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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732237/decentralization-of-health-care-systems-and-health-outcomes-evidence-from-a-natural-experiment
#1
Dolores Jiménez-Rubio, Pilar García-Gómez
While many countries worldwide are shifting responsibilities for their health systems to local levels of government, there is to date insufficient evidence about the potential impact of these policy reforms. We estimate the impact of decentralization of the health services on infant and neonatal mortality using a natural experiment: the devolution of health care decision making powers to Spanish regions. The devolution was implemented gradually and asymmetrically over a twenty-year period (1981-2002). The order in which the regions were decentralized was driven by political factors and hence can be considered exogenous to health outcomes...
July 1, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732028/the-individual-and-contextual-determinants-of-the-use-of-telemedicine-a-descriptive-study-of-the-perceptions-of-senegal-s-physicians-and-telemedicine-projects-managers
#2
Birama Apho Ly, Ronald Labonté, Ivy Lynn Bourgeault, Mbayang Ndiaye Niang
Telemedicine is considered to be an effective strategy to aid in the recruitment and retention of physicians in underserved areas and, in doing so, improve access to healthcare. Telemedicine's use, however, depends on individual and contextual factors. Using a mixed methods design, we studied these factors in Senegal based on a micro, meso and macro framework. A quantitative questionnaire administered to 165 physicians working in public hospitals and 151 physicians working in district health centres was used to identify individual (micro) factors...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731824/evolutionary-scenarios-and-primate-natural-history
#3
Harry W Greene
Scenarios summarize evolutionary patterns and processes by interpreting organismal traits and their natural history correlates in a phylogenetic context. They are constructed by (1) describing phenotypes (including physiology and behavior), ideally with attention to formative roles of development, experience, and culture; (2) inferring homologies, homoplasies, ancestral character states, and their transformations with phylogenetic analyses; and (3) integrating those components with ecological and other ancillary data...
August 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731555/who-does-nutrition-prevention-work-in-queensland-an-investigation-of-structural-and-political-workforce-reforms
#4
Helen Anna Vidgen, Meg Adam, Danielle Gallegos
AIM: This study aimed (i) to determine the change in the number of government-funded nutrition positions following structural and political reforms and (ii) to describe the remaining workforce available to do nutrition prevention work, including student placements, in Queensland. METHODS: Positions funded by the Queensland government were counted using departmental human resource data and compared with data collected 4 years earlier. Positions not funded by the government were identified using formal professional networks and governance group lists...
February 2017: Nutrition & Dietetics: the Journal of the Dietitians Association of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730890/the-biopsychosocial-model-of-illness-a-model-whose-time-has-come
#5
Derick T Wade, Peter W Halligan
The biopsychosocial model outlined in Engel's classic Science paper four decades ago emerged from dissatisfaction with the biomedical model of illness, which remains the dominant healthcare model. Engel's call to arms for a biopsychosocial model has been taken up in several healthcare fields, but it has not been accepted in the more economically dominant and politically powerful acute medical and surgical domains. It is widely used in research into complex healthcare interventions, it is the basis of the World Health Organisation's International Classification of Functioning (WHO ICF), it is used clinically, and it is used to structure clinical guidelines...
August 2017: Clinical Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730874/abortion-politics-in-cambodia-social-history-local-forms-and-transnational-issues
#6
Pascale Hancart Petitet
Cambodia's current abortion rate and ratio could be among the highest in Southeast Asia. In 1997, the Cambodian parliament passed the first law regulating abortions. This law was adopted to contribute to reduce the high maternal mortality ratio, as a significant number of maternal deaths were believed to be related to complications of unsafe abortion. A decade later, the Ministry of Health had not yet established medical protocols for safe abortion access and women often continued to induce their own terminations or seek unsafe services...
July 21, 2017: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730067/practices-and-discourses-of-ubuntu-implications-for-an-african-model-of-disability
#7
Maria Berghs
BACKGROUND: Southern African scholars and activists working in disability studies have argued that ubuntu or unhu is a part of their world view. OBJECTIVES: Thinking seriously about ubuntu, as a shared collective humanness or social ethics, means to examine how Africans have framed a struggle for this shared humanity in terms of decolonisation and activism. METHOD: Three examples of applications of ubuntu are given, with two mainly linked to making explicit umaka...
