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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343796/integrated-climate-chemical-indicators-of-diffuse-pollution-from-land-to-water
#1
Per-Erik Mellander, Phil Jordan, Marianne Bechmann, Ophélie Fovet, Mairead M Shore, Noeleen T McDonald, Chantal Gascuel-Odoux
Management of agricultural diffuse pollution to water remains a challenge and is influenced by the complex interactions of rainfall-runoff pathways, soil and nutrient management, agricultural landscape heterogeneity and biogeochemical cycling in receiving water bodies. Amplified cycles of weather can also influence nutrient loss to water although they are less considered in policy reviews. Here, we present the development of climate-chemical indicators of diffuse pollution in highly monitored catchments in Western Europe...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343715/effects-of-straw-application-on-nitrate-leaching-in-fields-in-the-yellow-river-irrigation-zone-of-ningxia-china
#2
Shiqi Yang, Yongsheng Wang, Ruliang Liu, Quanxin Li, Zhengli Yang
A five-year field experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of straw application on nitrate leaching loss. Treatments included soil that was not treated (control), soil treated with straw at a low rate (4,500 kg ha-2, T1) and soil treated with straw at a high rate (9,000 kg ha-2, T2). Nitrate-nitrogen leaching in the 10, 20, 30, 60, and 90 cm soil layers was measured using the resin-core method. The results indicated that straw application could reduce soil nitrate leaching losses in the 0-30 cm layer...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342979/catalysts-on-formation-of-carbon-encapsulated-iron-nanoparticles-from-kraft-lignin
#3
Xuefeng Zhang, Qiangu Yan, Jinghao Li, Jilei Zhang, Zhiyong Cai
Effects of physical and chemical states of iron-based catalysts on the formation of carbon-encapsulated iron nanoparticles (CEINs) synthesized thermally from kraft lignin were investigated. Experimental results indicated that if solution-based iron nitrate (FeN) was used as an iron source for the catalyst, CEINs observed were α-Fe and γ-Fe-based cores encapsulated by few layers graphitic-carbon (mostly 1-5 layers) and the majority of these CEINs were embedded in amorphous carbon matrix. The formation of graphitic-carbon shells is believed based on the dissolution and precipitation mechanism of amorphous carbon acting as the carbon source...
January 15, 2018: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341857/development-of-visibility-forecasting-modelling-framework-for-the-lower-fraser-valley-of-british-columbia-using-canada-s-regional-air-quality-deterministic-prediction-system
#4
Rita So, Andrew Teakles, Jonathan Baik, Roxanne Vingarzan, Keith Jones
Visibility degradation, one of the most noticeable indicators of poor air quality, can occur despite relatively low levels of particulate matter when the risk to human health is low. The availability of timely and reliable visibility forecasts can provide a more comprehensive understanding of the anticipated air quality conditions to better inform local jurisdictions and the public. This paper describes the development of a visibility forecasting modelling framework, which leverages the existing air quality and meteorological forecasts from Canada's operational Regional Air Quality Deterministic Prediction System (RAQDPS) for the Lower Fraser Valley of British Columbia...
January 17, 2018: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339610/effect-of-precursor-type-on-the-reduction-of-concentrated-nitrate-using-zero-valent-copper-and-sodium-borohydride
#5
Tihitinna Asmellash Belay, C Y Lin, H M Hsiao, M F Chang, J C Liu
In this study, we demonstrated that the choice of precursor has a strong effect on the reduction of nitrate (NO3-) using zero-valent copper (Cu0) synthesized by sodium borohydride (NaBH4). Different precursors: CuSO4, CuO, Cu2O, Cu powder, and Cu mesh were used to reduce NO3- at 677 mg-N/L under the reducing conditions of NaBH4. Compared with the prehydrolyzed samples, those prepared without prehydrolysis exhibited lower reduction rates, longer times and higher concentrations of nitrite (NO2-) intermediate...
January 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339609/effects-of-ph-and-coexisting-chemicals-on-photolysis-of-perfluorooctane-sulfonate-using-an-excited-xenon-dimer-lamp
#6
Naoyuki Kishimoto, Koji Doda
Vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photolysis at the wavelength of 172 nm in a sulfate solution was introduced as a more efficient process for perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) degradation than ultraviolet (UV) photolysis at 254 nm. The effects of pH and coexisting chemicals on VUV photolysis under the coexistence of 100 mM sulfate were investigated. VUV irradiation successfully degraded PFOS, and the degradation rate was 5.5 times higher than by UV photolysis. Direct VUV photolysis was inferred to mainly contribute to PFOS degradation...
