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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457577/space-place-and-waiting-time-reflections-on-health-policy-and-politics
#1
Sally Sheard
Health systems have repeatedly addressed concerns about efficiency and equity by employing trans-national comparisons to draw out the strengths and weaknesses of specific policy initiatives. This paper demonstrates the potential for explicit historical analysis of waiting times for hospital treatment to add value to spatial comparative methodologies. Waiting times and the size of the lists of waiting patients have become key operational indicators. In the United Kingdom, as National Health Service (NHS) financial pressures intensified from the 1970s, waiting times have become a topic for regular public and political debate...
February 19, 2018: Health Economics, Policy, and Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457232/tackling-obesity-and-disease-the-culprit-is-sugar-the-response-is-legal-regulation
#2
Lawrence O Gostin
It is staggering to observe the new normal in America: 37.9 percent of adults are obese, and 70.7 percent are either obese or overweight. One out of every five minors is obese. The real tragedy, of course, is the disability, suffering, and early death that devastates families and communities. But all of society pays, with the annual medical cost estimated at $147 billion. The causal pathways are complex, but if we drill down, sugar is a deeply consequential pathway to obesity, and the single greatest dietary source is sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs)...
January 2018: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456615/how-has-the-presidential-election-affected-young-americans
#3
EDITORIAL
Melissa DeJonckheere, Andre Fisher, Tammy Chang
The 2016 presidential election season and subsequent political events have had physical and emotional impacts on youth. We collected qualitative insights from 14 to 24 year olds across the US related to these events over time. Open-ended probes were sent via text message at three time points before and after the 2016 presidential election. The majority of youth reported emotional stress during all three time points, and female participants were significantly more likely to experience emotional responses. White participants were more likely to report negative symptoms than their peers both pre-election and at 4-months post-election...
2018: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456496/how-do-acquired-political-identities-influence-our-neural-processing-toward-others-within-the-context-of-a-trust-game
#4
Chien-Te Wu, Yang-Teng Fan, Ye-Rong Du, Tien-Tun Yang, Ho-Ling Liu, Nai-Shing Yen, Shu-Heng Chen, Ray-May Hsung
Trust is essential for mutually beneficial human interactions in economic exchange and politics and people's social identities notably have dramatic effects on trust behaviors toward others. Previous literature concerning social identities generally suggests that people tend to show in-group favoritism toward members who share the same identity. However, how our brains process signals of identity while facing uncertain situations in interpersonal interactions remains largely unclear. To address this issue, we performed an fMRI experiment with 54 healthy adults who belonged to two identity groups of opposing political orientations...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456272/political-ecologies-of-global-health-pesticide-exposure-in-southwestern-ecuador-s-banana-industry
#5
Ben Wesley Brisbois, Leila Harris, Jerry M Spiegel
Pesticide exposure in Ecuador's banana industry reflects political economic and ecological processes that interact across scales to affect human health. We use this case study to illustrate opportunities for applying political ecology of health scholarship in the burgeoning field of global health. Drawing on an historical literature review and ethnographic data collected in Ecuador's El Oro province, we present three main areas where a political ecological approach can enrich global health scholarship: perceptive characterization of multi-scalar and ecologically entangled pathways to health outcomes; critical analysis of discursive dynamics such as competing scalar narratives; and appreciation of the environment-linked subjectivities and emotions of people experiencing globalized health impacts...
January 2018: Antipode
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456144/global-demand-for-natural-resources-eliminated-more-than-100-000-bornean-orangutans
#6
Maria Voigt, Serge A Wich, Marc Ancrenaz, Erik Meijaard, Nicola Abram, Graham L Banes, Gail Campbell-Smith, Laura J d'Arcy, Roberto A Delgado, Andi Erman, David Gaveau, Benoit Goossens, Stefanie Heinicke, Max Houghton, Simon J Husson, Ashley Leiman, Karmele Llano Sanchez, Niel Makinuddin, Andrew J Marshall, Ari Meididit, Jukka Miettinen, Roger Mundry, Musnanda, Nardiyono, Anton Nurcahyo, Kisar Odom, Adventus Panda, Didik Prasetyo, Aldrianto Priadjati, Purnomo, Andjar Rafiastanto, Anne E Russon, Truly Santika, Jamartin Sihite, Stephanie Spehar, Matthew Struebig, Enrique Sulbaran-Romero, Albertus Tjiu, Jessie Wells, Kerrie A Wilson, Hjalmar S Kühl
Unsustainable exploitation of natural resources is increasingly affecting the highly biodiverse tropics [1, 2]. Although rapid developments in remote sensing technology have permitted more precise estimates of land-cover change over large spatial scales [3-5], our knowledge about the effects of these changes on wildlife is much more sparse [6, 7]. Here we use field survey data, predictive density distribution modeling, and remote sensing to investigate the impact of resource use and land-use changes on the density distribution of Bornean orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus)...