2017: Afr J Disabil
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730065/exploring-structural-violence-in-the-context-of-disability-and-poverty-in-zimbabwe
#8
Jennifer T Muderedzi, Arne H Eide, Stine H Braathen, Babill Stray-Pedersen
BACKGROUND: While it is widely assumed that disability, poverty and health are closely linked, research falls short of fully understanding the link. One approach to analysing the links between disability and poverty is through the concept of structural violence, referring to social structures that contribute to the impoverishment of individuals or communities. These structures can be political, ecological, legal and economic, among others. OBJECTIVE: To explore structural violence and how it affects families of children with cerebral palsy among the Tonga ethnic group living in poor rural communities of Binga in Zimbabwe...
2017: Afr J Disabil
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728584/professionals-perception-of-intimate-partner-violence-in-young-people-a-qualitative-study-in-northern-spain
#9
Amaia Maquibar, Carmen Vives-Cases, Anna-Karin Hurtig, Isabel Goicolea
BACKGROUND: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a public health problem with devastating effects on young women's health. These negative effects increase when the exposure to IPV lasts for a long time and exposure at an early age increases the risk of adult IPV. Despite efforts made in the last few decades, data show little progress has been made towards its reduction. Thus, the aim of the study reported here is to explore professionals' perceptions regarding intimate partner violence (IPV) among young people, focusing on the characteristics of the phenomenon and their perceptions about existing programmes and campaigns aimed at addressing it...
July 20, 2017: Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728554/the-rise-and-fall-of-dental-therapy-in-canada-a-policy-analysis-and-assessment-of-equity-of-access-to-oral-health-care-for-inuit-and-first-nations-communities
#10
Victoria Leck, Glen E Randall
BACKGROUND: Inequality between most Canadians and those from Inuit and First Nations communities, in terms of both access to oral health care services and related health outcomes, has been a long-standing problem. Efforts to close this equity gap led to the creation of dental therapy training programs. These programs were designed to produce graduates who would provide services in rural and northern communities. The closure of the last dental therapy program in late 2011 has ended the supply of dental therapists and governments do not appear to have any alternative solutions to the growing gap in access to oral health care services between most Canadians and those from Inuit and First Nations communities...
July 20, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728524/what-s-at-stake-in-u-s-health-reform-a-guide-to-the-affordable-care-act-and-value-based-care
#11
Betty A Rambur
The U.S. presidential election of 2016 accentuated the divided perspectives on the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010, commonly known as Obamacare. The perspectives included a pledge from then candidate Donald J. Trump to "repeal and replace on day one"; Republican congressional leaders' more temperate suggestions in the first weeks of the Trump administration to "repair" the Affordable Care Act (ACA); and President Trump's February 5, 2017 statement-16 days after inauguration-that a Republican replacement for the ACA may not be ready until late 2017 or 2018...
January 1, 2017: Policy, Politics & Nursing Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728353/estimation-of-rate-and-number-of-under-reporting-deliberate-self-poisoning-attempts-in-western-iran-2015
#12
Mehdi Moradinazar, Farid Najafi, Mohammad Reza Baneshi, Ali Akbar Haghdoost
Objectives: Rates of Deliberate Self-Poisoning (DSP) attempts are subjected to under-counting, under-reporting, and denying suicide attempts. In this study, therefore, we seek to estimate the rate of under-reported DSPs, which is the most common way of suicide attempts in Iran. Methods: Using truncated count models, we estimated rates and numbers of under-counted DSP attempts in western part of Iran in 2015. By this method, n0, namely the number of people attempted DSP, but not referring to any health care centers, was calculated through data connection...
June 15, 2017: Epidemiology and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728058/high-prevalence-of-esbls-in-retail-chicken-meat-despite-reduced-use-of-antimicrobials-in-chicken-production-france
#13
Tiago Casella, Mara Correa Lelles Nogueira, Estelle Saras, Marisa Haenni, Jean-Yves Madec
Extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESCs) are critically important antibiotics for humans and their use in animals poses a potential threat for public health. Chicken represents an increasing part of the human diet and has also been regarded as a source of ESC-resistant Enterobacteriaceae because of the worldwide off-label use of ceftiofur, a broad-spectrum cephalosporin. Thus, numerous studies pointed out chicken as a reservoir of ESBL/pAmpC genes, plasmids and/or clones at risk for humans. In France, late 2011, strong political pressure led to a drastic reduction of ceftiofur use and all other antibiotics in chicken production...