January 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339605/enhancing-nitrogen-removal-efficiency-in-a-dyestuff-wastewater-treatment-plant-with-the-iffas-process-the-pilot-scale-and-full-scale-studies
#7
Yanjun Mao, Xie Quan, Huimin Zhao, Yaobin Zhang, Shuo Chen, Tao Liu
The activated sludge (AS) process is widely applied in dyestuff wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs); however, the nitrogen removal efficiency is relatively low and the effluent does not meet the indirect discharge standards before being discharged into the industrial park's WWTP. Hence it is necessary to upgrade the WWTP with more advanced technologies. Moving bed biofilm processes with suspended carriers in an aerobic tank are promising methods due to enhanced nitrification and denitrification. Herein, a pilot-scale integrated free-floating biofilm and activated sludge (IFFAS) process was employed to investigate the feasibility of enhancing nitrogen removal efficiency at different hydraulic retention times (HRTs)...
January 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339331/the-catalytic-destruction-of-antibiotic-tetracycline-by-sulfur-doped-manganese-oxide-s-mgo-nanoparticles
#8
Gholamreza Moussavi, Ali Mashayekh-Salehi, Kamyar Yaghmaeian, Anoshiravan Mohseni-Bandpei
The present study evaluates the efficacy of S-doped MgO (S-MgO) as compared with the plain MgO as a catalyst for destructive removal of tetracycline (TTC) in aqueous solutions. The S-MgO had around 6% S in its structure. Doping MgO with S caused increase in surface oxygen vacancy defects. Adding S-MgO (12 g/L) to a TTC aqueous solution (50 mg/L) caused removal of around 99% TTC at the neutral pH (ca. 5.1) and a short reaction time of 10 min. In comparison, plain MgO could remove only around 15% of TTC under similar experimental conditions...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339273/electrolyte-selection-and-microbial-toxicity-for-electrochemical-oxidative-water-treatment-using-a-boron-doped-diamond-anode-to-support-site-specific-contamination-incident-response
#9
Rebecca B Phillips, Ryan R James, Matthew L Magnuson
Intentional and unintentional contamination incidents, such as terrorist attacks, natural disasters, and accidental spills, can result in large volumes of contaminated water. These waters may require pre-treatment before disposal and assurances that treated waters will not adversely impact biological processes at wastewater treatment facilities, or receiving waters. Based on recommendations of an industrial workgroup, this study addresses such concerns by studying electrochemical advanced oxidation process (EAOP) pre-treatment for contaminated waters, using a boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode, prior to discharge to wastewater treatment facilities...
January 6, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338234/role-of-reaction-conditions-in-the-global-and-local-two-parabolas-charge-transfer-model
#10
Ulises Orozco-Valencia, José L Gázquez, Alberto Vela
The local and global charge transfer approach based on the two parabolas model is applied to several problems aiming to show the importance of incorporating the reaction conditions to evaluate the global and local chemical descriptors. It is shown that by preparing the reactants the chemical potentials of the reacting species determined by the two parabolas model satisfy the condition for the transfer of electrons in the direction dictated by the chemical potential difference. The model is applied to the hydration of alkenes, showing that it recovers Markovnikov's rule, to aromatic nitration, and to the interaction of nitrobenzenes with 1,3-diethylurea, an electrochemically controlled hydrogen-bonding problem...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338093/longitudinal-profiles-of-metabolism-and-bioenergetics-associated-with-innate-immune-hormonal-inflammatory-responses-and-amino-acid-kinetics-in-severe-sepsis-and-systemic-inflammatory-response-syndrome-in-children
#11
Anna Maria Spanaki, Theonymfi Tavladaki, Helen Dimitriou, Andrey V Kozlov, J Catharina Duvigneau, Eftychia Meleti, Adelheid Weidinger, Evangelos Papakonstantinou, George Briassoulis
BACKGROUND: Experimental data indicate that sepsis influences the mitochondrial function and metabolism. We aim to investigate longitudinal bioenergetic, metabolic, hormonal, amino-acid, and innate immunity changes in children with sepsis. METHODS: Sixty-eight children (sepsis, 18; systemic inflammatory response syndrome [SIRS], 23; healthy controls, 27) were enrolled. Plasma amino acids were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC); flow-cytometry expressed as mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) of heat shock protein (HSP) levels from monocytes (m) and neutrophils (n); resistin, adiponectin, and extracellular (e) HSPs evaluated by ELISA; ATP levels in white blood cells by luciferase luminescent assay; lipid peroxidation products (TBARS) by colorimetric test; nitrite and nitrate levels by chemiluminescent assay; biliverdin reductase (BVR) activity by enzymatic assay; and energy-expenditure (EE) by E-COVX...
