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Cheating Behavior

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785930/shearing-in-flow-environment-promotes-evolution-of-social-behavior-in-microbial-populations
#1
Gurdip Uppal, Dervis Vural
How producers of public goods persist in microbial communities is a major question in evolutionary biology. Cooperation is evolutionarily unstable, since cheating strains can reproduce quicker and take over. Spatial structure has been shown to be a robust mechanism for the evolution of cooperation. Here we study how spatial assortment might emerge from native dynamics and show that fluid flow shear promotes cooperative behavior. Social structures arise naturally from our advection-diffusion-reaction model as self-reproducing Turing patterns...
May 22, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728393/maximizing-growth-yield-and-dispersal-via-quorum-sensing-promotes-cooperation-in-vibrio-bacteria
#2
Eric L Bruger, Christopher M Waters
Quorum sensing (QS) is a form of bacterial chemical communication that regulates cellular phenotypes, including certain cooperative behaviors, in response to environmental and demographic changes. Despite the existence of proposed mechanisms that stabilize QS against defector exploitation, it is unclear if or how QS-cooperators can proliferate in populations of mostly defectors in some model systems. We predicted that growth in fragmented subpopulations could allow QS-cooperators to invade a QS-defector population...
May 4, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717227/children-passively-allow-other-s-rule-violations-in-cooperative-situations
#3
Ayaka Ikeda, Yuko Okumura, Tessei Kobayashi, Shoji Itakura
Recent studies in developmental psychology have revealed the developmental origins of cooperation. Although such studies regard cooperation as a pro-social behavior, studies on adults have found a negative aspect: cooperation sometimes promotes unethical behavior. Adults also exhibit altruistic cheating, even though their cheating might not actually benefit them. However, the development of negative aspects of cooperation remains unclear. Our study examined whether 7-year-old children engage in negative aspects of cooperation from two aspects using a peeking paradigm...
May 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596538/self-reported-cheating-among-medical-students-an-alarming-finding-in-a-cross-sectional-study-from-saudi-arabia
#4
Hamza Mohammad Abdulghani, Shafiul Haque, Yousef Abdullah Almusalam, Saleh Lafi Alanezi, Yazeed Abdulaziz Alsulaiman, Mohammad Irshad, Shaffi Ahmed Shaik, Nehal Khamis
Academic misconduct/dishonesty has become widespread behavior among many university students across the globe, and medical education is not an exception. Until recently, few efforts have been made to study the dishonest behavior in Middle-Eastern universities. This study examined the prevalence and predisposing factors of cheating among medical students in Saudi Arabia and suggests suitable preventive measures. A cross-sectional survey-based study was conducted at a government medical college during the 2014-2015 academic year...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29545762/bridging-the-divide-the-role-of-motivation-and-self-regulation-in-explaining-the-judgment-action-gap-related-to-academic-dishonesty
#5
Jason M Stephens
There is often a divide between moral judgment and moral action; between what we believe we ought to do (or not do) and what we do. Knowledge of this divide is not new, and numerous theories have attempted to offer more robust accounts of ethical decision-making and moral functioning. Knowledge of widespread academic dishonesty among students is also not new, and several studies have revealed that many students report cheating despite believing it is wrong. The present study, involving cross-sectional survey data from a sample of secondary students ( N = 380) in the United States, contributes to the literature on this important area of theory and research by fulfilling three broad purposes...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29507206/genetic-signatures-of-microbial-altruism-and-cheating-in-social-amoebas-in-the-wild
#6
Suegene Noh, Katherine S Geist, Xiangjun Tian, Joan E Strassmann, David C Queller
Many microbes engage in social interactions. Some of these have come to play an important role in the study of cooperation and conflict, largely because, unlike most animals, they can be genetically manipulated and experimentally evolved. However, whereas animal social behavior can be observed and assessed in natural environments, microbes usually cannot, so we know little about microbial social adaptations in nature. This has led to some difficult-to-resolve controversies about social adaptation even for well-studied traits such as bacterial quorum sensing, siderophore production, and biofilms...
