are becoming ever more likely and by some definitions may already be emerging. Consideration of the nature of intelligent, conscious novel beings such as those that may result from these technologies requires analysis of the concept of the 'reasonable creature in being' in English law, as well as of the right to life as founded in the European Convention on Human Rights and the attempts to endow human status on animals in recent years...
April 17, 2018: Medical Law Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669663/nonprescription-medications-for-respiratory-symptoms-facts-and-marketing-fictions
#2
Miles Weinberger, Leslie Hendeles
BACKGROUND: There are many nonprescription (over-the-counter [OTC]) medications available on pharmacy shelves marketed for relief of respiratory symptoms. The number of such medications has been increasing. OBJECTIVE: This review provides an evidence-based examination of OTC products used for respiratory symptoms. METHODS: Antihistamines, decongestants, mucolytics, antitussives, and intranasal steroids were selected as the most common OTC medications taken by adults and children for various respiratory symptoms...
May 1, 2018: Allergy and Asthma Proceedings:
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659071/traditional-and-new-media-s-influence-on-suicidal-behavior-and-contagion
#3
Patricia Ortiz, Eindra Khin Khin
The role of nonfictional and fictional media in suicide contagion has been well established, ostensibly beginning with the publication of Goethe's The Sorrows of Young Werther in 1774. In recent decades, the emergence of several new forms of media (e.g. websites, social media, blogs, smartphone applications) has revolutionized the communication and social interaction paradigms. This article reviews "the Werther effect" (or suicide contagion related to media), special populations who are more influential or susceptible, current media reporting guidelines and their effectiveness, and the latest research on new media and its effect on suicide and suicide contagion...
March 2018: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658373/talking-emotions-vowel-selection-in-fictional-names-depends-on-the-emotional-valence-of-the-to-be-named-faces-and-objects
#4
Ralf Rummer, Judith Schweppe
One prestudy based on a corpus analysis and four experiments in which participants had to invent novel names for persons or objects (N = 336 participants in total) investigated how the valence of a face or an object affects the phonological characteristics of the respective novel name. Based on the articulatory feedback hypothesis, we predicted that /i:/ is included more frequently in fictional names for faces or objects with a positive valence than for those with a negative valence. For /o:/, the pattern should reverse...
April 16, 2018: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653466/diabetes-research-in-primary-care-fiction-reality-or-essential
#5
K Khunti, S Seidu
Primary health care is increasingly the first point of contact in many health systems around the world. The World Organization of Family Doctors (WONCA) identifies primary care as a first-contact access point for each new need, in addition to providing long-term person-focused follow-up and not just disease-focused care. Thus, comprehensive care of most of a patient's health needs is coordinated in primary care [1]. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
April 13, 2018: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652661/combined-brain-and-heart-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-systemic-vasculitides-fiction-or-real-need
#6
REVIEW
Sophie I Mavrogeni, George Kitas, Hildo J Lamb, Klearchos Psychoyios, Theodoros Dimitroulas, Loukia Koutsogeorgopoulou, Kyriaki Boki, Vasiliki Vartela, Genovefa Kolovou, George Markousis-Mavrogenis, Cees G Kallenberg, Loic Guillevin, Dimitrios Vassilopoulos
Systemic vasculitides (SVs) is a group of diseases characterised by inflammation/necrosis of the blood vessel wall in various organs. Simultaneous brain and heart involvement is a cause of increased morbidity/mortality in SV. We aimed to present evidence of concurrent brain/heart involvement in SV and the role of a combined brain/heart magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in their risk stratification. Cerebral vasculitis (CV) can be presented as focal deficits, seizures, headache, neuropsychiatric manifestations or cognitive dysfunction and cardiovascular disease (CVD) as myocardial/vascular inflammation, perfusion/function defects and fibrosis...
