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Cheating Behavior

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912771/selection-of-functional-quorum-sensing-systems-by-lysogenic-bacteriophages-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#1
Miguel A Saucedo-Mora, Paulina Castañeda-Tamez, Adrián Cazares, Judith Pérez-Velázquez, Burkhard A Hense, Daniel Cazares, Wendy Figueroa, Marco Carballo, Gabriel Guarneros, Berenice Pérez-Eretza, Nelby Cruz, Yoshito Nishiyama, Toshinari Maeda, Javier A Belmont-Díaz, Thomas K Wood, Rodolfo García-Contreras
Quorum sensing (QS) in Pseudomonas aeruginosa coordinates the expression of virulence factors, some of which are used as public goods. Since their production is a cooperative behavior, it is susceptible to social cheating in which non-cooperative QS deficient mutants use the resources without investing in their production. Nevertheless, functional QS systems are abundant; hence, mechanisms regulating the amount of cheating should exist. Evidence that demonstrates a tight relationship between QS and the susceptibility of bacteria against the attack of lytic phages is increasing; nevertheless, the relationship between temperate phages and QS has been much less explored...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893158/academic-ethical-awareness-among-undergraduate-nursing-students
#2
Ok-Hee Cho, Kyung-Hye Hwang
BACKGROUND: Academic ethical awareness is an important aspect especially for nursing students who will provide ethical nursing care to patients in future or try to tread the path of learning toward professional acknowledgement in nursing scholarship. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to explore academic ethical awareness and its related characteristics among undergraduate nursing students. METHODS: This study commenced the survey with cross-sectional, descriptive questions and enrolled convenient samples of 581 undergraduate nursing students from three universities in South Korea...
January 1, 2017: Nursing Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846002/stressful-family-environments-and-children-s-behavioral-control-a-multimethod-test-and-replication-study-with-twins
#3
Claudia I Vrijhof, Anja van der Voort, Marinus H van IJzendoorn, Saskia Euser
Young children's behavioral control predicts a broad range of developmental outcomes in child- and adulthood. It is therefore important to study how individual differences in behavioral control arise. Previous studies suggest that there are both genetic and environmental influences, which were estimated in the current study using a sample of mono- and dizygotic same-sex twins. Furthermore, we examined the associations between indicators of a stressful family environment like household chaos, parenting daily hassles, and parental depressive symptoms and children's behavioral control in 2 samples...
August 28, 2017: Journal of Family Psychology: JFP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805425/cheating-under-pressure-a-self-protection-model-of-workplace-cheating-behavior
#4
Marie S Mitchell, Michael D Baer, Maureen L Ambrose, Robert Folger, Noel F Palmer
Workplace cheating behavior is unethical behavior that seeks to create an unfair advantage and enhance benefits for the actor. Although cheating is clearly unwanted behavior within organizations, organizations may unknowingly increase cheating as a byproduct of their pursuit of high performance. We theorize that as organizations place a strong emphasis on high levels of performance, they may also enhance employees' self-interested motives and need for self-protection. We suggest that demands for high performance may elicit performance pressure-the subjective experience that employees must raise their performance efforts or face significant consequences...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Applied Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794499/nutrient-limitation-determines-the-fitness-of-cheaters-in-bacterial-siderophore-cooperation
#5
D Joseph Sexton, Martin Schuster
Cooperative behaviors provide a collective benefit, but are considered costly for the individual. Here, we report that these costs vary dramatically in different contexts and have opposing effects on the selection for non-cooperating cheaters. We investigate a prominent example of bacterial cooperation, the secretion of the peptide siderophore pyoverdine by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, under different nutrient-limiting conditions. Using metabolic modeling, we show that pyoverdine incurs a fitness cost only when its building blocks carbon or nitrogen are growth-limiting and are diverted from cellular biomass production...
August 10, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767015/dependency-traits-relationship-power-and-health-risks-in-women-receiving-sexually-transmitted-infection-clinic-services
#6
Eric G Benotsch, Ashlee N Sawyer, Aaron M Martin, Elizabeth S Allen, Christopher D Nettles, Doug Richardson, Cornelis A Rietmeijer
In prior research, having traits consistent with a personality disorder has been shown to be related to substance use and high-risk sexual activity; however, few studies have examined relationships between dependency traits and health-jeopardizing behaviors. Individuals with traits consistent with dependent personality disorder may be more likely to be in a primary relationship characterized by unhealthy conditions, including physical abuse from a partner, low assertiveness in sexual situations, and partner infidelity...
