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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221090/no-support-for-the-claim-that-literary-fiction-uniquely-and-immediately-improves-theory-of-mind-a-reply-to-kidd-and-castano-s-commentary-on-panero-et-al-2016
#1
Maria Eugenia Panero, Deena Skolnick Weisberg, Jessica Black, Thalia R Goldstein, Jennifer L Barnes, Hiram Brownell, Ellen Winner
Kidd and Castano (in press) critique our failure to replicate Kidd and Castano (2013) on 3 grounds: failure to exclude people who did not read the texts, failure of random assignment, and failure to exclude people who did not take the Author Recognition Test (ART). This response addresses each of these critiques. Most importantly, we note that even when Kidd and Castano reanalyzed our data in the way that they argue is most appropriate, they still failed to replicate the pattern of results reported in their original study...
March 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221089/panero-et-al-2016-failure-to-replicate-methods-caused-the-failure-to-replicate-results
#2
David Comer Kidd, Emanuele Castano
Contrary to Kidd and Castano (2013), Panero et al. (2016) fail to find that reading literary fiction improves performance on an advanced test of theory of mind (ToM), the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test. However, this commentary shows that the findings presented in Panero et al. (2016) are not reliable due to two striking threats to the internal validity of their studies that were not clearly disclosed or discussed in the manuscript or supplementary materials. First, no effective strategy was implemented to ensure that participants read their assigned texts, and examination of the data revealed many participants whose reading times indicate that they were not exposed to the manipulation...
March 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218198/harmonic-contrast-enhanced-endoscopic-ultrasound-fine-needle-aspiration-fact-or-fiction
#3
REVIEW
Andrada Seicean, Mariana Jinga
The negative predictive value of endoscopic ultrasonography fine-needle aspiration is relatively low. To achieve the improvement of the diagnostic yield, the following were proposed: a higher number of passes, the presence of the rapid on-site cytopathologist evaluation, the fanning technique, or the repetition of the fine needle biopsy. Harmonic contrast-enhanced endosonography may better identify the targeted area in the lesions by avoiding the inside necrosis and the vessels of fibrosis, so it can guide the fine-needle aspiration...
January 2017: Endoscopic Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215214/the-distancing-embracing-model-of-the-enjoyment-of-negative-emotions-in-art-reception
#4
Winfried Menninghaus, Valentin Wagner, Julian Hanich, Eugen Wassiliwizky, Thomas Jacobsen, Stefan Koelsch
Why are negative emotions so central in art reception far beyond tragedy? Revisiting classical aesthetics in light of recent psychological research, we present a novel model to explain this much-discussed (apparent) paradox. We argue that negative emotions are an important resource for the arts in general rather than a special license for exceptional art forms only. The underlying rationale is that negative emotions have been shown to be particularly powerful in securing attention, intense emotional involvement, and high memorability-and hence precisely in what artworks strive for...
February 20, 2017: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210465/plasma-surface-modification-as-a-new-approach-to-protect-urinary-catheter-against-escherichia-coli-biofilm-formation
#5
Leila Taheran, Gholamreza Zarrini, Sirous Khorram, Mohammad Sadegh Zakerhamidi
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Biomaterials are widely used in medical devices such as urinary catheters. One of the main problems associated with long term using of the urinary catheters is biofilm formation on their surfaces. Many techniques have been presented to reduce the biofilm formation. One of the most revolutionary techniques allowing such surface fictionalization is plasma surface modification. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, a glow discharge plasma (GDP) effect on Escherichia coli biofilm formation on the surface of urinary catheter in the pressure of 1...
