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Cheating Behavior

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303111/episodic-future-thinking-about-the-ideal-self-induces-lower-discounting-leading-to-a-decreased-tendency-toward-cheating
#1
Wen-Hsiung Wu, Wen Cheng, Wen-Bin Chiou
Delay discounting refers to a pervasive tendency toward preferring smaller immediate gains over larger future gains. Recent empirical research has shown that episodic future thinking (EFT; i.e., projecting oneself into the future to pre-experience forthcoming events) can reduce the tendency toward discounting. A common tenet of psychological theories of crime is that delinquency results from focusing on short-term gains while failing to consider adequately the longer-term consequences of delinquent behavior...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273518/does-everyone-have-a-price-on-the-role-of-payoff-magnitude-for-ethical-decision-making
#2
Benjamin E Hilbig, Isabel Thielmann
Most approaches to dishonest behavior emphasize the importance of corresponding payoffs, typically implying that dishonesty might increase with increasing incentives. However, prior evidence does not appear to confirm this intuition. However, extant findings are based on relatively small payoffs, the potential effects of which are solely analyzed across participants. In two experiments, we used different multi-trial die-rolling paradigms designed to investigate dishonesty at the individual level (i.e., within participants) and as a function of the payoffs at stake - implementing substantial incentives exceeding 100€...
March 5, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253006/duplicity-among-the-dark-triad-three-faces-of-deceit
#3
Daniel N Jones, Delroy L Paulhus
Although all 3 of the Dark Triad members are predisposed to engage in exploitative interpersonal behavior, their motivations and tactics vary. Here we explore their distinctive dynamics with 5 behavioral studies of dishonesty (total N = 1,750). All 3 traits predicted cheating on a coin-flipping task when there was little risk of being caught (Study 1). Only psychopathy predicted cheating when punishment was a serious risk (Study 2). Machiavellian individuals also cheated under high risk-but only if they were ego-depleted (Study 3)...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244713/associations-between-socio-demographic-characteristics-and-pubertal-status-with-disordered-eating-among-primary-school-children-in-selangor-malaysia
#4
Lin Siew Chong, Yit Siew Chin, Wan Ying Gan, Mohd Taib Mohd Nasir
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To determine the associations between socio-demographic characteristics and pubertal status with disordered eating among primary school children. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: Using a stratified multi-stage sampling, a total of 816 children (282 boys and 534 girls) aged 10 to 11 years from 12 selected primary schools in the state of Selangor, participated in this study. Data were collected on socio-demographic characteristics, pubertal status and disordered eating behaviors...
March 2017: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163396/schumpeter-s-picture-of-economic-and-political-institutions-in-the-light-of-a-cognitive-approach-to-human-behavior
#5
Massimo Egidi
Schumpeter's theory of democracy can be read through the lens of the cognitive approach to rationality. Schumpeter himself constructed his theory on the basis of his (neglected) conception of conscious rationality, which considers the process of thinking as composed of conscious/deliberate and unconscious/automatic components. The prevalence of the deliberate over the automatic component can occur in different degrees; as a consequence, individuals exhibit different levels of conscious rationality. Schumpeter makes clear that an essential attribute of democracy is its being a system of government capable of working notwithstanding a low degree of conscious rationality among its citizens...
2017: J Evol Econ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151017/an-examination-of-how-people-who-have-lost-weight-communicatively-negotiate-interpersonal-challenges-to-weight-management
#6
Lynsey K Romo
The vast majority of Americans are overweight, and those who are able to lose weight typically regain at least the amount they lost. Some people are confronted with sabotage, criticism, and declines in social support during and following weight loss. However, how individuals negotiate these interpersonal barriers is not very well understood. Such an understanding could help individuals maintain their weight loss while minimizing the risk of adverse health or relational consequences. Thus, through a thematic analysis of 40 interviews of people who were identified as previously overweight or obese and a facework lens (Cupach & Metts, 1994; Goffman, 1967), this study examined how people were communicatively able to sustain their weight loss in the face of challenges from friends, family, and colleagues...
February 2, 2017: Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28113949/the-impact-of-social-behavior-on-the-attenuation-and-delay-of-bacterial-nanonetworks
#7
Bige Deniz Unluturk, Sasitharan Balasubramaniam, Ian Akyildiz
Molecular communication (MC) is a new paradigm for developing communication systems that exchanges information through the transmission and reception of molecules. One proposed model for MC is using bacteria to carry information encoded into DNA plasmids, and this is termed bacterial nanonetworks. However, a limiting factor in the models that have been studied so far is the environment considered only in ideal conditions with a single population. This is far from realistic in natural environments, where bacteria co-exist in multiple populations of same and different species, resulting in a very complex social community...