July 2017: Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765994/modulation-of-financial-deprivation-on-deception-and-its-neural-correlates
#7
Peng Sun, Xiaoli Ling, Li Zheng, Jia Chen, Lin Li, Zhiyuan Liu, Xuemei Cheng, Xiuyan Guo
Deception is a universal phenomenon in human society and plays an important role in everyday life. Previous studies have revealed that people might have an internalized moral norm of keeping honest and the deceptive behavior was reliably correlated with activation in executive brain regions of prefrontal cortices to over-ride intuitive honest responses. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, this study sought to investigate how financial position modulated the neural responses during deceptive decision...
August 1, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752377/is-he-important-to-me-source-memory-advantage-for-personally-relevant-cheaters
#8
Meike Kroneisen
A popular assumption in evolutionary psychology claims that reciprocal altruism is supported by a cognitive module that helps individuals to detect and remember cheaters. Previous studies found a source memory advantage for faces of cheaters rather than faces of cooperators. The present study examines memory for social-exchange relevant information. More precisely, faces were shown together with behavior descriptions of cheating, trustworthy and neutral behavior either high or low in relevance for a student population...
July 27, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668551/crossing-the-line-college-students-and-academic-integrity-in-nursing
#9
Margaret W Bultas, Ashley D Schmuke, Renée L Davis, Janice L Palmer
BACKGROUND: Researchers have shown a relationship between academic integrity in the classroom and acts of dishonest behavior in the clinical setting which is concerning for nursing faculty and the health care field. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to compare the attitudes toward academic integrity and the frequency of behaviors related to academic dishonesty in nursing and non-nursing students at a religiously affiliated institution. DESIGN: A cross-sectional, descriptive design was used to collect data regarding the knowledge, behavior, perceptions, and attitudes related to academic integrity via an online survey...
September 2017: Nurse Education Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604018/resisting-temptation-for-the-good-of-the-group-binding-moral-values-and-the-moralization-of-self-control
#10
Marlon Mooijman, Peter Meindl, Daphna Oyserman, John Monterosso, Morteza Dehghani, John M Doris, Jesse Graham
When do people see self-control as a moral issue? We hypothesize that the group-focused "binding" moral values of Loyalty/betrayal, Authority/subversion, and Purity/degradation play a particularly important role in this moralization process. Nine studies provide support for this prediction. First, moralization of self-control goals (e.g., losing weight, saving money) is more strongly associated with endorsing binding moral values than with endorsing individualizing moral values (Care/harm, Fairness/cheating)...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588278/associations-among-adhd-abnormal-eating-and-overweight-in-a-non-clinical-sample-of-asian-children
#11
Lian Tong, Huijing Shi, Xiaoru Li
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been found to be comorbid with obesity in adults, but the association in children is uncertain. Because the underlying mechanism of comorbidity in children has not been researched sufficiently, this study aims to explore the associations among ADHD, abnormal eating, and body mass index (BMI), as well as the mediating effect of depression in children. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 785 primary students in China. The parent-report version of ADHD Rating Scale-IV (ADHDRS-IV), the Child Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) and the Children's Eating Attitude Test (ChEAT) were used to identify ADHD symptoms and abnormal eating...
June 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580806/your-cheatin-voice-will-tell-on-you-detection-of-past-infidelity-from-voice
#12
Susan M Hughes, Marissa A Harrison
Evidence suggests that many physical, behavioral, and trait qualities can be detected solely from the sound of a person's voice, irrespective of the semantic information conveyed through speech. This study examined whether raters could accurately assess the likelihood that a person has cheated on committed, romantic partners simply by hearing the speaker's voice. Independent raters heard voice samples of individuals who self-reported that they either cheated or had never cheated on their romantic partners. To control for aspects that may clue a listener to the speaker's mate value, we used voice samples that did not differ between these groups for voice attractiveness, age, voice pitch, and other acoustic measures...
April 2017: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465424/the-fitness-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-quorum-sensing-signal-cheats-is-influenced-by-the-diffusivity-of-the-environment
#13
Anne Mund, Stephen P Diggle, Freya Harrison
Experiments examining the social dynamics of bacterial quorum sensing (QS) have focused on mutants which do not respond to signals and the role of QS-regulated exoproducts as public goods. The potential for QS signal molecules to themselves be social public goods has received much less attention. Here, we analyze how signal-deficient (lasI) mutants of the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa interact with wild-type cells in an environment where QS is required for growth. We show that when growth requires a "private" intracellular metabolic mechanism activated by the presence of QS signal, lasI mutants act as social cheats and outcompete signal-producing wild-type bacteria in mixed cultures, because they can exploit the signals produced by wild-type cells...
