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Chad Turner, Shane Hiatt, Brian Mullis
Commonly accepted dogma is that patients with a long bone fracture due to a penetrating injury (gunshot wound) are less likely to follow up than blunt trauma patients. An institutional trauma database from a Level 1 academic trauma center was utilized to include all patients with long bone fractures from penetrating trauma from 2006-2009 (N = 132). Demographically matched blunt trauma patients with long bone fractures were included as a comparison group (N = 104). The medical records of these 236 patients were reviewed to observe their follow-up at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months...
September 2016: American Journal of Orthopedics
Sheng Shi, Xin-Feng Li, Zu-De Liu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: World Neurosurgery
Oksana Matvienko
OBJECTIVE: Picture books may facilitate parents' efforts to decrease pickiness and other undesirable food habits in children. This study conducted a content analysis of dietary behaviors and feeding strategies featured in fictional picture books compared with those discussed in the research literature. DESIGN: Several databases were searched for fictional picture books about dietary behavior, published between 2000 and 2016, accessible in the US, available in print format, and designated for 4- to 8-year-olds...
October 2016: Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior
Rob Nijenkamp, Mark R Nieuwenstein, Ritske de Jong, Monicque M Lorist
Although many educational institutions allow students to resit exams, a recently proposed mathematical model suggests that this could lead to a dramatic reduction in study-time investment, especially in rational students. In the current study, we present a modification of this model in which we included some well-justified assumptions about learning and performance on multiple-choice tests, and we tested its predictions in two experiments in which participants were asked to invest fictional study time for a fictional exam...
2016: PloS One
Anthony O'Connell, Ciara M Greene
People are more likely to recall both true and false information that is consistent with their pre-existing stereotypes, schemata and desires. In addition, experts in a particular field are more likely to experience false memory in relation to their area of expertise. Here, we investigate whether level of interest, as distinct from level of knowledge, and in the absence of self-professed expertise, is associated with increased false memory. 489 participants were asked to rank 7 topics from most to least interesting...
October 6, 2016: Memory
R I M Dunbar, Ben Teasdale, Jackie Thompson, Felix Budelmann, Sophie Duncan, Evert van Emde Boas, Laurie Maguire
Fiction, whether in the form of storytelling or plays, has a particular attraction for us: we repeatedly return to it and are willing to invest money and time in doing so. Why this is so is an evolutionary enigma that has been surprisingly underexplored. We hypothesize that emotionally arousing drama, in particular, triggers the same neurobiological mechanism (the endorphin system, reflected in increased pain thresholds) that underpins anthropoid primate and human social bonding. We show that, compared to subjects who watch an emotionally neutral film, subjects who watch an emotionally arousing film have increased pain thresholds and an increased sense of group bonding...
September 2016: Royal Society Open Science
Lesley Henderson, Simon Carter
There has been considerable interest in images of medicine in popular science fiction and in representations of doctors in television fiction. Surprisingly little attention has been paid to doctors administering space medicine in science fiction. This article redresses this gap. We analyse the evolving figure of 'the doctor' in different popular science fiction television series. Building upon debates within Medical Sociology, Cultural Studies and Media Studies we argue that the figure of 'the doctor' is discursively deployed to act as the moral compass at the centre of the programme narrative...
September 30, 2016: Medical Humanities
Louise E Curley, Maureen McDonald, Trudi Aspden
BACKGROUND: Providing patient-centred care requires pharmacy students to learn how to interact effectively and understand individual differences that can influence patients' health. The School of Pharmacy at The University of Auckland, New Zealand (NZ), developed a virtual teaching platform, called NZ Pharmville, which consisted of twenty-one community-based patients who are members of six families; each family had a video vignette associated with it. Bachelor of Pharmacy (BPharm) students, enrolled in the third year pharmacy practice course, were able to view these recorded vignettes as part of their weekly pre-laboratory work for the course...
2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice
Gretchen Sisson, Katrina Kimport
CONTEXT: Popular entertainment may reflect and produce-as well as potentially contest-stigma regarding abortion provision. Knowledge of how providers are portrayed on-screen is needed to improve understanding of how depictions may contribute to the stigmatization of real providers. METHODS: All abortion provision plotlines on American television from 2005 to 2014 were identified through Internet searches. Plotlines were assessed in their entirety and coded for genre, abortion provision space, provider characteristics, method and efficacy of provision, and occurrence of violence...
