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Elisa Terracciano, Ermanno Zorzoli, Gian Loreto D'Alò, Laura Zaratti, Elisabetta Franco
Vaccinations and the controversy around them always go in parallel. We identified four categories blending in various amounts of truth and imagination: history, myths, shams and frauds. Over the years, they have alternated and sometimes transformed into one another. This sharp separation into categories is certainly academic and forced. In fact, the line between these aspects is not clear enough to allow a rigid and well-defined division. Our work starts from the category containing the most truthfulness: history, and goes on to analyze two categories that add fantasy to facts: myths and shams (or better, "old wives' tales")...
July 2016: Igiene e Sanità Pubblica
Loredana Marchica, Yaxi Zhao, Jeffrey Derevensky, William Ivoska
Fantasy sports is a growing industry with a reported 56.8 million individuals participating in the United States and Canada alone in 2015. Whereas this activity has attracted considerable public attention, little research has examined its impact on adolescents in spite of their high rates of gambling. The current study examined the relationship between regular participation (more than once a month) in sport-relevant gambling activities among adolescents and those identified as being at-risk for a gambling problem...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Gambling Studies
E Rikandi, S Pamilo, T Mäntylä, J Suvisaari, T Kieseppä, R Hari, M Seppä, T T Raij
BACKGROUND: While group-level functional alterations have been identified in many brain regions of psychotic patients, multivariate machine-learning methods provide a tool to test whether some of such alterations could be used to differentiate an individual patient. Earlier machine-learning studies have focused on data collected from chronic patients during rest or simple tasks. We set out to unravel brain activation patterns during naturalistic stimulation in first-episode psychosis (FEP)...
October 25, 2016: Psychological Medicine
Waltraud Maierhofer, Emanuella Israel
The Fifty Shades trilogy by E.L. James has taken the world by storm and become a cultural phenomenon. The lack of contraceptive use in the erotic fiction, first pointed out by bloggers, is analysed in this article and compared to medical information. James may be praised for sexualising condom use. However, her protagonist makes poor choices in terms of hormonal contraception and is negligent about its use, resulting in an unintended pregnancy and resolved in marital bliss and motherhood. What is of more interest here than a possible message about contraceptive use, is the outcome that the fiction's negligence in birth control and responsibility affirms an ideology in which female sexuality and sexual experimentation can only be tolerated within the context of procreation and affirmation of motherhood...
October 20, 2016: Culture, Health & Sexuality
Giuseppe Civitarese
Over five years, from 1919 to 1924, Freud dealt with masochism in three texts written in close proximity: "A Child Is Being Beaten," Beyond the Pleasure Principle, and "The Economic Problem of Masochism." Initially Freud explains masochism as incestuous fixation on the father and regression to pregenital, sadistic ways of loving. Subsequently he considers it primarily as subservient to the death drive. This paper starts from an idea present in two of the three texts, but not developed by Freud, in which he refers to the role that the "qualitative" element of rhythm could play in the occurrence of pleasure in masochism...
October 17, 2016: Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association
Ritch C Savin-Williams, Brian M Cash, Mark McCormack, Gerulf Rieger
This exploratory study assessed physiological, behavioral, and self-report measures of sexual and romantic indicators of sexual orientation identities among young men (mean age = 21.9 years) with predominant same-sex sexual and romantic interests: those who described themselves as bisexual leaning gay (n = 11), mostly gay (n = 17), and gay (n = 47). Although they were not significantly distinguishable based on physiological (pupil dilation) responses to nude stimuli, on behavioral and self-report measures a descending linear trend toward the less preferred sex (female) was significant regarding sexual attraction, fantasy, genital contact, infatuation, romantic relationship, sex appeal, and gazing time to the porn stimuli...
October 17, 2016: Archives of Sexual Behavior
J Michael Bailey, Paula A Bernhard, Kevin J Hsu
We conducted an Internet survey of 1,102 men sexually attracted to children concerning their history of adjudicated offenses related to child pornography and sexual contact with children. Most of the men reported no offenses, but their rate of offenses was much higher than that expected for adult-attracted men. Correlates of offending are consistent with a strong role of the cumulative effects of temptation, especially age. Older men, men who had repeatedly worked in jobs with children, men who had repeatedly fallen in love with children, and men who had often struggled not to offend were especially likely to have offended...
October 2016: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Wei Long Ng, Shuai Wang, Wai Yee Yeong, May Win Naing
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 7, 2016: Trends in Biotechnology
Eric W Leppink, Samuel R Chamberlain, Sarah A Redden, Jon E Grant
A notable number of young adults struggle to control impulsive behavior, resulting in impairment and distress. Assessments of problematic sexual behavior (PSB) have noted clinical differences relative to other populations, but neurocognitive findings have varied. This analysis assesses the clinical presentation and neurocognitive profile of patients with PSB relative to participants without PSB symptoms. A total of 492 participants (18-29) were recruited for a study on impulsivity in young adults. Participants completed diagnostic, self-report, and neurocognitive measures which assessed several cognitive domains...
September 26, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Phil Brüll, Robert A C Ruiter, Reinout W Wiers, Gerjo Kok
OBJECTIVE: Comprehensive sex education programs specifically designed for adolescents and young adults that take into account gender norms and cultural background have shown promise as a means of countering the high sexually transmitted infection rate in young people. Recently, digital gaming interventions delivered on computers or mobile devices have emerged as another way to promote safer sex behavior in a young population. Tailoring these computer-based interventions to their target population has been recognized to increase positive behavior outcomes...
