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Cheating Behavior

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121671/separating-conditional-and-unconditional-cooperation-in-a-sequential-prisoner-s-dilemma-game
#1
Raoul Bell, Laura Mieth, Axel Buchner
Most theories of social exchange distinguish between two different types of cooperation, depending on whether or not cooperation occurs conditional upon the partner's previous behaviors. Here, we used a multinomial processing tree model to distinguish between positive and negative reciprocity and cooperation bias in a sequential Prisoner's Dilemma game. In Experiments 1 and 2, the facial expressions of the partners were varied to manipulate cooperation bias. In Experiment 3, an extinction instruction was used to manipulate reciprocity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117784/lucky-competent-or-a-just-a-cheat-interactive-effects-of-honesty-humility-and-moral-cues-on-cheating-behavior
#2
Emmanuelle P Kleinlogel, Joerg Dietz, John Antonakis
Despite substantial research on cheating, how and when individual predispositions figure into cheating behavior remains unclear. In Study 1, we investigated to what extent Honesty-Humility predicted cheating behavior. As expected, individuals high on Honesty-Humility were less likely to cheat than were individuals low on this trait. In Study 2, integrating arguments from personality research about traits with arguments from behavioral ethics about moral primes, we examined how Honesty-Humility and situational primes interacted to affect cheating...
November 1, 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073226/behavioral-correlates-of-cheating-environmental-specificity-and-reward-expectation
#3
Michael Isakov, Arnav Tripathy
Academic dishonesty has been and continues to be a major problem in America's schools and universities. Such dishonesty is especially important in high schools, where grades earned directly impact the academic careers of students for many years to come. The rising pressure to get the best grades in school, get into the best college, and land the best paying job is a cycle that has made academic dishonesty increase exponentially. Thus, finding the widespread roots of cheating is more important now than ever...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026880/adaptive-social-strategies-in-a-solitary-carnivore
#4
L Mark Elbroch, Michael Levy, Mark Lubell, Howard Quigley, Anthony Caragiulo
Cost-benefit trade-offs for individuals participating in social behaviors are the basis for current theories on the evolution of social behaviors and societies. However, research on social strategies has largely ignored solitary animals, in which we assume that rare interactions are explained by courtship or territoriality or, in special circumstances, resource distributions or kinship. We used directed network analysis of conspecific tolerance at food sources to provide evidence that a solitary carnivore, the puma (Puma concolor), exhibited adaptive social strategies similar to more social animals...
October 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967764/correction-to-mitchel-et-al-2017
#5
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "Cheating Under Pressure: A Self-Protection Model of Workplace Cheating Behavior" by Marie S. Mitchell, Michael D. Baer, Maureen L. Ambrose, Robert Folger and Noel F. Palmer (Journal of Applied Psychology, Advanced Online Publication, Aug 14, 2017, np). In the original article, the fit statistics in Study 3 were reported in error. The fit of the measurement model is: χ²(362) = 563.66, p < .001; CFI = .94; SRMR = .05; RMSEA = .04. The fit of the SEM model is: χ²(362) = 563.66, p < ...
October 2, 2017: Journal of Applied Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966038/depletion-moral-identity-and-unethical-behavior-why-people-behave-unethically-after-self-control-exertion
#6
Yan Wang, Guosen Wang, Qiuju Chen, Lin Li
Self-control enables people to resist short-term temptations in the service of long-term goals. Previous exertion of self-control leads to a state of ego depletion. Three studies demonstrated that ego depletion leads to a high level of unethical behavior. These studies also hypothesized and confirmed that depleted individuals behave unethically because of low moral identity. Study 1 found that depleted participants were more likely to over-report their performance than non-depleted participants. Study 2 revealed that depletion reduced people's moral identity, which in turn increased their propensity to engage in unethical behavior...
