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Cheating Behavior

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604018/resisting-temptation-for-the-good-of-the-group-binding-moral-values-and-the-moralization-of-self-control
#1
Marlon Mooijman, Peter Meindl, Daphna Oyserman, John Monterosso, Morteza Dehghani, John M Doris, Jesse Graham
When do people see self-control as a moral issue? We hypothesize that the group-focused "binding" moral values of Loyalty/betrayal, Authority/subversion, and Purity/degradation play a particularly important role in this moralization process. Nine studies provide support for this prediction. First, moralization of self-control goals (e.g., losing weight, saving money) is more strongly associated with endorsing binding moral values than with endorsing individualizing moral values (Care/harm, Fairness/cheating)...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588278/associations-among-adhd-abnormal-eating-and-overweight-in-a-non-clinical-sample-of-asian-children
#2
Lian Tong, Huijing Shi, Xiaoru Li
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been found to be comorbid with obesity in adults, but the association in children is uncertain. Because the underlying mechanism of comorbidity in children has not been researched sufficiently, this study aims to explore the associations among ADHD, abnormal eating, and body mass index (BMI), as well as the mediating effect of depression in children. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 785 primary students in China. The parent-report version of ADHD Rating Scale-IV (ADHDRS-IV), the Child Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) and the Children's Eating Attitude Test (ChEAT) were used to identify ADHD symptoms and abnormal eating...
June 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580806/your-cheatin-voice-will-tell-on-you-detection-of-past-infidelity-from-voice
#3
Susan M Hughes, Marissa A Harrison
Evidence suggests that many physical, behavioral, and trait qualities can be detected solely from the sound of a person's voice, irrespective of the semantic information conveyed through speech. This study examined whether raters could accurately assess the likelihood that a person has cheated on committed, romantic partners simply by hearing the speaker's voice. Independent raters heard voice samples of individuals who self-reported that they either cheated or had never cheated on their romantic partners. To control for aspects that may clue a listener to the speaker's mate value, we used voice samples that did not differ between these groups for voice attractiveness, age, voice pitch, and other acoustic measures...
April 2017: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465424/the-fitness-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-quorum-sensing-signal-cheats-is-influenced-by-the-diffusivity-of-the-environment
#4
Anne Mund, Stephen P Diggle, Freya Harrison
Experiments examining the social dynamics of bacterial quorum sensing (QS) have focused on mutants which do not respond to signals and the role of QS-regulated exoproducts as public goods. The potential for QS signal molecules to themselves be social public goods has received much less attention. Here, we analyze how signal-deficient (lasI) mutants of the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa interact with wild-type cells in an environment where QS is required for growth. We show that when growth requires a "private" intracellular metabolic mechanism activated by the presence of QS signal, lasI mutants act as social cheats and outcompete signal-producing wild-type bacteria in mixed cultures, because they can exploit the signals produced by wild-type cells...
May 2, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446891/moral-attitudes-predict-cheating-and-gamesmanship-behaviors-among-competitive-tennis-players
#5
Fabio Lucidi, Arnaldo Zelli, Luca Mallia, Giampaolo Nicolais, Lambros Lazuras, Martin S Hagger
Background: The present study tested Lee et al.'s (2008) model of moral attitudes and cheating behavior in sports in an Italian sample of young tennis players and extended it to predict behavior in actual match play. In the first phase of the study we proposed that moral, competence and status values would predict prosocial and antisocial moral attitudes directly, and indirectly through athletes' goal orientations. In the second phase, we hypothesized that moral attitudes would directly predict actual cheating behavior observed during match play...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429996/are-athletes-doping-related-attitudes-predicted-by-their-perceptions-of-coaches-confrontation-efficacy
#6
Philip Sullivan, Parmida Razavi
BACKGROUND: The coaching process is complex and dynamic. Coaches are known to affect athlete attitudes indirectly, through athletes' perceptions and interpretations. This process has been verified with a variety of ethical behaviors. OBJECTIVES: The current study investigated the relationships between athletes' perceived doping confrontation efficacy of their coaches and athlete's anti-doping attitudes. METHODS: A sample of athletes (N = 96) completed a version of the Doping Confrontation Efficacy Scale that was modified to assess their perception of their coaches' anti-doping confrontation efficacy, and the PEAS (Performance Enhancing Attitude Scale), which assessed their performance-enhancing attitudes...
April 21, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396395/increasing-honesty-in-humans-with-noninvasive-brain-stimulation
#7
Michel André Maréchal, Alain Cohn, Giuseppe Ugazio, Christian C Ruff
Honesty plays a key role in social and economic interactions and is crucial for societal functioning. However, breaches of honesty are pervasive and cause significant societal and economic problems that can affect entire nations. Despite its importance, remarkably little is known about the neurobiological mechanisms supporting honest behavior. We demonstrate that honesty can be increased in humans with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Participants (n = 145) completed a die-rolling task where they could misreport their outcomes to increase their earnings, thereby pitting honest behavior against personal financial gain...