November 11, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Nanobioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049833/antibiotic-stress-selects-against-cooperation-in-the-pathogenic-bacterium-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#8
Marie Vasse, Robert J Noble, Andrei R Akhmetzhanov, Clara Torres-Barceló, James Gurney, Simon Benateau, Claire Gougat-Barbera, Oliver Kaltz, Michael E Hochberg
Cheats are a pervasive threat to public goods production in natural and human communities, as they benefit from the commons without contributing to it. Although ecological antagonisms such as predation, parasitism, competition, and abiotic environmental stress play key roles in shaping population biology, it is unknown how such stresses generally affect the ability of cheats to undermine cooperation. We used theory and experiments to address this question in the pathogenic bacterium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa Although public goods producers were selected against in all populations, our competition experiments showed that antibiotics significantly increased the advantage of nonproducers...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974308/prospective-associations-between-problematic-eating-attitudes-in-midchildhood-and-the-future-onset-of-adolescent-obesity-and-high-blood-pressure
#9
Kaitlin H Wade, Michael S Kramer, Emily Oken, Nicholas J Timpson, Oleg Skugarevsky, Rita Patel, Natalia Bogdanovich, Konstantin Vilchuck, George Davey Smith, Jennifer Thompson, Richard M Martin
BACKGROUND: Clinically diagnosed eating disorders may have adverse cardiometabolic consequences, including overweight or obesity and high blood pressure. However, the link between problematic eating attitudes in early adolescence, which can lead to disordered eating behaviors, and future cardiometabolic health is, to our knowledge, unknown. OBJECTIVE: We assessed whether variations in midchildhood eating attitudes influence the future development of overweight or obesity and high blood pressure...
February 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942577/laboratory-notes-from-behavioral-pharmacologists-and-trainees-considerations-for-the-discipline
#10
Rick A Bevins, Scott T Barrett, Brady M Thompson, Steven T Pittenger
In several laboratory meetings, we discussed the challenges that face trainees in behavioral pharmacology. Major concerns, such as a difficult funding climate and limited academic job prospects were discussed at first. However, we decided to concentrate on ways to meet these challenges; versus focusing on negatives and listing gripes. Within this more constructive framework, we identified the importance of broadening training to aligned areas to enhance the capacity of behavioral pharmacologists to collaborate in multidisciplinary teams...
November 2016: Behav Anal (Wash D C)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880826/social-monitoring-matters-for-deterring-social-deviance-in-stable-but-not-mobile-socio-ecological-contexts
#11
Jenny C Su, Chi-Yue Chiu, Wei-Fang Lin, Shigehiro Oishi
Previous research suggests that reputational concerns can incentivize cooperation and deter socially deviant behavior. The current research showed that social monitoring of information that has the potential to damage one's reputation has differential effects on deviant behavior in social-ecological environments that vary in level of mobility. Study 1 showed that residentially stable cities that employed more journalists-who can be regarded as social monitoring agents in a community-tended to have lower rates of violent crime than residentially stable cities that employed fewer journalists; by contrast, in residentially mobile cities, violent crime rates did not vary as a function of the number of journalists employed...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849547/the-impact-of-social-behavior-on-the-attenuation-and-delay-of-bacterial-nanonetworks
#12
Bige D Unluturk, Sasitharan Balasubramaniam, Ian F Akyildiz
Molecular communication (MC) is a new paradigm for developing communication systems that exchanges information through the transmission and reception of molecules. One proposed model for MC is using bacteria to carry information encoded into DNA plasmids, and this is termed bacterial nanonetworks. However, a limiting factor in the models that have been studied so far is the environment considered only in ideal conditions with a single population. This is far from realistic in natural environments, where bacteria coexist in multiple populations of same and different species, resulting in a very complex social community...
December 2016: IEEE Transactions on Nanobioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796763/a-two-stage-approach-to-differentiating-normal-and-aberrant-behavior-in-computer-based-testing
#13
Chun Wang, Gongjun Xu, Zhuoran Shang
Statistical methods for identifying aberrances on psychological and educational tests are pivotal to detect flaws in the design of a test or irregular behavior of test takers. Two approaches have been taken in the past to address the challenge of aberrant behavior detection, which are (1) modeling aberrant behavior via mixture modeling methods, and (2) flagging aberrant behavior via residual based outlier detection methods. In this paper, we propose a two-stage method that is conceived of as a combination of both approaches...