May 2, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446891/moral-attitudes-predict-cheating-and-gamesmanship-behaviors-among-competitive-tennis-players
#14
Fabio Lucidi, Arnaldo Zelli, Luca Mallia, Giampaolo Nicolais, Lambros Lazuras, Martin S Hagger
Background: The present study tested Lee et al.'s (2008) model of moral attitudes and cheating behavior in sports in an Italian sample of young tennis players and extended it to predict behavior in actual match play. In the first phase of the study we proposed that moral, competence and status values would predict prosocial and antisocial moral attitudes directly, and indirectly through athletes' goal orientations. In the second phase, we hypothesized that moral attitudes would directly predict actual cheating behavior observed during match play...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429996/are-athletes-doping-related-attitudes-predicted-by-their-perceptions-of-coaches-confrontation-efficacy
#15
Philip Sullivan, Parmida Razavi
BACKGROUND: The coaching process is complex and dynamic. Coaches are known to affect athlete attitudes indirectly, through athletes' perceptions and interpretations. This process has been verified with a variety of ethical behaviors. OBJECTIVES: The current study investigated the relationships between athletes' perceived doping confrontation efficacy of their coaches and athlete's anti-doping attitudes. METHODS: A sample of athletes (N = 96) completed a version of the Doping Confrontation Efficacy Scale that was modified to assess their perception of their coaches' anti-doping confrontation efficacy, and the PEAS (Performance Enhancing Attitude Scale), which assessed their performance-enhancing attitudes...
April 21, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396395/increasing-honesty-in-humans-with-noninvasive-brain-stimulation
#16
Michel André Maréchal, Alain Cohn, Giuseppe Ugazio, Christian C Ruff
Honesty plays a key role in social and economic interactions and is crucial for societal functioning. However, breaches of honesty are pervasive and cause significant societal and economic problems that can affect entire nations. Despite its importance, remarkably little is known about the neurobiological mechanisms supporting honest behavior. We demonstrate that honesty can be increased in humans with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Participants (n = 145) completed a die-rolling task where they could misreport their outcomes to increase their earnings, thereby pitting honest behavior against personal financial gain...
April 25, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385668/cooperation-induces-other-cooperation-fruiting-bodies-promote-the-evolution-of-macrocysts-in-dictyostelium-discoideum
#17
Shota Shibasaki, Yuka Shirokawa, Masakazu Shimada
Biological studies of the evolution of cooperation are challenging because this process is vulnerable to cheating. Many mechanisms, including kin discrimination, spatial structure, or by-products of self-interested behaviors, can explain this evolution. Here we propose that the evolution of cooperation can be induced by other cooperation. To test this idea, we used a model organism Dictyostelium discoideum because it exhibits two cooperative dormant phases, the fruiting body and the macrocyst. In both phases, the same chemoattractant, cyclic AMP (cAMP), is used to collect cells...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383983/for-whom-does-deterrence-affect-behavior-identifying-key-individual-differences
#18
Adam Fine, Benjamin van Rooij
Deterrence threats are essential mechanisms for affecting behavior, yet they are often ineffective. The literature is beginning to consider individual differences underlying differential susceptibility to deterrence. The present study sampled 223 adults from Amazon Mechanical Turk and used an experimental cheating paradigm to examine the role of 3 individual differences, including morality, self-control, and rule orientation, underlying differential susceptibility to deterrence. The results indicate that deterrence threats may be more influential for people who have low moral disengagement, who possess more self-control, or who are more rule oriented...
April 6, 2017: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303111/episodic-future-thinking-about-the-ideal-self-induces-lower-discounting-leading-to-a-decreased-tendency-toward-cheating
#19
Wen-Hsiung Wu, Wen Cheng, Wen-Bin Chiou
Delay discounting refers to a pervasive tendency toward preferring smaller immediate gains over larger future gains. Recent empirical research has shown that episodic future thinking (EFT; i.e., projecting oneself into the future to pre-experience forthcoming events) can reduce the tendency toward discounting. A common tenet of psychological theories of crime is that delinquency results from focusing on short-term gains while failing to consider adequately the longer-term consequences of delinquent behavior...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273518/does-everyone-have-a-price-on-the-role-of-payoff-magnitude-for-ethical-decision-making
#20
Benjamin E Hilbig, Isabel Thielmann
Most approaches to dishonest behavior emphasize the importance of corresponding payoffs, typically implying that dishonesty might increase with increasing incentives. However, prior evidence does not appear to confirm this intuition. However, extant findings are based on relatively small payoffs, the potential effects of which are solely analyzed across participants. In two experiments, we used different multi-trial die-rolling paradigms designed to investigate dishonesty at the individual level (i.e., within participants) and as a function of the payoffs at stake - implementing substantial incentives exceeding 100€...
June 2017: Cognition
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