March 20, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29505388/externalizing-behavior-and-psychopathy-a-social-relations-analysis
#7
David K Marcus, Samantha L Robinson, Alexander E Eichenbaum
Most conceptualizations of psychopathy emphasize its interpersonal consequences, yet most research on psychopathy has been conducted at the individual level. In small groups, well-acquainted members of sororities and fraternities (N = 111) rated one another and themselves on a variety of externalizing behaviors (e.g., cheating, risky sex), and completed a self-report measure of psychopathy. There was consensus about the extent to which members of the groups engaged in these behaviors. The associations between these target effects and respondents' self-reports suggest that these consensual judgments were reasonably accurate...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29392560/a-common-evolutionary-pathway-for-maintaining-quorum-sensing-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#8
Bai-Min Lai, Hui-Cong Yan, Mei-Zhen Wang, Na Li, Dong-Sheng Shen
In the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the synthesis and secretion of extracellular protease is a typical cooperative behavior regulated by quorum sensing. However, this type of cooperative behavior is easily exploited by other individuals who do not synthesize public goods, which is known as the "tragedy of the commons". Here P. aeruginosa was inoculated into casein media with different nitrogen salts added. In casein broth, protease (a type of public good) is necessary for bacterial growth. After 30 days of sequential transfer, some groups propagated stably and avoided "tragedy of the commons"...
February 2018: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316498/the-relation-between-having-siblings-and-children-s-cheating-and-lie-telling-behaviors
#9
Alison M O'Connor, Angela D Evans
The current study investigated how having at least one child sibling influenced children's dishonest behaviors. Furthermore, for those children with a sibling, we examined whether having a younger or older sibling and the age difference between siblings influenced deceptive acts. Children between 3 and 8 years of age (N = 130) completed the temptation resistance paradigm, where they played a guessing game and were asked not to peek at a toy in the experimenter's absence. Children's peeking behavior was used as a measure of cheating, and children's responses when asked whether they had peeked were used as measures of lie-telling...
April 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237298/passion-relational-mobility-and-proof-of-commitment-a-comparative-socio-ecological-analysis-of-an-adaptive-emotion-in-a-sexual-market
#10
Junko Yamada, Mie Kito, Masaki Yuki
Although monogamy, the exclusive bonding with a specific partner, is one characteristic of modern human mating, long-term romantic relationships inherently possess the commitment problem, which is the conflict between maintaining a relationship with a certain partner and seeking attractive alternatives. Frank has argued that love and passion help solve this problem because they make individuals commit voluntarily to the relationship, leading the other party to also be committed with less concern over being cheated on or rejected...
October 2017: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195112/promoting-honesty-in-young-children-through-observational-learning
#11
Fengling Ma, Gail D Heyman, Chunyan Jing, Ying Fu, Brian J Compton, Fen Xu, Kang Lee
The observational learning approach, developed more than a half century ago, suggests that it is possible to promote desirable social behaviors through peer observation. However, this idea has yet to be put to a rigorous empirical test. The current research sought to fill this gap by examining whether honesty can be promoted in children by allowing them to observe a peer's display of honest behavior. The dependent measure was whether 5-year-old children who had cheated by peeking in a guessing game would confess to it...
March 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121671/separating-conditional-and-unconditional-cooperation-in-a-sequential-prisoner-s-dilemma-game
#12
Raoul Bell, Laura Mieth, Axel Buchner
Most theories of social exchange distinguish between two different types of cooperation, depending on whether or not cooperation occurs conditional upon the partner's previous behaviors. Here, we used a multinomial processing tree model to distinguish between positive and negative reciprocity and cooperation bias in a sequential Prisoner's Dilemma game. In Experiments 1 and 2, the facial expressions of the partners were varied to manipulate cooperation bias. In Experiment 3, an extinction instruction was used to manipulate reciprocity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117784/lucky-competent-or-just-a-cheat-interactive-effects-of-honesty-humility-and-moral-cues-on-cheating-behavior
#13
Emmanuelle P Kleinlogel, Joerg Dietz, John Antonakis
Despite substantial research on cheating, how and when individual predispositions figure into cheating behavior remains unclear. In Study 1, we investigated to what extent Honesty-Humility predicted cheating behavior. As expected, individuals high on Honesty-Humility were less likely to cheat than were individuals low on this trait. In Study 2, integrating arguments from personality research about traits with arguments from behavioral ethics about moral primes, we examined how Honesty-Humility and situational primes interacted to affect cheating...
