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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667641/-on-the-occasion-of-his-180th-birthday-anniversary-of-ivan-ivanovich-neiding
#1
Yu I Pigolkin, Yu V Lomakin, A V Khodulapov
This article is devoted to the life and professional activities of the internationally renowned forensic doctor Ivan Ivanovich Neiding who became widely known in the early youth as the discoverer of the microscopic diagnostic features of the constriction marks formed in association with hanging and strangulation. During more than 22 years (from 1878 till 1900), I.I. Neiding acted as the head of the Department of Forensic medicine at the Moscow University where a large number of investigations on forensic medical ballistics, toxicology, obstetric and gynecological expertise were carried out under his supervision...
2018: Sudebno-meditsinskaia Ekspertiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666239/individuals-institutions-and-innovation-in-the-debates-of-the-french-revolution
#2
Alexander T J Barron, Jenny Huang, Rebecca L Spang, Simon DeDeo
The French Revolution brought principles of "liberty, equality, fraternity" to bear on the day-to-day challenges of governing what was then the largest country in Europe. Its experiments provided a model for future revolutions and democracies across the globe, but this first modern revolution had no model to follow. Using reconstructed transcripts of debates held in the Revolution's first parliament, we present a quantitative analysis of how this body managed innovation. We use information theory to track the creation, transmission, and destruction of word-use patterns across over 40,000 speeches and a thousand speakers...
April 17, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665847/tensions-in-ethics-and-policy-created-by-national-precision-medicine-programs
#3
Jusaku Minari, Kyle B Brothers, Michael Morrison
Precision medicine promises to use genomics and other data-intensive approaches to improve diagnosis and develop new treatments for major diseases, but also raises a range of ethical and governance challenges. Implementation of precision medicine in "real world" healthcare systems blurs the boundary between research and care. This has implications for the meaning and validity of consent, and increased potential for discrimination, among other challenges. Increased sharing of personal information raises concerns about privacy, commercialization, and public trust...
April 17, 2018: Human Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665809/generating-evidence-for-health-policy-in-challenging-settings-lessons-learned-from-four-prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission-of-hiv-implementation-research-studies-in-nigeria
#4
Nadia A Sam-Agudu, Muktar H Aliyu, Olusegun A Adeyemi, Frank Oronsaye, Bolanle Oyeledun, Amaka G Ogidi, Echezona E Ezeanolue
BACKGROUND: Implementation research (IR) facilitates health systems strengthening and optimal patient outcomes by generating evidence for scale-up of efficacious strategies in context. Thus, difficulties in generating IR evidence, particularly in limited-resource settings with wide disease prevention and treatment gaps, need to be anticipated and addressed. Nigeria is a priority country for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT). This paper analyses the experiences of four PMTCT IR studies in Nigeria, and proffers solutions to major challenges encountered during implementation...
April 17, 2018: Health Research Policy and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665295/family-photography-and-persecuted-communities-methodological-challenges
#5
Kirsten Emiko McAllister
This paper examines methodological challenges involved in conducting research on family photographs from persecuted communities, using Japanese Canadian photos as a case study. Approaching family photography as a social practice that instills dominant familial ideologies, the paper examines their "performative scripts" that arrange family members according to normative identities and roles. The paper argues that researchers are not immune to scripts that shape how and what we have been socialized to see (and not see) in family photos...
April 17, 2018: Canadian Review of Sociology, Revue Canadienne de Sociologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665064/tourism-labor-embodied-suffering-and-the-deportation-regime-in-the-dominican-republic
#6
Mark Padilla, José Félix Colón-Burgos, Nelson Varas-Díaz, Armando Matiz-Reyes, Caroline Mary Parker
In this article, we use syndemic theory to examine socio-structural factors that result in heightened vulnerability to HIV infection and drug addiction among Dominican deportees who survive post-deportation through informal tourism labor. Through an ongoing NIDA-funded ethnographic study of the syndemic of HIV and problematic drug use among men involved in tourism labor in the Dominican Republic, we argue that the legal and political-economic context of the global deportation regime contributes to structural vulnerabilities among deportees in the Dominican Republic, most of whom are men with histories of incarceration in the United States and/or Puerto Rico...