September 28, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955279/a-perspective-on-research-on-dishonesty-limited-external-validity-due-to-the-lack-of-possibility-of-self-selection-in-experimental-designs
#7
Petr Houdek
The aim of this perspective article is to show that current experimental evidence on factors influencing dishonesty has limited external validity. Most of experimental studies is built on random assignments, in which control/experimental groups of subjects face varied sizes of the expected reward for behaving dishonestly, opportunities for cheating, means of rationalizing dishonest behavior etc., and mean groups' reactions are observed. The studies have internal validity in assessing the causal influence of these and other factors, but they lack external validity in organizational, market and other environments...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912771/selection-of-functional-quorum-sensing-systems-by-lysogenic-bacteriophages-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#8
Miguel A Saucedo-Mora, Paulina Castañeda-Tamez, Adrián Cazares, Judith Pérez-Velázquez, Burkhard A Hense, Daniel Cazares, Wendy Figueroa, Marco Carballo, Gabriel Guarneros, Berenice Pérez-Eretza, Nelby Cruz, Yoshito Nishiyama, Toshinari Maeda, Javier A Belmont-Díaz, Thomas K Wood, Rodolfo García-Contreras
Quorum sensing (QS) in Pseudomonas aeruginosa coordinates the expression of virulence factors, some of which are used as public goods. Since their production is a cooperative behavior, it is susceptible to social cheating in which non-cooperative QS deficient mutants use the resources without investing in their production. Nevertheless, functional QS systems are abundant; hence, mechanisms regulating the amount of cheating should exist. Evidence that demonstrates a tight relationship between QS and the susceptibility of bacteria against the attack of lytic phages is increasing; nevertheless, the relationship between temperate phages and QS has been much less explored...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893158/academic-ethical-awareness-among-undergraduate-nursing-students
#9
Ok-Hee Cho, Kyung-Hye Hwang
BACKGROUND: Academic ethical awareness is an important aspect especially for nursing students who will provide ethical nursing care to patients in future or try to tread the path of learning toward professional acknowledgement in nursing scholarship. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to explore academic ethical awareness and its related characteristics among undergraduate nursing students. METHODS: This study commenced the survey with cross-sectional, descriptive questions and enrolled convenient samples of 581 undergraduate nursing students from three universities in South Korea...
January 1, 2017: Nursing Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846002/stressful-family-environments-and-children-s-behavioral-control-a-multimethod-test-and-replication-study-with-twins
#10
Claudia I Vrijhof, Anja van der Voort, Marinus H van IJzendoorn, Saskia Euser
Young children's behavioral control predicts a broad range of developmental outcomes in child- and adulthood. It is therefore important to study how individual differences in behavioral control arise. Previous studies suggest that there are both genetic and environmental influences, which were estimated in the current study using a sample of mono- and dizygotic same-sex twins. Furthermore, we examined the associations between indicators of a stressful family environment like household chaos, parenting daily hassles, and parental depressive symptoms and children's behavioral control in 2 samples...
August 28, 2017: Journal of Family Psychology: JFP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805425/cheating-under-pressure-a-self-protection-model-of-workplace-cheating-behavior
#11
Marie S Mitchell, Michael D Baer, Maureen L Ambrose, Robert Folger, Noel F Palmer
Workplace cheating behavior is unethical behavior that seeks to create an unfair advantage and enhance benefits for the actor. Although cheating is clearly unwanted behavior within organizations, organizations may unknowingly increase cheating as a byproduct of their pursuit of high performance. We theorize that as organizations place a strong emphasis on high levels of performance, they may also enhance employees' self-interested motives and need for self-protection. We suggest that demands for high performance may elicit performance pressure-the subjective experience that employees must raise their performance efforts or face significant consequences...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Applied Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794499/nutrient-limitation-determines-the-fitness-of-cheaters-in-bacterial-siderophore-cooperation
#12
D Joseph Sexton, Martin Schuster
Cooperative behaviors provide a collective benefit, but are considered costly for the individual. Here, we report that these costs vary dramatically in different contexts and have opposing effects on the selection for non-cooperating cheaters. We investigate a prominent example of bacterial cooperation, the secretion of the peptide siderophore pyoverdine by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, under different nutrient-limiting conditions. Using metabolic modeling, we show that pyoverdine incurs a fitness cost only when its building blocks carbon or nitrogen are growth-limiting and are diverted from cellular biomass production...
August 10, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767015/dependency-traits-relationship-power-and-health-risks-in-women-receiving-sexually-transmitted-infection-clinic-services
#13
Eric G Benotsch, Ashlee N Sawyer, Aaron M Martin, Elizabeth S Allen, Christopher D Nettles, Doug Richardson, Cornelis A Rietmeijer
In prior research, having traits consistent with a personality disorder has been shown to be related to substance use and high-risk sexual activity; however, few studies have examined relationships between dependency traits and health-jeopardizing behaviors. Individuals with traits consistent with dependent personality disorder may be more likely to be in a primary relationship characterized by unhealthy conditions, including physical abuse from a partner, low assertiveness in sexual situations, and partner infidelity...