September 29, 2016: Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health
Bryan McLaughlin, Nathian S Rodriguez
Scholars examining homosexual television characters have typically come to one of two conclusions, either exposure to homosexual characters can lead to increased acceptance or homosexual characters serve to reaffirm negative stereotypes. We seek to bridge these two bodies of research by introducing the concept of stereotyped identification-the idea that cognitively and emotionally identifying with fictional characters can increase acceptance of minorities, while reinforcing implicit stereotypes about how they look, act, and talk...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Homosexuality
Carol Westby, Barbara Culatta
Purpose: Speech-language pathologists know much more about children's development of fictional narratives than they do about children's development of personal narratives and the role these personal narratives play in academic success, social-emotional development, and self-regulation. The purpose of this tutorial is to provide clinicians with strategies for assessing and developing children's and adolescents' personal narratives. Method: This tutorial reviews the literature on (a) the development of autobiographical event narratives and life stories, (b) factors that contribute to development of these genres, (c) the importance of these genres for the development of sense of self-identity and self-regulation, (d) deficits in personal narrative genres, and (e) strategies for eliciting and assessing event narratives and life stories...
September 27, 2016: Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools
Sandra Hempel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 20, 2016: Lancet
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 24, 2016: Veterinary Record
Bengt Nordén
Einstein was wrong with his 1927 Solvay Conference claim that quantum mechanics is incomplete and incapable of describing diffraction of single particles. However, the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox of entangled pairs of particles remains lurking with its 'spooky action at a distance'. In molecules quantum entanglement can be viewed as basis of both chemical bonding and excitonic states. The latter are important in many biophysical contexts and involve coupling between subsystems in which virtual excitations lead to eigenstates of the total Hamiltonian, but not for the separate subsystems...
January 2016: Quarterly Reviews of Biophysics
Cornelia Fiessler, Annette B Pfahlberg, Andrea K Keller, Martin Radespiel-Tröger, Wolfgang Uter, Olaf Gefeller
BACKGROUND: Evidence on the effect of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure in infancy on melanoma risk in later life is scarce. Three recent studies suggest that people born in spring carry a higher melanoma risk. Our study aimed at verifying whether such a seasonal pattern of melanoma risk actually exists. METHODS: Data from the population-based Cancer Registry Bavaria (CRB) on the birth months of 28 374 incident melanoma cases between 2002 and 2012 were analysed and compared with data from the Bavarian State Office for Statistics and Data Processing on the birth month distribution in the Bavarian population...
September 20, 2016: International Journal of Epidemiology
Stephan Gentner
Manufacturing IT and Industry 4.0 is the Fourth Industrial Revolution with a potential of 12 bn Euros in Germany's chemicals industry. But Switzerland is currently the best prepared of all countries in Europe. Many of the ideas are still very vague. This article discusses how to identify what is already reality, which ideas might become reality in the future and which ideas will stay science fiction. As projects in Manufacturing IT and Industry 4.0 are different from classical technical projects other strategies, for example agile project management, are necessary to secure success...
September 2016: Chimia
Maria Eugenia Panero, Deena Skolnick Weisberg, Jessica Black, Thalia R Goldstein, Jennifer L Barnes, Hiram Brownell, Ellen Winner
Fiction simulates the social world and invites us into the minds of characters. This has led various researchers to suggest that reading fiction improves our understanding of others' cognitive and emotional states. Kidd and Castano (2013) received a great deal of attention by providing support for this claim. Their article reported that reading segments of literary fiction (but not popular fiction or nonfiction) immediately and significantly improved performance on the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET), an advanced theory-of-mind test...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Yen-Ping Chang, Sara B Algoe, Lung Hung Chen
Affective valence is a core component of all emotional experiences. Building on recent evidence and theory, we reason that valence informs individuals about their agency-the mental capability of doing and intending. Expressed affect may also lead to perceptions of agency by others. Supporting the hypothesis that valence influences self- and other-perception of agency, across 5 studies, we showed that participants perceived more agency in themselves in positive versus neutral and negative personal (Study 1) and interpersonal (Study 2) events...
September 19, 2016: Emotion
C K Wong, W N Levine, K Deo, R S Kesting, E A Mercer, G A Schram, B L Strang
BACKGROUND: In 1940s, it was proposed that frozen shoulder progresses through a self-limiting natural history of painful, stiff and recovery phases, leading to full recovery without treatment. However, clinical evidence of persistent limitations lasting for years contradicts this assumption. OBJECTIVES: To assess evidence for the natural history theory of frozen shoulder by examining: (1) progression through recovery phases, and (2) full resolution without treatment...
June 21, 2016: Physiotherapy
Shouyin Jiang, Yehua Shen, Xiaogang Zhao
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Critical Care Medicine
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