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Cheating Behavior

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880826/social-monitoring-matters-for-deterring-social-deviance-in-stable-but-not-mobile-socio-ecological-contexts
#1
Jenny C Su, Chi-Yue Chiu, Wei-Fang Lin, Shigehiro Oishi
Previous research suggests that reputational concerns can incentivize cooperation and deter socially deviant behavior. The current research showed that social monitoring of information that has the potential to damage one's reputation has differential effects on deviant behavior in social-ecological environments that vary in level of mobility. Study 1 showed that residentially stable cities that employed more journalists-who can be regarded as social monitoring agents in a community-tended to have lower rates of violent crime than residentially stable cities that employed fewer journalists; by contrast, in residentially mobile cities, violent crime rates did not vary as a function of the number of journalists employed...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849547/the-impact-of-social-behavior-on-the-attenuation-and-delay-of-bacterial-nanonetworks
#2
Bige Deniz Unluturk, Sasitharan Balasubramaniam, Ian Akyildiz
Molecular communication (MC) is a new paradigm for developing communication systems that exchanges information through the transmission and reception of molecules. One proposed model for MC is using bacteria to carry information encoded into DNA plasmids, and this is termed bacterial nanonetworks. However, a limiting factor in the models that have been studied so far is the environment considered only in ideal conditions with a single population. This is far from realistic in natural environments, where bacteria co-exist in multiple populations of same and different species, resulting in a very complex social community...
November 11, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Nanobioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796763/a-two-stage-approach-to-differentiating-normal-and-aberrant-behavior-in-computer-based-testing
#3
Chun Wang, Gongjun Xu, Zhuoran Shang
Statistical methods for identifying aberrances on psychological and educational tests are pivotal to detect flaws in the design of a test or irregular behavior of test takers. Two approaches have been taken in the past to address the challenge of aberrant behavior detection, which are (1) modeling aberrant behavior via mixture modeling methods, and (2) flagging aberrant behavior via residual based outlier detection methods. In this paper, we propose a two-stage method that is conceived of as a combination of both approaches...
October 28, 2016: Psychometrika
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27786598/intentions-to-cheat-ajzen-s-planned-behavior-and-goal-related-personality-facets
#4
Damian Lonsdale
This study sought to test antecedents to college students' intentions to cheat by utilizing Ajzen's ( 1991 ) theory of planned behavior (TPB), and four goal-related personality facets. Those facets were behavioral approach, behavioral inhibition, need for achievement-hope of success, and need for achievement-fear of failure. As hypothesized, perceived friends' and parents' attitudes toward academic dishonesty (two subjective norms) and perceived ease of cheating (perceived behavioral control) all positively predicted overall intentions to cheat...
October 27, 2016: Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742733/age-related-preservation-of-trust-following-minor-transgressions
#5
Phoebe E Bailey, Katherine Petridis, Skye N McLennan, Ted Ruffman, Peter G Rendell
OBJECTIVES: This study assesses age-related differences in the weighting and integration of appearance and behavior cues to trustworthiness. The aim is to assess whether it becomes more difficult with age to detect a cheater in disguise. METHOD: Young and older adults invested real money in a repeated trust game with trustees who varied on facial expression (smiling, neutral, angry) and return rate (high, low). Trustees were also rated for trustworthiness pre- and post-trust game...
October 14, 2016: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739581/identification-of-risk-for-severe-psychiatric-comorbidity-in-pediatric-epilepsy
#6
Jana E Jones, Prabha Siddarth, Dace Almane, Suresh Gurbani, Bruce P Hermann, Rochelle Caplan
OBJECTIVE: This study identified items on the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) that predict those children and adolescents with epilepsy at highest risk for multiple psychiatric diagnoses. METHODS: Three hundred twenty-eight children, ages 5-18 years, and their parents participated in separate structured psychiatric interviews about the children, which yielded Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) diagnoses...