April 25, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385668/cooperation-induces-other-cooperation-fruiting-bodies-promote-the-evolution-of-macrocysts-in-dictyostelium-discoideum
#8
Shota Shibasaki, Yuka Shirokawa, Masakazu Shimada
Biological studies of the evolution of cooperation are challenging because this process is vulnerable to cheating. Many mechanisms, including kin discrimination, spatial structure, or by-products of self-interested behaviors, can explain this evolution. Here we propose that the evolution of cooperation can be induced by other cooperation. To test this idea, we used a model organism Dictyostelium discoideum because it exhibits two cooperative dormant phases, the fruiting body and the macrocyst. In both phases, the same chemoattractant, cyclic AMP (cAMP), is used to collect cells...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383983/for-whom-does-deterrence-affect-behavior-identifying-key-individual-differences
#9
Adam Fine, Benjamin van Rooij
Deterrence threats are essential mechanisms for affecting behavior, yet they are often ineffective. The literature is beginning to consider individual differences underlying differential susceptibility to deterrence. The present study sampled 223 adults from Amazon Mechanical Turk and used an experimental cheating paradigm to examine the role of 3 individual differences, including morality, self-control, and rule orientation, underlying differential susceptibility to deterrence. The results indicate that deterrence threats may be more influential for people who have low moral disengagement, who possess more self-control, or who are more rule oriented...
April 6, 2017: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303111/episodic-future-thinking-about-the-ideal-self-induces-lower-discounting-leading-to-a-decreased-tendency-toward-cheating
#10
Wen-Hsiung Wu, Wen Cheng, Wen-Bin Chiou
Delay discounting refers to a pervasive tendency toward preferring smaller immediate gains over larger future gains. Recent empirical research has shown that episodic future thinking (EFT; i.e., projecting oneself into the future to pre-experience forthcoming events) can reduce the tendency toward discounting. A common tenet of psychological theories of crime is that delinquency results from focusing on short-term gains while failing to consider adequately the longer-term consequences of delinquent behavior...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273518/does-everyone-have-a-price-on-the-role-of-payoff-magnitude-for-ethical-decision-making
#11
Benjamin E Hilbig, Isabel Thielmann
Most approaches to dishonest behavior emphasize the importance of corresponding payoffs, typically implying that dishonesty might increase with increasing incentives. However, prior evidence does not appear to confirm this intuition. However, extant findings are based on relatively small payoffs, the potential effects of which are solely analyzed across participants. In two experiments, we used different multi-trial die-rolling paradigms designed to investigate dishonesty at the individual level (i.e., within participants) and as a function of the payoffs at stake - implementing substantial incentives exceeding 100€...
March 5, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253006/duplicity-among-the-dark-triad-three-faces-of-deceit
#12
Daniel N Jones, Delroy L Paulhus
Although all 3 of the Dark Triad members are predisposed to engage in exploitative interpersonal behavior, their motivations and tactics vary. Here we explore their distinctive dynamics with 5 behavioral studies of dishonesty (total N = 1,750). All 3 traits predicted cheating on a coin-flipping task when there was little risk of being caught (Study 1). Only psychopathy predicted cheating when punishment was a serious risk (Study 2). Machiavellian individuals also cheated under high risk-but only if they were ego-depleted (Study 3)...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244713/associations-between-socio-demographic-characteristics-and-pubertal-status-with-disordered-eating-among-primary-school-children-in-selangor-malaysia
#13
Lin Siew Chong, Yit Siew Chin, Wan Ying Gan, Mohd Taib Mohd Nasir
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To determine the associations between socio-demographic characteristics and pubertal status with disordered eating among primary school children. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: Using a stratified multi-stage sampling, a total of 816 children (282 boys and 534 girls) aged 10 to 11 years from 12 selected primary schools in the state of Selangor, participated in this study. Data were collected on socio-demographic characteristics, pubertal status and disordered eating behaviors...
March 2017: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163396/schumpeter-s-picture-of-economic-and-political-institutions-in-the-light-of-a-cognitive-approach-to-human-behavior
#14
Massimo Egidi
Schumpeter's theory of democracy can be read through the lens of the cognitive approach to rationality. Schumpeter himself constructed his theory on the basis of his (neglected) conception of conscious rationality, which considers the process of thinking as composed of conscious/deliberate and unconscious/automatic components. The prevalence of the deliberate over the automatic component can occur in different degrees; as a consequence, individuals exhibit different levels of conscious rationality. Schumpeter makes clear that an essential attribute of democracy is its being a system of government capable of working notwithstanding a low degree of conscious rationality among its citizens...