August 2016: Iranian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195027/the-anthropo-scene-a-guide-for-the-perplexed
#6
Jamie Lorimer
The scientific proposal that the Earth has entered a new epoch as a result of human activities - the Anthropocene - has catalysed a flurry of intellectual activity. I introduce and review the rich, inchoate and multi-disciplinary diversity of this Anthropo-scene. I identify five ways in which the concept of the Anthropocene has been mobilized: scientific question, intellectual zeitgeist, ideological provocation, new ontologies and science fiction. This typology offers an analytical framework for parsing this diversity, for understanding the interactions between different ways of thinking in the Anthropo-scene, and thus for comprehending elements of its particular and peculiar sociabilities...
February 2017: Social Studies of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187170/correction-literary-fiction-influences-attitudes-toward-animal-welfare
#7
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0168695.].
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176291/the-explanatory-structure-of-unexplainable-events-causal-constraints-on-magical-reasoning
#8
Andrew Shtulman, Caitlin Morgan
A common intuition, often captured in fiction, is that some impossible events (e.g., levitating a stone) are "more impossible" than others (e.g., levitating a feather). We investigated the source of this intuition, hypothesizing that graded notions of impossibility arise from explanatory considerations logically precluded by the violation at hand but still taken into account. Studies 1-4 involved college undergraduates (n = 357), and Study 5 involved preschool-aged children (n = 32). In Studies 1 and 2, participants saw pairs of magical spells that violated one of 18 causal principles-six physical, six biological, and six psychological-and were asked to indicate which spell would be more difficult to learn...
February 7, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174552/measuring-mindreading-a-review-of-behavioral-approaches-to-testing-cognitive-and-affective-mental-state-attribution-in-neurologically-typical-adults
#9
REVIEW
Rose Turner, Fatima M Felisberti
Mindreading refers to the ability to attribute mental states, including thoughts, intentions and emotions, to oneself and others, and is essential for navigating the social world. Empirical mindreading research has predominantly featured children, groups with autism spectrum disorder and clinical samples, and many standard tasks suffer ceiling effects with neurologically typical (NT) adults. We first outline a case for studying mindreading in NT adults and proceed to review tests of emotion perception, cognitive and affective mentalizing, and multidimensional tasks combining these facets...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168438/old-man-young-man-t-s-%C3%A2-eliot-s-gerontion-and-the-problem-of-identity
#10
Moritz E Wigand, Hauke F Wiegand, Markus Jäger, Thomas Becker
BACKGROUND: In his poem Gerontion (1920) Nobel laureate T.S. Eliot uses powerful language to give a fictional, highly condensed, first-person account of medical and psychological conditions that arise with old age: physical frailty, cognitive decline, sensory impairment, depressive symptoms with embitterment, social withdrawal and the psychological strain of having to face old age and make meaning of one's life. Surprisingly, he wrote the poem as a young man. METHODS: In this qualitative study, we used a hermeneutic approach to interpret Gerontion from a psychiatric perspective...
February 6, 2017: Neuropsychiatrie: Klinik, Diagnostik, Therapie und Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163910/fact-or-fiction-updates-on-how-protein-coding-genes-might-emerge-de-novo-from-previously-non-coding-dna
#11
REVIEW
Jonathan F Schmitz, Erich Bornberg-Bauer
Over the last few years, there has been an increasing amount of evidence for the de novo emergence of protein-coding genes, i.e. out of non-coding DNA. Here, we review the current literature and summarize the state of the field. We focus specifically on open questions and challenges in the study of de novo protein-coding genes such as the identification and verification of de novo-emerged genes. The greatest obstacle to date is the lack of high-quality genomic data with very short divergence times which could help precisely pin down the location of origin of a de novo gene...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161599/uncharted-features-and-dynamics-of-reading-voices-characters-and-crossing-of-experiences
#12
Ben Alderson-Day, Marco Bernini, Charles Fernyhough
Readers often describe vivid experiences of voices and characters in a manner that has been likened to hallucination. Little is known, however, of how common such experiences are, nor the individual differences they may reflect. Here we present the results of a 2014 survey conducted in collaboration with a national UK newspaper and an international book festival. Participants (n=1566) completed measures of reading imagery, inner speech, and hallucination-proneness, including 413 participants who provided detailed free-text descriptions of their reading experiences...