November 2016: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736133/the-order-of-disorder-deconstructing-visual-disorder-and-its-effect-on-rule-breaking
#7
Hiroki P Kotabe, Omid Kardan, Marc G Berman
Disorderly environments are linked to disorderly behaviors. Broken windows theory (Wilson & Kelling, 1982), an influential theory of crime and rule-breaking, assumes that scene-level social disorder cues (e.g., litter, graffiti) cause people to reason that they can get away with breaking rules. But what if part of the story is not about such complex social reasoning? Recent research suggests that basic visual disorder cues may be sufficient to encourage complex rule-breaking behavior. To test this hypothesis, we first conducted a set of experiments (Experiments 1-3) in which we identified basic visual disorder cues that generalize across visual stimuli with a variety of semantic content...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27705541/perceived-cross-orientation-infidelity-heterosexual-perceptions-of-same-sex-cheating-in-exclusive-relationships
#8
Benjamin L Compton, Jonathan M Bowman
For individuals in exclusive romantic relationships, the dynamics of sexual experimentation are nuanced. Extradyadic behavior outside of a relationship may be perceived as cheating or infidelity, with much of those perceptions driven by the biological sex of the perceiver. This study significantly reframes seminal research on perceptions of cheating with third-party friends by Kruger et al. (2013), to further nuance an evolutionary threat-based model. In doing so, this furthers our understanding of the associated perceptions of individuals in heterosexual relationships when confronted by partners' cheating with their same-sex cross-orientation friends...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Homosexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677972/social-interactions-in-bacterial-cell-cell-signaling
#9
Kyle L Asfahl, Martin Schuster
Cooperation and conflict in microorganisms is being recognized as an important factor in the organization and function of microbial communities. Many of the cooperative behaviors described in bacteria are governed through a cell-cell signaling process generally termed quorum sensing. Communication and cooperation in diverse microorganisms exhibit predictable trends that behave according to social evolutionary theory, notably that public goods dilemmas produce selective pressures for divergence in social phenotypes including cheating...
September 26, 2016: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651447/psychopathic-traits-and-the-cheater-hawk-hypothesis
#10
Angela Book, Tabitha Methot-Jones, Julie Blais, Ashley Hosker-Field, Anthony Volk, Beth A Visser, Nathalie Gauthier, Ronald R Holden, Madeleine T D'Agata
The present study was a direct test of the cheater-hawk hypothesis which argues that psychopathy is related to two potentially adaptive interpersonal strategies: cheating and aggression. As expected, the measures of cheater and hawk behaviors comprised a single factor, according to a maximum-likelihood factor analysis. As hypothesized, psychopathic traits exhibited large positive correlations with measures of both cheater (entitlement, exploitiveness, and short-term mating orientation) and hawk (vengeance and aggression) behaviors...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27630597/cognitive-load-does-not-affect-the-behavioral-and-cognitive-foundations-of-social-cooperation
#11
Laura Mieth, Raoul Bell, Axel Buchner
The present study serves to test whether the cognitive mechanisms underlying social cooperation are affected by cognitive load. Participants interacted with trustworthy-looking and untrustworthy-looking partners in a sequential Prisoner's Dilemma Game. Facial trustworthiness was manipulated to stimulate expectations about the future behavior of the partners which were either violated or confirmed by the partners' cheating or cooperation during the game. In a source memory test, participants were required to recognize the partners and to classify them as cheaters or cooperators...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27586553/no-difference-in-the-intention-to-engage-others-in-academic-transgression-among-medical-students-from-neighboring-countries-a-cross-national-study-on-medical-students-from-bosnia-and-herzegovina-croatia-and-macedonia
#12
Varja Đogaš, Doncho M Donev, Sunčana Kukolja-Taradi, Zoran Đogaš, Vesna Ilakovac, Anita Novak, Ana Jerončić
AIM: To asses if the level of intention to engage others in academic transgressions was comparable among medical students from five schools from neighboring Southern-European countries: Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Macedonia; and medical students from western EU studying at Split, Croatia. METHODS: Five medical schools were surveyed in 2011, with ≥87% of the targeted population sampled and a response rate of ≥76%. Students' intention to engage a family member, friend, colleague, or a stranger in academic transgression was measured using a previously validated the Intention to Engage Others in Academic Transgression (IEOAT) questionnaire and compared with their intention to ask others for a non-academic, material favor...
August 31, 2016: Croatian Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27569198/the-profile-of-academic-offenders-features-of-students-who-admit-to-academic-dishonesty
#13
Liat Korn, Nitza Davidovitch
Dishonesty in academic settings is a reckless behavior that is unique to students and is associated with cheat    ing and plagiarism of academic tasks. Incidents involving dishonesty in higher education have increased considerably in the past decade, with regard to the extent of these practices, the types of dishonesty employed, and their prevalence. The current study examines the profile of "academic offenders". Which types are more prone to commit academic offenses? To what degree are they "normative" and do they represent the average student with regard to personal traits, personal perceptions, features of their academic studies, risk behaviors, and health risks...