April 17, 2018: Medical Anthropology Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665014/stable-isotopic-evidence-for-land-use-patterns-in-the-middle-euphrates-valley-syria
#7
Arkadiusz Sołtysiak, Holger Schutkowski
OBJECTIVES: Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios (δ13 C and δ15 N) were used to reconstruct the history of subsistence strategies in the middle Euphrates valley, NE Syria, in six temporal subsets dating from the Early Bronze Age (c. 2300 BCE) to the Modern period (19th/20th century CE). The study aims to demonstrate that changes in political and social organization over time, for which the archaeological record suggests different goals of land use and modes of production, register through dietary patterns that are reflected in isotopic data...
April 17, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664153/using-the-advocacy-coalition-framework-and-multiple-streams-policy-theories-to-examine-the-role-of-evidence-research-and-other-types-of-knowledge-in-drug-policy
#8
Alison Ritter, Caitlin Elizabeth Hughes, Kari Lancaster, Robert Hoppe
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The prevailing 'evidence-based policy' paradigm emphasizes a technical-rational relationship between alcohol and drug research evidence and subsequent policy action. However, policy process theories do not start with this premise, and hence provide an opportunity to consider anew the ways in which evidence, research and other types of knowledge impact upon policy. This paper presents a case study, the police deployment of drug detection dogs, to highlight how two prominent policy theories [the Advocacy Coalition Framework (ACF) and the Multiple Streams (MS) approach] explicate the relationship between evidence and policy...
April 17, 2018: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663833/mortality-data-in-the-age-of-drones-%C3%A2
#9
Elspeth Carruthers
Mortality data plays an essential role in shaping humanitarian, legal and ethical responses to conflict situations. The rise of drone warfare poses new questions regarding the accuracy and reliability of mortality data in conflict. This article examines some of the methodological and political challenges to collecting mortality data in drone warfare, and how the way in which drones are framed in public discourse contributes to these challenges.
April 17, 2018: Medicine, Conflict, and Survival
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662890/harsh-working-conditions-and-poor-eating-habits-health-related-concerns-of-female-head-porters-kayayei-in-the-mallam-atta-market-accra-ghana
#10
Samuel Harrenson Nyarko, Abdul Majeed Tahiru
Background: The kaya business is known to pose significant health-related risks to female migrants. This study sought to explore the health-related concerns of female head porters in the Mallam Atta market, Accra, Ghana. Methods: A qualitative study was conducted in which twenty female head porters at the Mallam Atta market in Accra were interviewed. A thematic analysis was performed and the emerging themes were presented and supported with quotations from the respondents...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662736/investigating-the-transmissibility-of-tet-w-in-bifidobacteria-exposed-to-acid-and-bile-stress
#11
Agnieszka Polit, Huiying Yang, Daniel Amund
Transfer of antibiotic resistance genes from probiotic bacteria to pathogens poses a safety concern. Orally administered probiotics are exposed to stressful conditions during gastrointestinal transit. In this study, filter mating experiments were performed to investigate the potential role of exposure of Bifidobacterium isolates to acid and bile stress on the transfer of a tetracycline resistance gene, tet (W), to Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 51299. No E. faecalis transconjugants were obtained after mating with either stressed or unstressed Bifidobacterium , thereby suggesting that tet (W) could not be transferred as a result of exposure to gastrointestinal stresses...
2018: Bioscience of Microbiota, Food and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662694/from-the-battlefield-to-the-bedroom-a-multilevel-analysis-of-the-links-between-political-conflict-and-intimate-partner-violence-in-liberia
#12
Jocelyn T D Kelly, Elizabeth Colantuoni, Courtland Robinson, Michele R Decker
Objectives: Assess the link between levels of armed conflict and postconflict intimate partner violence (IPV) experienced by women in Liberia. Methods: Armed Conflict Location and Event Data Project data were used to measure conflict-related fatalities in districts in Liberia during the country's civil war from 1999 to 2003. These data were linked to individual-level data from the 2007 Demographic and Health Survey, including past-year IPV. Multilevel logistic models accounting for the clustering of women within districts evaluated the relationship of conflict fatalities with postconflict past-year IPV...