February 2, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154444/low-back-pain-current-patterns-of-canadian-physiotherapy-service-delivery
#13
Tatiana Orozco, Debbie E Feldman, Barbara Mazer, Gevorg Chilingaryan, Matthew Hunt, Bryn Williams-Jones, Maude Laliberté
Purpose: The aim of this study was to describe the current patterns of service delivery of Canadian physiotherapy (PT) professionals working in adult musculoskeletal (MSK) outpatient practice. Methods: A total of 846 Canadian PT professionals working with an adult MSK outpatient clientele participated in an online survey about how they would treat a patient with low back pain (LBP). After reading an online clinical vignette about a fictional patient with varying insurance status, participants answered questions about how they would treat the patient (e...
2017: Physiotherapy Canada. Physiothérapie Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148245/from-practice-employee-to-co-owner-young-gps-predict-their-future-careers-a-cross-sectional-survey
#14
Luzia Birgit Gisler, Marius Bachofner, Cora Nina Moser-Bucher, Nathalie Scherz, Sven Streit
BACKGROUND: In Switzerland, the mean age of GPs in 1993 was 46. In 2015, it had increased to 55, and GPs over 65 made up 15% of the workforce of the about 6000 GPs. As older, self-employed GPs retire, young doctors will be needed to fill their positions and eventually take over their practices. We set out to determine what kind of employment young GPs wanted, if they thought their preference would change over time, and the working conditions and factors most important in their choice of practice...
February 2, 2017: BMC Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147364/intestinal-microbiota-facts-and-fiction
#15
Miloslav Kverka, Helena Tlaskalová-Hogenová
In humans, the gut microbiota forms a complex ecosystem consisting of a vast number of bacteria, Archaea, fungi and viruses. It represents a major stimulus to the development of the immune system and many other physiological functions, so that it may shape the individual's susceptibility to infectious and immune-mediated diseases. The emergence of new '-omics' methods recently revolutionized the way we study the host-microbe interactions, but they also raised new questions and issues. In this review, we discuss the impact of these new data on the current and future therapies for chronic inflammatory diseases...
2017: Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146390/excessive-dynamic-airway-collapse-fact-fiction-or-flow-limitation
#16
Gerald C Smaldone
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146375/reply-excessive-dynamic-airway-collapse-fact-fiction-or-flow-limitation
#17
Michael J Morris, Septimiu Murgu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143818/superhero-physiology-the-case-for-captain-america
#18
EDITORIAL
Stanley P Brown, JohnEric W Smith, Matthew McAllister, LeeAnn Joe
Using pop icons in the science classroom represents a creative way to engage often-distracted students in a relevant and, perhaps more importantly, fun way. When the pop icon is as universally known as Captain America, the pedagogical stage is set. However, when the movies can also be employed to link dramatic references to the science concepts at hand, we may have a very powerful tool by which linkages between fiction and science can be forged. In this regard, Captain America's performances in several movies to date can be used to explain actual science...
March 1, 2017: Advances in Physiology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126108/the-racialized-construction-of-exceptionality-experimental-evidence-of-race-ethnicity-effects-on-teachers-interventions
#19
Rachel Elizabeth Fish
Scholars, policy-makers, and practitioners have long argued that students of color are over-represented in special education and under-represented in gifted education, arguing that educators make racially/ethnically biased decisions to refer and qualify students with disabilities and giftedness. Recent research has called this into question, focusing on the role of confounders of race/ethnicity. However, the role of educator decisions in the disproportionality is still unclear. In this study, I examine the role of student race/ethnicity in teachers' categorization of student needs as "exceptional" and in need of special or gifted education services...
February 2017: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112649/facts-fiction-publications-and-quality-of-care-are-you-paying-attention
#20
Lia van Rijswijk
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Ostomy/wound Management
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