January 16, 2018: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337676/alkyl-polyglucoside-vs-ethoxylated-surfactant-based-microemulsions-as-vehicles-for-two-poorly-water-soluble-drugs-physicochemical-characterization-and-in-vivo-skin-performance
#12
Nataša Z Bubić Pajić, Marija N Todosijević, Gordana M Vuleta, Nebojša D Cekić, Vladimir D Dobričić, Sonja R Vučen, Bojan R Čalija, Milica Ž Lukić, Tanja M Ilić, Snežana D Savić
Two types of biocompatible surfactants were evaluated for their capability to formulate skin-friendly/non-irritant microemulsions as vehicles for two poorly water-soluble model drugs differing in properties and concentrations: alkyl polyglucosides (decyl glucoside and caprylyl/capryl glucoside) and ethoxylated surfactants (glycereth-7-caprylate/ caprate and polysorbate 80). Phase behavior, structural inversion and microemulsion solubilization potential for sertaconazole nitrate and adapalene were found to be highly dependent on the surfactants structure and HLB value...
December 20, 2017: Acta Pharmaceutica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336953/effective-use-of-iron-aluminum-rich-laterite-based-soil-mixture-for-treatment-of-landfill-leachate
#13
I V K Nayanthika, D T Jayawardana, N J G J Bandara, P M Manage, R M T D Madushanka
Landfill leachate poses environmental threats worldwide and causes severe issues on adjacent water bodies and soil by direct discharge. The primary objective of this study is to analyze the efficient use of compost and laterite mixtures (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 wt% compost/laterite) on leachate treatment and to investigate the associated removal efficiencies under different sorption processes. Therefore, in the experimental design, laterite is used for providing adsorption characteristics, and compost for activating biological properties of the filter...
January 11, 2018: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336716/reactive-oxygen-species-nitric-oxide-production-and-antioxidant-gene-expression-during-development-of-aerenchyma-formation-in-wheat
#14
Aakanksha Wany, Kapuganti Jagadis Gupta
In response to hypoxia, plant roots produce very high levels of nitric oxide. Recently, it was demonstrated that NO and ethylene both are essential for development of aerenchyma in wheat roots under hypoxia. Increased NO under hypoxia correlated with induction of NADPH oxidase gene expression, ROS production and lipid peroxidation in cortical cells. Tyrosine nitration was prominent in cells developing aerenchyma suggesting that NO and ROS play a key role in development of aerenchyma. However, the role of antioxidant genes during development of aerenchyma is not known, therefore, we checked gene expression of various antioxidants such as SOD1, AOX1A, APX and MnSOD at different time points after hypoxia treatment and found that expression of these genes elevated in 2 h but downregulated in 24 h where development of aerenchyma is prominent...
January 16, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336556/linking-spectral-induced-polarization-sip-and-subsurface-microbial-processes-results-from-sand-column-incubation-experiments
#15
Adrian Mellage, Christina M Smeaton, Alex Furman, Estella Atekwana, Fereidoun Rezanezhad, Philippe Van Cappellen
Geophysical techniques, such as Spectral Induced Polarization (SIP), offer potentially powerful approaches for in-situ monitoring of subsurface biogeochemistry. The successful implementation of these techniques as monitoring tools for reactive transport phenomena, however, requires the de-convolution of multiple contributions to measured signals. Here, we present SIP spectra and complementary biogeochemical data obtained in saturated columns packed with alternating layers of ferrihydrite-coated and pure quartz sand, and inoculated with Shewanella oneidensis supplemented with lactate and nitrate...