2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27568585/the-infamous-among-us-enhanced-reputational-memory-for-uncooperative-ingroup-members
#14
Stefanie Hechler, Franz J Neyer, Thomas Kessler
People remember uncooperative individuals better than cooperative ones. We hypothesize that this is particularly true when uncooperative individuals belong to one's ingroup, as their behavior violates positive expectations. Two studies examined the effect of minimal group categorization on reputational memory of the social behavior of particular ingroup and outgroup members. We manipulated uncooperative behavior as the unfair sharing of resources with ingroup members (Study 1), or as descriptions of cheating (Study 2)...
December 2016: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27565619/bacterial-quorum-sensing-stabilizes-cooperation-by-optimizing-growth-strategies
#15
Eric L Bruger, Christopher M Waters
: Communication has been suggested as a mechanism to stabilize cooperation. In bacteria, chemical communication, termed quorum sensing (QS), has been hypothesized to fill this role, and extracellular public goods are often induced by QS at high cell densities. Here we show, with the bacterium Vibrio harveyi, that QS provides strong resistance against invasion of a QS defector strain by maximizing the cellular growth rate at low cell densities while achieving maximum productivity through protease upregulation at high cell densities...
November 15, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27495930/ultimate-and-proximate-mechanisms-of-reciprocal-altruism-in-rats
#16
Vassilissa Dolivo, Claudia Rutte, Michael Taborsky
The reciprocal exchange of goods and services among social partners is a conundrum in evolutionary biology because of its proneness to cheating, but also the behavioral and cognitive mechanisms involved in such mutual cooperation are hotly debated. Extreme viewpoints range from the assumption that, at the proximate level, observed cases of "direct reciprocity" can be merely explained by basic instrumental and Pavlovian association processes, to the other extreme implying that "cultural factors" must be involved, as is often attributed to reciprocal cooperation among humans...
September 2016: Learning & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27460274/from-the-immoral-to-the-incorruptible-how-prescriptive-expectations-turn-the-powerful-into-paragons-of-virtue
#17
Miao Hu, Derek D Rucker, Adam D Galinsky
Ample evidence documents that power increases unethical behavior. This article introduces a new theoretical framework for understanding when power leads to more versus less unethical behavior. Our key proposition is that people hold expectations about power that are both descriptive (how the powerful do behave) and prescriptive (how the powerful should behave). People hold descriptive beliefs that the powerful do behave more unethically than the powerless, but they hold prescriptive beliefs that the powerful should behave more ethically than the powerless...
June 2016: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27450085/demographic-noise-can-reverse-the-direction-of-deterministic-selection
#18
George W A Constable, Tim Rogers, Alan J McKane, Corina E Tarnita
Deterministic evolutionary theory robustly predicts that populations displaying altruistic behaviors will be driven to extinction by mutant cheats that absorb common benefits but do not themselves contribute. Here we show that when demographic stochasticity is accounted for, selection can in fact act in the reverse direction to that predicted deterministically, instead favoring cooperative behaviors that appreciably increase the carrying capacity of the population. Populations that exist in larger numbers experience a selective advantage by being more stochastically robust to invasions than smaller populations, and this advantage can persist even in the presence of reproductive costs...
August 9, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27379128/mixed-nodule-infection-in-sinorhizobium-meliloti-medicago-sativa-symbiosis-suggest-the-presence-of-cheating-behavior
#19
Alice Checcucci, Elisa Azzarello, Marco Bazzicalupo, Marco Galardini, Alessandra Lagomarsino, Stefano Mancuso, Lucia Marti, Maria C Marzano, Stefano Mocali, Andrea Squartini, Marina Zanardo, Alessio Mengoni
In the symbiosis between rhizobia and legumes, host plants can form symbiotic root nodules with multiple rhizobial strains, potentially showing different symbiotic performances in nitrogen fixation. Here, we investigated the presence of mixed nodules, containing rhizobia with different degrees of mutualisms, and evaluate their relative fitness in the Sinorhizobium meliloti-Medicago sativa model symbiosis. We used three S. meliloti strains, the mutualist strains Rm1021 and BL225C and the non-mutualist AK83. We performed competition experiments involving both in vitro and in vivo symbiotic assays with M...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27375515/music-as-a-sacred-cue-effects-of-religious-music-on-moral-behavior
#20
Martin Lang, Panagiotis Mitkidis, Radek Kundt, Aaron Nichols, Lenka Krajčíková, Dimitris Xygalatas
Religion can have an important influence in moral decision-making, and religious reminders may deter people from unethical behavior. Previous research indicated that religious contexts may increase prosocial behavior and reduce cheating. However, the perceptual-behavioral link between religious contexts and decision-making lacks thorough scientific understanding. This study adds to the current literature by testing the effects of purely audial religious symbols (instrumental music) on moral behavior across three different sites: Mauritius, the Czech Republic, and the USA...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
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