2018: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661857/science-politics-and-ideologies-global-political-developments-towards-isolationism-ideology-or-disregard-of-facts-have-scientists-concerned-about-the-free-exchange-of-ideas-and-people
#13
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661756/prevention-of-rickets-and-osteomalacia-in-the-uk-political-action-overdue
#14
REVIEW
Suma Uday, Wolfgang Högler
The consequences of vitamin D and dietary calcium deficiency have become a huge public health concern in the UK. The burden of disease from these deficiencies includes rickets, and hypocalcaemic seizures, dilated cardiomyopathy and mostly occult myopathy and osteomalacia. The increasing burden of the disease is intrinsically linked to ethnicity and the population demographic changes in the UK. Three facts have led to the resurfacing of the English disease: (1) the UK has no ultraviolet sunlight for at least 6 months of the year, (2) dark skin produces far less vitamin D than white skin per unit ultraviolet light exposure, and (3) non-European Union immigration over the last century...
April 16, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661663/right-on-target
#15
Omer M Farhan-Alanie, David F Howie, Jonathan O'Reilly, Jacqui MacNair
Targets have become an integral part of health care, whether we agree with them or not. Many accept the progress made with the use of targets, but our duty as health professionals is to ensure that their use and interpretation is undertaken with the same care and understanding of their limitations that we apply to our clinical practice, and that they are not mis-interpreted or used to justify the latest political idioms. Currently the healthcare profession is failing to understand the consequences of setting targets, or the wider implications of hitting them...
April 13, 2018: Surgeon: Journal of the Royal Colleges of Surgeons of Edinburgh and Ireland
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660179/social-license-as-an-emergent-property-of-political-interactions-response-to-kendal-and-ford-2017
#16
Stephen T Garnett, Kerstin K Zander, Catherine J Robinson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 16, 2018: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659793/good-practices-and-challenges-in-addressing-poliomyelitis-and-measles-in-the-european-union
#17
John Kinsman, Svenja Stöven, Fredrik Elgh, Pilar Murillo, Michael Sulzner
Background: All European Union (EU) and European Economic Area (EEA) Member States have pledged to ensure political commitment towards sustaining the region's poliomyelitis-free status and eliminating measles. However, there remain significant gaps between policy and practice in many countries. This article reports on an assessment conducted for the European Commission that aimed to support improvements in preparedness and response to poliomyelitis and measles in Europe. Methods: A documentary review was complemented by qualitative interviews with professionals working in International and EU agencies, and in at-risk or recently affected EU/EEA Member States (six each for poliomyelitis and measles)...
April 6, 2018: European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659690/perspective-challenges-and-controversial-issues-in-the-dietary-guidelines-for-americans-1980-2015
#18
Marion Nestle
Since 1980, every edition of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGAs) has recommended increased consumption of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, but reduced consumption of saturated fat, sugars, and sodium and, therefore, their primary food sources. Every edition has generated controversy, mainly from producers of foods affected by "eat less" recommendations, particularly meat. Objections to the 2015 DGAs focused on environmental as well as scientific issues, but also on purported conflicts of interest among members of the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee...
March 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659474/comparing-appendectomies-performed-by-trauma-surgeons-and-pediatric-surgeons-in-children-5-to-10-years-of-age
#19
Stephanie F Polites, Matthew C Hernandez, Martin D Zielinski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 13, 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659334/influencing-republicans-and-democrats-attitudes-towards-obamacare-effects-of-imagined-vicarious-cognitive-dissonance-on-political-attitudes
#20
Joel Cooper, Lauren A Feldman, Shane F Blackman
The field of experimental social psychology is appropriately interested in using novel theoretical approaches to implement change in the social world. In the current study, we extended cognitive dissonance theory by creating a new framework of social influence: imagined vicarious dissonance. We used the framework to influence attitudes on an important and controversial political attitude: U.S. citizens' support for the Affordable Care Act (ACA). 36 Republicans and 84 Democrats were asked to imagine fellow Republicans and Democrats, respectively, making attitude discrepant statements under high and low choice conditions about support for the ACA...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Social Psychology
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