January 16, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336466/magnolol-protects-against-ischemic-reperfusion-brain-damage-following-oxygen-glucose-deprivation-and-transient-focal-cerebral-ischemia
#16
Sheng-Yang Huang, Shih-Huang Tai, Che-Chao Chang, Yi-Fang Tu, Chih-Han Chang, E-Jian Lee
In the present study, the neuroprotective potential of magnolol against ischemia-reperfusion brain injury was examined via in vivo and in vitro experiments. Magnolol exhibited strong radical scavenging and antioxidant activity, and significantly inhibited the production of interleukin‑6, tumor necrosis factor‑a and nitrite/nitrate (NOX) in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated BV2 and RAW 264.7 cells when applied at concentrations of 10 and 50 µM, respectively. Magnolol (100 µM) also significantly attenuated oxygen‑glucose deprivation‑induced damage in neonatal rat hippocampal slice cultures, when administered up to 4 h following the insult...
January 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336033/h2-o2-mediates-nitrate-induced-iron-chlorosis-by-regulating-iron-homeostasis-in-rice
#17
Haifei Chen, Quan Zhang, Hongmei Cai, Wei Zhou, Fangsen Xu
The uptake of nitrate by plant roots causes a pH increment in rhizosphere and leads to iron (Fe) deficiency in rice. However, little is known about the mechanism how the nitrate uptake-induced high rhizosphere pH causes Fe deficiency. Here, we found that rice showed severe leaf chlorosis and large amounts of Fe plaque were aggregated on the root surface and intercellular space outside the exodermis in a form of ferrihydrite under alkaline conditions. In this case, there was significantly decreased Fe concentration in shoots and the Fe deficiency responsive genes were strongly induced in the roots...
January 16, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334654/phbv-polymer-supported-denitrification-system-efficiently-treated-high-nitrate-concentration-wastewater-denitrification-performance-microbial-community-structure-evolution-and-key-denitrifying-bacteria
#18
Zhongshuo Xu, Liyan Song, Xiaohu Dai, Xiaoli Chai
Biodegradable polymer supported denitrification (BPD) system shows good denitrification performance for the wastewater with low nitrate concentrations. In this study, a BPD system using Poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) polymer as carbon source was developed to treat the wastewater with high nitrate concentrations. The denitrification performance, utilization ratio of PHBV polymers, and microbial community structure evolution and key denitrifying bacteria were comprehensively studied. Results indicated that an average nitrate removal efficiency of 99% could be achieved with an influent NO3--N concentration of 100 mg L-1 and a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 7...
January 8, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334437/a-randomized-clinical-trial-to-measure-the-erosion-protection-benefits-of-a-novel-stabilized-stannous-fluoride-dentifrice-versus-a-control-dentifrice
#19
Xinyi Zhao, Tao He, Yanyan He, Cathy Cheng, Haijing Chen
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this investigation was to assess the erosion protection ability of a novel stabilized stannous fluoride (SnF2) dentifrice and a control sodium fluoride dentifrice (NaF) using a well-credentialed human in situ model. METHODS: A novel smooth texture 0.454% stabilized SnF2 dentifrice (Crest® Pro-Health™ smooth formula) and a 0.23% NaF marketed control dentifrice with 5% potassium nitrate (Sensodyne® Pronamel®) were compared in a 10-day, single center, randomized, controlled, double-blind, two-treatment, three-period crossover in situ clinical trial...
December 2017: Journal of Clinical Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333588/nitrogen-fixation-activity-and-the-abundance-and-taxonomy-of-nifh-genes-in-agricultural-pristine-and-urban-prairie-stream-sediments-chronically-exposed-to-different-levels-of-nitrogen-loading
#20
Ingrid R Caton, Todd M Caton, Mark A Schneegurt
Small streams exert great influences on the retention and attenuation of nitrogen (N) within stream networks. Human land use can lead to increased transport of dissolved inorganic N compounds and downstream eutrophication. Microbial activity in streams is important for maintaining an actively functioning N cycle. Chronically high N loading in streams affects the rates of the central processes of the N cycle by increasing rates of nitrification and denitrification, with biota exhibiting decreased efficiency of N use...
January 15, 2018: Archives of Microbiology
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