July 2017: Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765994/modulation-of-financial-deprivation-on-deception-and-its-neural-correlates
#14
Peng Sun, Xiaoli Ling, Li Zheng, Jia Chen, Lin Li, Zhiyuan Liu, Xuemei Cheng, Xiuyan Guo
Deception is a universal phenomenon in human society and plays an important role in everyday life. Previous studies have revealed that people might have an internalized moral norm of keeping honest and the deceptive behavior was reliably correlated with activation in executive brain regions of prefrontal cortices to over-ride intuitive honest responses. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, this study sought to investigate how financial position modulated the neural responses during deceptive decision...
November 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752377/is-he-important-to-me-source-memory-advantage-for-personally-relevant-cheaters
#15
Meike Kroneisen
A popular assumption in evolutionary psychology claims that reciprocal altruism is supported by a cognitive module that helps individuals to detect and remember cheaters. Previous studies found a source memory advantage for faces of cheaters rather than faces of cooperators. The present study examines memory for social-exchange relevant information. More precisely, faces were shown together with behavior descriptions of cheating, trustworthy and neutral behavior either high or low in relevance for a student population...
July 27, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668551/crossing-the-line-college-students-and-academic-integrity-in-nursing
#16
Margaret W Bultas, Ashley D Schmuke, Renée L Davis, Janice L Palmer
BACKGROUND: Researchers have shown a relationship between academic integrity in the classroom and acts of dishonest behavior in the clinical setting which is concerning for nursing faculty and the health care field. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to compare the attitudes toward academic integrity and the frequency of behaviors related to academic dishonesty in nursing and non-nursing students at a religiously affiliated institution. DESIGN: A cross-sectional, descriptive design was used to collect data regarding the knowledge, behavior, perceptions, and attitudes related to academic integrity via an online survey...
September 2017: Nurse Education Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604018/resisting-temptation-for-the-good-of-the-group-binding-moral-values-and-the-moralization-of-self-control
#17
Marlon Mooijman, Peter Meindl, Daphna Oyserman, John Monterosso, Morteza Dehghani, John M Doris, Jesse Graham
When do people see self-control as a moral issue? We hypothesize that the group-focused "binding" moral values of Loyalty/betrayal, Authority/subversion, and Purity/degradation play a particularly important role in this moralization process. Nine studies provide support for this prediction. First, moralization of self-control goals (e.g., losing weight, saving money) is more strongly associated with endorsing binding moral values than with endorsing individualizing moral values (Care/harm, Fairness/cheating)...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588278/associations-among-adhd-abnormal-eating-and-overweight-in-a-non-clinical-sample-of-asian-children
#18
Lian Tong, Huijing Shi, Xiaoru Li
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been found to be comorbid with obesity in adults, but the association in children is uncertain. Because the underlying mechanism of comorbidity in children has not been researched sufficiently, this study aims to explore the associations among ADHD, abnormal eating, and body mass index (BMI), as well as the mediating effect of depression in children. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 785 primary students in China. The parent-report version of ADHD Rating Scale-IV (ADHDRS-IV), the Child Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) and the Children's Eating Attitude Test (ChEAT) were used to identify ADHD symptoms and abnormal eating...
June 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580806/your-cheatin-voice-will-tell-on-you-detection-of-past-infidelity-from-voice
#19
Susan M Hughes, Marissa A Harrison
Evidence suggests that many physical, behavioral, and trait qualities can be detected solely from the sound of a person's voice, irrespective of the semantic information conveyed through speech. This study examined whether raters could accurately assess the likelihood that a person has cheated on committed, romantic partners simply by hearing the speaker's voice. Independent raters heard voice samples of individuals who self-reported that they either cheated or had never cheated on their romantic partners. To control for aspects that may clue a listener to the speaker's mate value, we used voice samples that did not differ between these groups for voice attractiveness, age, voice pitch, and other acoustic measures...
April 2017: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465424/the-fitness-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-quorum-sensing-signal-cheats-is-influenced-by-the-diffusivity-of-the-environment
#20
Anne Mund, Stephen P Diggle, Freya Harrison
Experiments examining the social dynamics of bacterial quorum sensing (QS) have focused on mutants which do not respond to signals and the role of QS-regulated exoproducts as public goods. The potential for QS signal molecules to themselves be social public goods has received much less attention. Here, we analyze how signal-deficient (lasI) mutants of the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa interact with wild-type cells in an environment where QS is required for growth. We show that when growth requires a "private" intracellular metabolic mechanism activated by the presence of QS signal, lasI mutants act as social cheats and outcompete signal-producing wild-type bacteria in mixed cultures, because they can exploit the signals produced by wild-type cells...
May 2, 2017: MBio
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