July 10, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727842/how-issue-frames-shape-beliefs-about-the-importance-of-climate-change-policy-across-ideological-and-partisan-groups
#14
Shane P Singh, Meili Swanson
We use an experiment to examine whether the way in which climate change is framed affects individuals' beliefs about its importance as a policy issue. We employ frames that emphasize national security, human rights, and environmental importance about the consequences of climate change. We find no evidence that issue frames have an overall effect on opinions about the importance of climate change policy. We do find some evidence that the effect of issue frames varies across ideological and partisan groups. Most notably, issue frames can lead Republicans and those on the political right to view climate change policy as less important...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727529/-ain-t-necessarily-so-the-brake-industry-s-impact-on-asbestos-regulation-in-the-1970s
#15
David Rosner, Gerald Markowitz
Canada is proposing a ban on asbestos, and the US Environmental Protection Agency has listed it among the first 10 materials it is investigating under the new Toxic Substances Control Act revisions. However, this effort is currently running up against enormous industry and political opposition. Here, we detail the activities in the early 1970s of the Friction Materials Standards Institute, an industry trade association, to stifle earlier attempts to regulate asbestos use in brake linings, one of the oldest and most obvious sources of asbestos exposure to mechanics, among others...
July 20, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726744/future-protein-supply-and-demand-strategies-and-factors-influencing-a-sustainable-equilibrium
#16
REVIEW
Maeve Henchion, Maria Hayes, Anne Maria Mullen, Mark Fenelon, Brijesh Tiwari
A growing global population, combined with factors such as changing socio-demographics, will place increased pressure on the world's resources to provide not only more but also different types of food. Increased demand for animal-based protein in particular is expected to have a negative environmental impact, generating greenhouse gas emissions, requiring more water and more land. Addressing this "perfect storm" will necessitate more sustainable production of existing sources of protein as well as alternative sources for direct human consumption...
July 20, 2017: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726443/contextualizing-risk-and-protection-perceptions-of-bedouin-mothers-from-unrecognized-villages-in-the-naqab
#17
Ibtisam Marey-Sarwan, Dorit Roer-Strier, Hiltrud Otto
This qualitative study utilizes ecological theory, a context-informed perspective, and an interactive model to study minority children, while considering structural factors, oppression, segregation, power dynamics, and awareness of the political context. It examines perceptions of risk and protection using "snowball" sampling of 33 Bedouin mothers, citizens of Israel, from the unrecognized villages (UVs) in the Naqab in Southern Israel. Data were collected via in-depth, semistructured interviews during 2011 to 2013...
July 20, 2017: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726292/-in-visibility-online-the-benefits-of-online-patient-forums-for-people-with-a-hidden-illness-the-case-of-multiple-chemical-sensitivities-mcs
#18
Tarryn Phillips, Tyson Rees
Sufferers of medically unexplained conditions that are not observable in the clinic can experience multiple layers of invisibility: a lack of biomedical diagnosis; legal skepticism; political disinterest; and a loss of their prior social identity. For those with environmental sensitivities, this is compounded by literal hiddenness due to often being housebound. Drawing on an online survey of people with multiple chemical sensitivity, this article examines how the everyday experience of invisibility is mitigated by engaging with other patients online...
July 20, 2017: Medical Anthropology Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725663/data-for-sochi-2014-olympics-discussion-on-social-media
#19
Andrei P Kirilenko
Presented data is related to the research article "Sochi 2014 Olympics on Twitter: Perspectives of Hosts and Guests" [2].  The data were collected through regular API Twitter search for five months windowing 2014 Sochi Olympic Games and further used for cluster analysis and analysis of the sentiment on the Games. The main dataset contains 616 thousand tweets, rigorously cleaned and filtered to remove irrelevant content. To comply with the Twitter API user agreement, the dataset presented in this article includes only generalized daily data with all information contained in individual tweets removed...
August 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725283/q-is-addiction-a-brain-disease-or-a-moral-failing-a-neither
#20
Nick Heather
This article uses Marc Lewis' work as a springboard to discuss the socio-political context of the brain disease model of addiction (BDMA). The claim that promotion of the BDMA is the only way the general public can be persuaded to withhold blame and punishment from addicts is critically examined. After a discussion of public understandings of the disease concept of addiction, it is pointed out that it is possible to develop a scientific account of addiction which is neither a disease nor a moral model but which the public could understand...
2017: Neuroethics
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