October 28, 2016: Psychometrika
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27786598/intentions-to-cheat-ajzen-s-planned-behavior-and-goal-related-personality-facets
#14
Damian Lonsdale
This study sought to test antecedents to college students' intentions to cheat by utilizing Ajzen's ( 1991 ) theory of planned behavior (TPB), and four goal-related personality facets. Those facets were behavioral approach, behavioral inhibition, need for achievement-hope of success, and need for achievement-fear of failure. As hypothesized, perceived friends' and parents' attitudes toward academic dishonesty (two subjective norms) and perceived ease of cheating (perceived behavioral control) all positively predicted overall intentions to cheat...
October 27, 2016: Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742733/age-related-preservation-of-trust-following-minor-transgressions
#15
Phoebe E Bailey, Katherine Petridis, Skye N McLennan, Ted Ruffman, Peter G Rendell
OBJECTIVES: This study assesses age-related differences in the weighting and integration of appearance and behavior cues to trustworthiness. The aim is to assess whether it becomes more difficult with age to detect a cheater in disguise. METHOD: Young and older adults invested real money in a repeated trust game with trustees who varied on facial expression (smiling, neutral, angry) and return rate (high, low). Trustees were also rated for trustworthiness pre- and post-trust game...
October 14, 2016: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739581/identification-of-risk-for-severe-psychiatric-comorbidity-in-pediatric-epilepsy
#16
Jana E Jones, Prabha Siddarth, Dace Almane, Suresh Gurbani, Bruce P Hermann, Rochelle Caplan
OBJECTIVE: This study identified items on the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) that predict those children and adolescents with epilepsy at highest risk for multiple psychiatric diagnoses. METHODS: Three hundred twenty-eight children, ages 5-18 years, and their parents participated in separate structured psychiatric interviews about the children, which yielded Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) diagnoses...
November 2016: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736133/the-order-of-disorder-deconstructing-visual-disorder-and-its-effect-on-rule-breaking
#17
Hiroki P Kotabe, Omid Kardan, Marc G Berman
Disorderly environments are linked to disorderly behaviors. Broken windows theory (Wilson & Kelling, 1982), an influential theory of crime and rule-breaking, assumes that scene-level social disorder cues (e.g., litter, graffiti) cause people to reason that they can get away with breaking rules. But what if part of the story is not about such complex social reasoning? Recent research suggests that basic visual disorder cues may be sufficient to encourage complex rule-breaking behavior. To test this hypothesis, we first conducted a set of experiments (Experiments 1-3) in which we identified basic visual disorder cues that generalize across visual stimuli with a variety of semantic content...
December 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27705541/perceived-cross-orientation-infidelity-heterosexual-perceptions-of-same-sex-cheating-in-exclusive-relationships
#18
Benjamin L Compton, Jonathan M Bowman
For individuals in exclusive romantic relationships, the dynamics of sexual experimentation are nuanced. Extradyadic behavior outside of a relationship may be perceived as cheating or infidelity, with much of those perceptions driven by the biological sex of the perceiver. This study significantly reframes seminal research on perceptions of cheating with third-party friends by Kruger et al. (2013), to further nuance an evolutionary threat-based model. In doing so, this furthers our understanding of the associated perceptions of individuals in heterosexual relationships when confronted by partners' cheating with their same-sex cross-orientation friends...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Homosexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677972/social-interactions-in-bacterial-cell-cell-signaling
#19
REVIEW
Kyle L Asfahl, Martin Schuster
Cooperation and conflict in microorganisms is being recognized as an important factor in the organization and function of microbial communities. Many of the cooperative behaviors described in bacteria are governed through a cell-cell signaling process generally termed quorum sensing. Communication and cooperation in diverse microorganisms exhibit predictable trends that behave according to social evolutionary theory, notably that public goods dilemmas produce selective pressures for divergence in social phenotypes including cheating...
September 26, 2016: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651447/psychopathic-traits-and-the-cheater-hawk-hypothesis
#20
Angela Book, Tabitha Methot-Jones, Julie Blais, Ashley Hosker-Field, Anthony Volk, Beth A Visser, Nathalie Gauthier, Ronald R Holden, Madeleine T D'Agata
The present study was a direct test of the cheater-hawk hypothesis which argues that psychopathy is related to two potentially adaptive interpersonal strategies: cheating and aggression. As expected, the measures of cheater and hawk behaviors comprised a single factor, according to a maximum-likelihood factor analysis. As hypothesized, psychopathic traits exhibited large positive correlations with measures of both cheater (entitlement, exploitiveness, and short-term mating orientation) and hawk (vengeance and aggression) behaviors...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
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