2017: Journal of Evolutionary Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151017/an-examination-of-how-people-who-have-lost-weight-communicatively-negotiate-interpersonal-challenges-to-weight-management
#15
Lynsey K Romo
The vast majority of Americans are overweight, and those who are able to lose weight typically regain at least the amount they lost. Some people are confronted with sabotage, criticism, and declines in social support during and following weight loss. However, how individuals negotiate these interpersonal barriers is not very well understood. Such an understanding could help individuals maintain their weight loss while minimizing the risk of adverse health or relational consequences. Thus, through a thematic analysis of 40 interviews of people who were identified as previously overweight or obese and a facework lens (Cupach & Metts, 1994; Goffman, 1967), this study examined how people were communicatively able to sustain their weight loss in the face of challenges from friends, family, and colleagues...
February 2, 2017: Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28113949/the-impact-of-social-behavior-on-the-attenuation-and-delay-of-bacterial-nanonetworks
#16
Bige Deniz Unluturk, Sasitharan Balasubramaniam, Ian Akyildiz
Molecular communication (MC) is a new paradigm for developing communication systems that exchanges information through the transmission and reception of molecules. One proposed model for MC is using bacteria to carry information encoded into DNA plasmids, and this is termed bacterial nanonetworks. However, a limiting factor in the models that have been studied so far is the environment considered only in ideal conditions with a single population. This is far from realistic in natural environments, where bacteria co-exist in multiple populations of same and different species, resulting in a very complex social community...
November 11, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Nanobioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049833/antibiotic-stress-selects-against-cooperation-in-the-pathogenic-bacterium-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#17
Marie Vasse, Robert J Noble, Andrei R Akhmetzhanov, Clara Torres-Barceló, James Gurney, Simon Benateau, Claire Gougat-Barbera, Oliver Kaltz, Michael E Hochberg
Cheats are a pervasive threat to public goods production in natural and human communities, as they benefit from the commons without contributing to it. Although ecological antagonisms such as predation, parasitism, competition, and abiotic environmental stress play key roles in shaping population biology, it is unknown how such stresses generally affect the ability of cheats to undermine cooperation. We used theory and experiments to address this question in the pathogenic bacterium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa Although public goods producers were selected against in all populations, our competition experiments showed that antibiotics significantly increased the advantage of nonproducers...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974308/prospective-associations-between-problematic-eating-attitudes-in-midchildhood-and-the-future-onset-of-adolescent-obesity-and-high-blood-pressure
#18
Kaitlin H Wade, Michael S Kramer, Emily Oken, Nicholas J Timpson, Oleg Skugarevsky, Rita Patel, Natalia Bogdanovich, Konstantin Vilchuck, George Davey Smith, Jennifer Thompson, Richard M Martin
BACKGROUND: Clinically diagnosed eating disorders may have adverse cardiometabolic consequences, including overweight or obesity and high blood pressure. However, the link between problematic eating attitudes in early adolescence, which can lead to disordered eating behaviors, and future cardiometabolic health is, to our knowledge, unknown. OBJECTIVE: We assessed whether variations in midchildhood eating attitudes influence the future development of overweight or obesity and high blood pressure...
February 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942577/laboratory-notes-from-behavioral-pharmacologists-and-trainees-considerations-for-the-discipline
#19
Rick A Bevins, Scott T Barrett, Brady M Thompson, Steven T Pittenger
In several laboratory meetings, we discussed the challenges that face trainees in behavioral pharmacology. Major concerns, such as a difficult funding climate and limited academic job prospects were discussed at first. However, we decided to concentrate on ways to meet these challenges; versus focusing on negatives and listing gripes. Within this more constructive framework, we identified the importance of broadening training to aligned areas to enhance the capacity of behavioral pharmacologists to collaborate in multidisciplinary teams...
November 2016: Behavior Analysis (Washington, D.C.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880826/social-monitoring-matters-for-deterring-social-deviance-in-stable-but-not-mobile-socio-ecological-contexts
#20
Jenny C Su, Chi-Yue Chiu, Wei-Fang Lin, Shigehiro Oishi
Previous research suggests that reputational concerns can incentivize cooperation and deter socially deviant behavior. The current research showed that social monitoring of information that has the potential to damage one's reputation has differential effects on deviant behavior in social-ecological environments that vary in level of mobility. Study 1 showed that residentially stable cities that employed more journalists-who can be regarded as social monitoring agents in a community-tended to have lower rates of violent crime than residentially stable cities that employed fewer journalists; by contrast, in residentially mobile cities, violent crime rates did not vary as a function of the number of journalists employed...
2016: PloS One
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