February 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073226/behavioral-correlates-of-cheating-environmental-specificity-and-reward-expectation
#14
Michael Isakov, Arnav Tripathy
Academic dishonesty has been and continues to be a major problem in America's schools and universities. Such dishonesty is especially important in high schools, where grades earned directly impact the academic careers of students for many years to come. The rising pressure to get the best grades in school, get into the best college, and land the best paying job is a cycle that has made academic dishonesty increase exponentially. Thus, finding the widespread roots of cheating is more important now than ever...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026880/adaptive-social-strategies-in-a-solitary-carnivore
#15
L Mark Elbroch, Michael Levy, Mark Lubell, Howard Quigley, Anthony Caragiulo
Cost-benefit trade-offs for individuals participating in social behaviors are the basis for current theories on the evolution of social behaviors and societies. However, research on social strategies has largely ignored solitary animals, in which we assume that rare interactions are explained by courtship or territoriality or, in special circumstances, resource distributions or kinship. We used directed network analysis of conspecific tolerance at food sources to provide evidence that a solitary carnivore, the puma ( Puma concolor ), exhibited adaptive social strategies similar to more social animals...
October 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967764/-cheating-under-pressure-a-self-protection-model-of-workplace-cheating-behavior-correction-to-mitchel-et-al-2017
#16
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "Cheating Under Pressure: A Self-Protection Model of Workplace Cheating Behavior" by Marie S. Mitchell, Michael D. Baer, Maureen L. Ambrose, Robert Folger and Noel F. Palmer ( Journal of Applied Psychology , Advanced Online Publication, Aug 14, 2017, np). In the article, the fit statistics in Study 3 were reported in error. The fit of the measurement model is: Χ²(362) = 563.66, p = .001; CFI = .94; SRMR = .05; RMSEA = .04. The fit of the SEM model is: Χ²(362) = 563.66, p = ...
January 2018: Journal of Applied Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966038/depletion-moral-identity-and-unethical-behavior-why-people-behave-unethically-after-self-control-exertion
#17
Yan Wang, Guosen Wang, Qiuju Chen, Lin Li
Self-control enables people to resist short-term temptations in the service of long-term goals. Previous exertion of self-control leads to a state of ego depletion. Three studies demonstrated that ego depletion leads to a high level of unethical behavior. These studies also hypothesized and confirmed that depleted individuals behave unethically because of low moral identity. Study 1 found that depleted participants were more likely to over-report their performance than non-depleted participants. Study 2 revealed that depletion reduced people's moral identity, which in turn increased their propensity to engage in unethical behavior...
September 28, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955279/a-perspective-on-research-on-dishonesty-limited-external-validity-due-to-the-lack-of-possibility-of-self-selection-in-experimental-designs
#18
Petr Houdek
The aim of this perspective article is to show that current experimental evidence on factors influencing dishonesty has limited external validity. Most of experimental studies is built on random assignments, in which control/experimental groups of subjects face varied sizes of the expected reward for behaving dishonestly, opportunities for cheating, means of rationalizing dishonest behavior etc., and mean groups' reactions are observed. The studies have internal validity in assessing the causal influence of these and other factors, but they lack external validity in organizational, market and other environments...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912771/selection-of-functional-quorum-sensing-systems-by-lysogenic-bacteriophages-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#19
Miguel A Saucedo-Mora, Paulina Castañeda-Tamez, Adrián Cazares, Judith Pérez-Velázquez, Burkhard A Hense, Daniel Cazares, Wendy Figueroa, Marco Carballo, Gabriel Guarneros, Berenice Pérez-Eretza, Nelby Cruz, Yoshito Nishiyama, Toshinari Maeda, Javier A Belmont-Díaz, Thomas K Wood, Rodolfo García-Contreras
Quorum sensing (QS) in Pseudomonas aeruginosa coordinates the expression of virulence factors, some of which are used as public goods. Since their production is a cooperative behavior, it is susceptible to social cheating in which non-cooperative QS deficient mutants use the resources without investing in their production. Nevertheless, functional QS systems are abundant; hence, mechanisms regulating the amount of cheating should exist. Evidence that demonstrates a tight relationship between QS and the susceptibility of bacteria against the attack of lytic phages is increasing; nevertheless, the relationship between temperate phages and QS has been much less explored...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893158/academic-ethical-awareness-among-undergraduate-nursing-students
#20
Ok-Hee Cho, Kyung-Hye Hwang
BACKGROUND: Academic ethical awareness is an important aspect especially for nursing students who will provide ethical nursing care to patients in future or try to tread the path of learning toward professional acknowledgement in nursing scholarship. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to explore academic ethical awareness and its related characteristics among undergraduate nursing students. METHODS: This study commenced the survey with cross-sectional, descriptive questions and enrolled convenient samples of 581 undergraduate nursing students from three universities in South Korea...
January 1, 2017: Nursing Ethics
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