April 10, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614189/learning-about-conflict-and-conflict-management-through-drama-in-nursing-education
#7
Susanna H Arveklev, Linda Berg, Helena Wigert, Morag Morrison-Helme, Margret Lepp
BACKGROUND: In the health care settings in which nurses work, involvement in some form of conflict is inevitable. The ability to manage conflicts is therefore necessary for nursing students to learn during their education. METHOD: A qualitative analysis of 43 written group assignments was undertaken using a content analysis approach. RESULTS: Three main categories emerged in the analysis-to approach and integrate with the theoretical content, to step back and get an overview, and to concretize and practice-together with the overall theme, to learn by oscillating between closeness and distance...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Nursing Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610548/personality-and-neural-correlates-of-mentalizing-ability
#8
Timothy A Allen, Amanda R Rueter, Samantha V Abram, James S Brown, Colin G DeYoung
Theory of mind, or mentalizing , defined as the ability to reason about another's mental states, is a crucial psychological function that is disrupted in some forms of psychopathology, but little is known about how individual differences in this ability relate to personality or brain function. One previous study linked mentalizing ability to individual differences in the personality trait Agreeableness. Agreeableness encompasses two major subdimensions: Compassion reflects tendencies toward empathy, prosocial behavior, and interpersonal concern, whereas Politeness captures tendencies to suppress aggressive and exploitative impulses...
November 2017: European Journal of Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29581040/female-false-positive-exercise-stress-ecg-testing-fact-verses-fiction
#9
Benjamin T Fitzgerald, William M Scalia, Gregory M Scalia
BACKGROUND: Exercise stress testing is a well validated cardiovascular investigation. Accuracy for treadmill stress electrocardiograph (ECG) testing has been documented at 60%. False positive stress ECGs (exercise ECG changes with non-obstructive disease on anatomical testing) are common, especially in women, limiting the effectiveness of the test. This study investigates the incidence and predictors of false positive stress ECG findings, referenced against stress echocardiography (SE) as a standard...
March 7, 2018: Heart, Lung & Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580314/accuracy-authenticity-fidelity-aesthetic-realism-the-deficit-model-and-the-public-understanding-of-science
#10
Fernando Vidal
Argument "Deficit model" designates an outlook on the public understanding and communication of science that emphasizes scientific illiteracy and the need to educate the public. Though criticized, it is still widespread, especially among scientists. Its persistence is due not only to factors ranging from scientists' training to policy design, but also to the continuance of realism as an aesthetic criterion. This article examines the link between realism and the deficit model through discussions of neurology and psychiatry in fiction film, as well as through debates about historical movies and the cinematic adaptation of literature...
March 2018: Science in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579072/judgement-analysis-of-case-severity-and-future-risk-of-disability-regarding-chronic-low-back-pain-by-general-practitioners-in-ireland
#11
Christopher P Dwyer, Pádraig MacNeela, Hannah Durand, Andrea Gibbons, Bronagh Reynolds, Edel Doherty, Sinéad Conneely, Brian W Slattery, Andrew W Murphy, Brian E McGuire
Chronic low back pain is a major healthcare burden that has wide ranging effects on the individual, their family, society and the workplace. However, appropriate management and treatment is often difficult, as a majority of cases are non-specific in terms of underlying pathology. As a result, there are extensive differences in both individual patient preferences for treatment and treatment decisions amongst general practitioners. The current study examined the clinical judgements of GPs in Ireland, regarding fictional patients' case severity and future risk of disability, through judgement analysis...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29565414/fact-fiction-and-the-art-of-deception
#12
Anthony King
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 22, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29561083/-chapter-10-the-embryo-a-particular-thing
#13
Astrid Marais
By allowing a woman to terminate the life of the embryo, the law of 17 January 1975 leads us to ask the question about how to qualify the embryo. Is it a thing or a person ? Subordinate to the birth of a viable, living being, the embryo can have no acknowledged legal personality. Its particularity must nevertheless be noted : it is the only thing in law that is likely to become a person. So, conjugated in the present (The reality of the present : the embryo is a thing), the embryo is without doubt a thing.This qualification is implicit and results from an a contrario interpretation of article 16 CC...