February 12, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455752/imagining-class-a-study-into-material-social-class-position-subjective-identification-and-voting-behavior-across-europe
#7
Lorenzo D'Hooge, Peter Achterberg, Tim Reeskens
The traditional approach to class voting has largely ignored the question whether material class positions coincide with subjective class identification. Following Sosnaud et al. (2013), this study evaluates party preferences when Europeans' material and subjective social class do not coincide. Seminal studies on voting behavior have suggested that members of lower classes are more likely to vote for the economic left and cultural right and that higher classes demonstrate the opposite pattern. Yet, these studies have on the one hand overlooked the possibility that there is a mismatch between the material class people can be classified in and the class they think they are part of, and on the other hand the consequences of this discordant class identification on voting behavior...
February 2018: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455751/varieties-of-political-support-in-emerging-democracies-a-cross-national-analysis
#8
Gabriel Katz, Ines Levin
Political support is a multidimensional construct encompassing evaluations of political leaders and institutions (specific support) as well as adherence to basic regime principles (diffuse support). Scholars have traditionally assumed that diffuse and specific support are driven by different forces and evolve largely independently. Prior empirical work, however, has struggled to untangle the two support dimensions and focused predominantly on cross-national differences, ignoring their dynamics. This paper develops an analytical and empirical approach to examine the levels and dynamic interplay of both support dimensions and estimate their determinants, applying it to South American democracies between 1996 and 2015...
February 2018: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455748/cross-national-variation-in-the-social-origins-and-religious-consequences-of-religious-non-affiliation
#9
Philip Schwadel
I argue that the social implications of religious non-affiliation vary across cultural contexts, leading to differences across nations in both who is likely to be unaffiliated and the religious consequences of such non-affiliation. I test these propositions by examining cross-national variation in associations with non-affiliation using multilevel models and cross-sectional survey data from almost 70,000 respondents in 52 nations. The results indicate that: 1) both individual characteristics (gender, age, and marital status) and nation-level attributes (GDP, communism, and regulation of religion) strongly predict religious non-affiliation; 2) differences in non-affiliation by individual-level attributes-women vs...
February 2018: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454554/geospatial-inequalities-and-determinants-of-nutritional-status-among-women-and-children-in-afghanistan-an-observational-study
#10
Nadia Akseer, Zaid Bhatti, Taufiq Mashal, Sajid Soofi, Rahim Moineddin, Robert E Black, Zulfiqar A Bhutta
BACKGROUND: Undernutrition is a pervasive condition in Afghanistan, and prevalence is among the highest in the world. We aimed to comprehensively assess district-level geographical disparities and determinants of nutritional status (stunting, wasting, or underweight) among women and children in Afghanistan. METHODS: The study used individualised data from the recent Afghanistan National Nutrition Survey 2013. Outcome variables were based on growth and weight anthropometry data, which we analysed linearly as Z scores and as dichotomous categories...
February 14, 2018: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453838/from-cba-to-precautionary-appraisal-practical-responses-to-intractable-problems
#11
Andrew Stirling, Josie Coburn
The purpose of this essay is to critically review the design of methods for ethically robust forms of technology appraisal in the regulation of research and innovation in synthetic biology. It will focus, in particular, on the extent to which cost-benefit analysis offers a basis for informing decisions about which technological pathways to pursue and which to discourage. A further goal is to consider what (if anything) the precautionary principle might offer in enabling better decisions. And this, in turn, raises questions about why mention of precaution can excite accusations of unscientific bias or irrational, "anti-innovation" extremism...
January 2018: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453781/commemoration-in-crisis-a-discursive-analysis-of-who-we-and-they-have-been-or-become-in-ceremonial-political-speeches-before-and-during-the-greek-financial-downturn
#12
Theofilos Gkinopoulos, Peter Hegarty
This study analyses the discourse of statements of the leaders of two Greek political parties commemorating the restoration of Greek democracy on 24 July 1974; the ruling party New Democracy and the opposition, Coalition of the Radical Left. We focus on how these leaders act as entrepreneurs of their identities by constructing their ingroups in broad or narrow terms and their outgroups in vague or specific terms. These constructions were ventured during a period of relative political stability (2008) and instability (2012), and we focus on how ingroup prototypes and group boundaries are narrated across Greece's past, present and future in ambiguous or concrete terms...
February 17, 2018: British Journal of Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453778/-i-m-happy-to-own-my-implicit-biases-public-encounters-with-the-implicit-association-test
#13
Jeffery Yen, Kevin Durrheim, Romin W Tafarodi
The implicit association test (IAT) and concept of implicit bias have significantly influenced the scientific, institutional, and public discourse on racial prejudice. In spite of this, there has been little investigation of how ordinary people make sense of the IAT and the bias it claims to measure. This article examines the public understanding of this research through a discourse analysis of reactions to the IAT and implicit bias in the news media. It demonstrates the ways in which readers interpreted, related to, and negotiated the claims of IAT science in relation to socially shared and historically embedded concerns and identities...