September 28, 2016: Games for Health
Holland C Detke, Melissa P DelBello, John Landry, Vicki Poole Hoffmann, Alexandra Heinloth, Ralf W Dittmann
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the 52-week safety/tolerability of oral olanzapine for adolescents with schizophrenia or bipolar mania and compare effectiveness of a standard versus intense behavioral weight intervention in mitigating risk of weight gain. METHODS: Patients 13-17 years old with schizophrenia (Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale for Children [BPRS-C] total score >30; item score ≥3 for hallucinations, delusions, or peculiar fantasies) or bipolar I disorder (manic or mixed episode; Young Mania Rating Scale [YMRS] total score ≥15) received open-label olanzapine (2...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
Brad Bowins
Distress related to sexual orientation is a common focus in psychotherapy. In some instances the distress is external in nature as with persecution, and in others it is internal as with self-acceptance issues. Complicating matters, sexual orientation is a very complex topic producing a great deal of confusion for both clients and therapists. The current paper provides a four component model-sexual orientation dimensions, activation of these dimensions, the role of erotic fantasy, and social construction of sexual orientation-that in combination provide a comprehensive perspective...
2016: American Journal of Psychotherapy
Janneke Caw Peijnenborgh, Petra Pm Hurks, Albert P Aldenkamp, Erik D van der Spek, Gwm Rauterberg, Johan Sh Vles, Jos Gm Hendriksen
BACKGROUND: A computer-based game, named Timo's Adventure, was developed to assess specific cognitive functions (eg, attention, planning, and working memory), time perception, and reward mechanisms in young school-aged children. The game consists of 6 mini-games embedded in a story line and includes fantasy elements to enhance motivation. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the validity of Timo's Adventure in normally developing children and in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)...
2016: JMIR Serious Games
Michael A Perelman
The Sexual Tipping Point(®) (STP) model is an integrated approach to the etiology, diagnosis and treatment of men with delayed ejaculation (DE), including all subtypes manifesting ejaculatory delay or absence [registered trademark owned by the MAP Educational Fund, a 501(c)(3) public charity]. A single pathogenetic pathway does not exist for sexual disorders generally and that is also true for DE specifically. Men with DE have various bio-psychosocial-behavioral & cultural predisposing, precipitating, maintaining, and contextual factors which trigger, reinforce, or worsen the probability of DE occurring...
August 2016: Translational Andrology and Urology
Elvira S N Cooper, Helge Holgersen
This article is an attempt at gaining a better understanding of treatment of adults who have committed sexual offenses against children. In this study we aimed to explore what people who have committed sexual offenses against children find useful in therapy. The study was approached using qualitative methodology, and information was collected through semistructured interviews. Four male child sexual offenders were recruited from the Institute of Clinical Sexology and Therapy in Oslo, Norway. The informants were interviewed with a focus on what factors they found useful in therapy...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Child Sexual Abuse
A Ribadier, I Varescon
INTRODUCTION: Defense mechanisms have been seen to greatly change over time and across different definitions made by different theoretical currents. Recently with the definition provided by the DSM IV, defense mechanisms have integrated the concept of coping as a defensive factor. These mechanisms are no longer considered just through a psychodynamic approach but also through a cognitive and behavioral one. In recent years, new theories have therefore integrated these two components of the defensive operation...
September 9, 2016: L'Encéphale
Philipp Kanske, Marjan Sharifi, Jonathan Smallwood, Isabel Dziobek, Tania Singer
Narcissism is characterized by a preoccupation with fantasies of unlimited success, power, beauty, and similar values, which has been discussed as intra-individual regulation of a grandiose, but vulnerable self-concept. To explore where the narcissistic mind wanders, we used an experience-sampling approach in a sample with large variability in pathological narcissism inventory scores. Multilevel modeling revealed (1) more mind-wandering in participants with higher levels of narcissism and (2) a difference in the content of these thoughts (more self- and other-related, past and future oriented, negative content)...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Personality Disorders
Frank Thies, Lynsey M Mills, Susan Moir, Lindsey F Masson
Epidemiological evidence indicates that high consumption of tomatoes and tomato-based products reduces the risk of chronic diseases such as CVD and cancer. Such potential benefits are often ascribed to high concentrations of lycopene present in tomato products. Mainly from the results of in vitro studies, potential biological mechanisms by which carotenoids could protect against heart disease and cancer have been suggested. These include cholesterol reduction, inhibition of oxidation processes, modulation of inflammatory markers, enhanced intercellular communication, inhibition of tumourigenesis and induction of apoptosis, metabolism to retinoids and antiangiogenic effects...
September 9, 2016: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
Álvaro Frías, Laura González, Cárol Palma, Núria Farriols
Sexual masochism disorder is considered the most prevalent paraphilia among women. However, little is known about the etiology and clinical correlates involved in this disorder. We aimed at addressing this issue through a potentially high-risk clinical cohort. This case-control study consisted of 60 women who met DSM-IV criteria for borderline personality disorder (BPD) and 60 women with other personality disorders. For both groups, sexual masochism disorder comorbidity was assessed through the Structured Clinical Interview, Sexual Disorders Module...
September 6, 2016: Archives of Sexual Behavior
Robert B Cameron
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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