March 7, 2018: Journal International de Bioéthique et D'éthique des Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560602/science-fiction-and-human-enhancement-radical-life-extension-in-the-movie-in-time-2011
#14
Johann A R Roduit, Tobias Eichinger, Walter Glannon
The ethics of human enhancement has been a hotly debated topic in the last 15 years. In this debate, some advocate examining science fiction stories to elucidate the ethical issues regarding the current phenomenon of human enhancement. Stories from science fiction seem well suited to analyze biomedical advances, providing some possible case studies. Of particular interest is the work of screenwriter Andrew Niccol (Gattaca, S1m0ne, In Time, and Good Kill), which often focuses on ethical questions raised by the use of new technologies...
March 20, 2018: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29544554/should-psychiatrists-write-fiction
#15
Henry Bladon
This paper looks at the relationship between fiction and psychiatry. Specifically, the idea of psychiatrists as fiction writers is explored, and reference is made to various fictional texts to illustrate the problems of stigma and negative imagery. These two main areas of focus are highlighted as ones that the practice of writing fiction might address, and some potential pitfalls are discussed. The paper suggests how psychiatrists might ameliorate the present problems by incorporating their unique clinical skills and knowledge into fictional narratives...
April 2018: BJPsych Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29541049/biases-in-understanding-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-and-autism-spectrum-disorder-in-japan
#16
Mami Miyasaka, Shogo Kajimura, Michio Nomura
Recent research has shown high rates of comorbidity between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and difficulties regarding differential diagnosis. Unlike those in Western countries, the Japanese ADHD prevalence rate is lower relative to that of ASD. This inconsistency could have occurred because of cultural diversities among professionals such as physicians. However, little is known about attitudes toward ADHD and ASD in non-Western cultural contexts. We conducted two experiments to identify biases in ASD and ADHD assessment...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29539648/focus-section-health-it-usability-applying-a-task-technology-fit-model-to-adapt-an-electronic-patient-portal-for-patient-work
#17
Sana B Ali, Juana Romero, Kevin Morrison, Baria Hafeez, Jessica S Ancker
OBJECTIVES:  Although electronic patient portals are offered by most health care organizations, poor usability and poor fit to patient needs may pose barriers to adoption. We collaborated with an academic hospital to conduct iterative user evaluation of a newly deployed portal designed to deliver inpatient data upon hospital discharge. METHODS:  Three evaluators applied heuristic usability evaluation and conducted 23 individual user testing sessions with patients with chronic disease or managing the care of family members with chronic disease...
January 2018: Applied Clinical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29538064/spine-implant-surface-technology-state-of-the-art-separating-fact-from-fiction
#18
Paul J Slosar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 1, 2018: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535207/gain-a-child-lose-a-tooth-using-natural-experiments-to-distinguish-between-fact-and-fiction
#19
Frank Gabel, Hendrik Jürges, Kai E Kruk, Stefan Listl
BACKGROUND: Dental diseases are among the most frequent diseases globally and tooth loss imposes a substantial burden on peoples' quality of life. Non-experimental evidence suggests that individuals with more children have more missing teeth than individuals with fewer children, but until now there is no causal evidence for or against this. METHODS: Using a Two-Stage Least Squares (2SLS) instrumental variables approach and large-scale cross-sectional data from the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe (study sample: 34 843 non-institutionalised individuals aged 50+ from 14 European countries and Israel; data were collected in 2013), we investigated the causal relationship between the number of biological children and their parents' number of missing natural teeth...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29532743/calcaneal-osteotomy-safe-zone-to-prevent-neurological-damage-fact-or-fiction
#20
Bradley Wills, Sung Ro Lee, Parke William Hudson, Bahman SahraNavard, Cesar de Cesar Netto, Sameer Naranje, Ashish Shah
BACKGROUND: Calcaneal osteotomy is a commonly used surgical option for the correction of hindfoot malalignment. A previous cadaveric study described a neurological "safe zone" for calcaneal osteotomy. We performed a retrospective chart review to evaluate the presence of neurological injuries following calcaneal osteotomies and the location of the osteotomy in relation to the reported safe zone. METHODS: In this retrospective study, we reviewed charts of patients who underwent calcaneal osteotomy at our institution from 2011 to 2015...
March 1, 2018: Foot & Ankle Specialist
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