February 16, 2018: British Journal of Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453739/how-is-civic-engagement-related-to-personal-identity-and-social-identity-in-late-adolescents-and-emerging-adults-a-person-oriented-approach
#14
Lyda Lannegrand-Willems, Basilie Chevrier, Cyrille Perchec, Alexia Carrizales
Adolescence and emerging adulthood are periods in life when individuals both question and define their place in society and form their identity. Meanwhile, active youth civic engagement represents a challenge for each democracy. The purpose of this study was to analyze the different forms of civic engagement among late adolescents and emerging adults and how they are related to personal identity and social identity, while adopting an integrative perspective through the lens of a person-oriented approach. The participants were 1217 (62...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453273/evolution-of-a-holistic-systems-approach-to-planning-and-managing-road-safety-the-victorian-case-study-1970-2015
#15
Carlyn Muir, Ian R Johnston, Eric Howard
BACKGROUND: The Victorian Safe System approach to road safety slowly evolved from a combination of the Swedish Vision Zero philosophy and the Sustainable Safety model developed by the Dutch. The Safe System approach reframes the way in which road safety is viewed and managed. METHODS: This paper presents a case study of the institutional change required to underpin the transformation to a holistic approach to planning and managing road safety in Victoria, Australia...
February 16, 2018: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452560/health-care-efficiencies-consolidation-and-alternative-models-vs-health-care-and-antitrust-regulation-irreconcilable-differences
#16
Michael W King
Despite the U.S. substantially outspending peer high income nations with almost 18% of GDP dedicated to health care, on any number of statistical measurements from life expectancy to birth rates to chronic disease, 1 the U.S. achieves inferior health outcomes. In short, Americans receive a very disappointing return on investment on their health care dollars, causing economic and social strain. 2 Accordingly, the debates rage on: what is the top driver of health care spending? Among the culprits: poor communication and coordination among disparate providers, paperwork required by payors and regulations, well-intentioned physicians overprescribing treatments, drugs and devices, outright fraud and abuse, and medical malpractice litigation...
November 2017: American Journal of Law & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452043/citizens-jury-and-elder-care-public-participation-and-deliberation-in-long-term-care-policy-in-thailand
#17
Komatra Chuengsatiansup, Kanisorn Tengrang, Tipicha Posayanonda, Siranee Sihapark
Health care policies for the elderly are complex, multi-dimensional and contextually circumscribed. While engagement of health experts, economists, healthcare administrators and political leaders is generally viewed as instrumental to the success and sustainability of elder care programs, the elders themselves are often viewed as passive recipients of care and not included in the policy processes. Experiences and expectations from users' perspectives can be invaluable information for policy formulation and systems design...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Aging & Social Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451633/-inequity-in-maternal-mortality-in-mexico-analyzing-inequality-on-a-sub-state-regional-scale
#18
Julio Pisanty-Alatorre
OBJECTIVE: To estimate maternal mortality ratios (MMR) for the different sub-state regions in Mexico in order to identify those with highest maternal mortality, as well as the degree of inter-regional inequality. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Maternal mortality and registered live births data was taken from publicly available official data for the years 2005 to 2014. We regionalized the states based on political-administrative divisions within them and calculated MMR for these regions, and calculated Gini coefficients...
November 2017: Salud Pública de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451630/-pattern-changes-in-food-and-beverages-expenditure-in-mexican-households-1984-2014
#19
Beatriz Gabriela Garza-Montoya, María Elena Ramos-Tovar
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the proportion of expenditure and its frequency in food and beverages consumed inside and outside of households, at national and regional level, in Mexico between 1984 and 2014. MATERIALS AND METHODS: It analyzes data of household expenditure of food and beverages taken from the National Survey of Mexican Household Income and Expenditures 1984, 1994, 2005 and 2014. It conducted descriptive statistics analyses such as percentages, growth rates and crosstabs...
November 2017: Salud Pública de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451460/early-childhood-conduct-problems-predict-economic-and-political-discontent-in-adulthood-evidence-from-two-large-longitudinal-uk-cohorts
#20
Gary J Lewis
Longstanding interest has been directed toward the etiology of sociopolitical attitudes. Personality traits have been posited as antecedents; however, most work addressing such links has been limited to cross-sectional study designs. The current study used data from two large (both Ns > 8,700), longitudinal cohorts of individuals from the United Kingdom who were parent-assessed on a measure of temperament (assessing anxiety, conduct problems, and hyperactivity) at age 5 or 7 years and on a range of sociopolitical attitudes at age 30 or 33 years...
February 1, 2018: Psychological Science
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