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Bengt Franzon, Magnus Englander, Björn Axtelius, Björn Klinge
The purpose of this study was to disclose the psychological meaning structure of dentistry as a free market within the context of leading Swedish policymaking. Following the criteria for the descriptive phenomenological psychological method data was collected from leading policy makers about the experiential aspects of dentistry as a free market within the context of a welfare state. The analysis showed that dentistry as a free market was experienced as a complex business relationship between buyers and sellers that transcended the traditional dentist and patient roles...
December 2018: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being
Kjølv Egeland, Torbjørn Graff Hugo, Magnus Løvold, Gro Nystuen
The Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons (TPNW), adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in July 2017, has been met with mixed reactions. While supporters have described the Treaty as a watershed in the struggle for disarmament, others have expressed fervent opposition. One of the most serious charges levelled at the TPNW is that it will undermine the long-standing nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), by many regarded as a cornerstone of the international security architecture. Critics have contended that the new agreement risks eroding the system of safeguards designed to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons, derailing disarmament efforts within the NPT framework, and aggravating political division between nuclear and non-nuclear powers...
June 18, 2018: Medicine, Conflict, and Survival
Rose McDermott, Peter K Hatemi
As new waves of populism arise and cause disruption around the globe, there is both great interest in attempting to explain the origin of this dynamic as well as a need to ameliorate its potentially destructive impact. Perhaps the greatest signal of seismic change is the global dismantling of American institutional control of the postwar world following the election of Donald Trump in the United States. In the wake of such dramatic changes, it may seem odd to turn to evolutionary psychology which looks deeply into the past to try to understand current events, but, in fact, modern technology has dramatically changed the shape of political communication in just such a way as to make politics more personal once again, increasing the need to understand and interpret modern politics through an evolutionary lens...
April 2018: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
Joseph Billingsley, Debra Lieberman, Joshua M Tybur
Why is disgust sensitivity associated with socially conservative political views? Is it because socially conservative ideologies mitigate the risks of infectious disease, whether by promoting out-group avoidance or by reinforcing norms that sustain antipathogenic practices? Or might it be because socially conservative ideologies promote moral standards that advance a long-term, as opposed to a short-term, sexual strategy? Recent attempts to test these two explanations have yielded differing results and conflicting interpretations...
April 2018: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
Lasse Laustsen, Michael Bang Petersen
The facial traits and appearance of political candidates have been found to predict election outcomes across countries with different electoral systems and institutions. Research over the last decade has provided two different versions of this overall conclusion. First and most thoroughly studied, candidates who from their mere faces are evaluated as more competent get more votes on Election Day. Second, recent research finds that the ideological leanings of candidates and the voters they cater to also matter: Right-wing and conservative candidates receive more votes if they look more dominant, while liberal candidates lose votes when looking dominant and masculine...
April 2018: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
John T Jost, Robert M Sapolsky, H Hannah Nam
For centuries, philosophers and social theorists have wondered why people submit voluntarily to tyrannical leaders and oppressive regimes. In this article, we speculate on the evolutionary origins of system justification, that is, the ways in which people are motivated (often nonconsciously) to defend and justify existing social, economic, and political systems. After briefly recounting the logic of system justification theory and some of the most pertinent empirical evidence, we consider parallels between the social behaviors of humans and other animals concerning the acceptance versus rejection of hierarchy and dominance...
April 2018: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
Benjamin Banai, Lasse Laustsen, Irena Pavela Banai, Kosta Bovan
Previous studies have shown that voters rely on sexually dimorphic traits that signal masculinity and dominance when they choose political leaders. For example, voters exert strong preferences for candidates with lower pitched voices because these candidates are perceived as stronger and more competent. Moreover, experimental studies demonstrate that conservative voters, more than liberals, prefer political candidates with traits that signal dominance, probably because conservatives are more likely to perceive the world as a threatening place and to be more attentive to dangerous and threatening contexts...
April 2018: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
Raimo Pälvärinne, Dowen Birkhed, Eeva Widström
Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate how the Public Dental Service (PDS) in Sweden has managed to maintain a market position at a time of change in political ideologies and increased competition from a growing private sector. Materials and Methods: All Chief Dental Officers (CDOs), who had held this leading position for at least 5 years ( n = 22), were asked to participate in a semi-structured telephone interview. Sixteen of the 22 CDOs participated in this study...
May 2018: Journal of International Society of Preventive & Community Dentistry
Janne M Korhonen
Material and energy constraints have had a major influence in the history of technology. However, prior research has surprisingly little to say about what these constraints actually are, how they emerge, and which are the mechanisms through which they influence technological change. This article studies a case where energy constraints were supposedly the source of a radical innovation in copper smelting in post-Second World War Finland. It finds that the constraints were significantly more ambiguous and socially constructed than the technologists themselves acknowledged, and highlights the context dependence of constraints and how technologists may perceive them...
2018: Technology and Culture
Jaakko Suominen, Antti Silvast, Tuomas Harviainen
This article analyses users' olfactory recollections of computers, based on large-scale, online inquiry material collected between 2002 and 2003 and in 2013. It discusses how olfactory experiences and recollections can be classified based on narration and the causes of odors. Furthermore, it explores the changes of olfactory recollections over the course of ten years, and deals with age and gender in these recollections and in their representations. This project develops new paths and possibilities for studying the cultural history of technology and the collection of research material, as well as the exhibition of the history of computing by examining the historical, cultural, political, and economic dimensions of sensations and senses...
2018: Technology and Culture
Tilman Dedering
The first trans-African flight from London to Cape Town in 1920 was feted by white observers as a major achievement in consolidating the links between South Africa and the British Empire. Probing the comments made by black and white contemporary observers on the meaning of the flight, this article explores the cultural and political connotations of aviation in a colonial and imperial setting. It emphasizes that the celebration of the superiority of Western technology as a tool in the consolidation of white minority rule was marked by white anxieties about African disobedience...
2018: Technology and Culture
Mario Daniels, John Krige
This article describes the place of the basic/applied science distinction in negotiations over the limits of secrecy between the U.S. "scientific" community and the American government. It combines an analysis of Vannevar Bush's key report to the President in 1945 with Congressional hearings in the late 1950s that were concerned about the increasingly vast scope of government controls over the circulation of knowledge. The concept of "basic research" was used as a political weapon to push back against the extended, uncoordinated, and frustrating constraints on the circulation of new research findings by the expanding apparatus of the National Security State...
2018: Technology and Culture
Luis Miguel García, Carlos Iniesta, Jorge Garrido, María José Fuster, Ferran Pujol, Michael Meulbroek, Toni Poveda, Melchor Riera, Antonio Antela, Santiago Moreno, David Dalmau, Antonio Rivero, Diego García, Ramón Espacio, Julia Del Amo
This study focuses on actions at the political and administrative level in Spain in relation to the implementation of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). We analysed a whole range of different formal initiatives taken by the political and administrative actors involved. The information was obtained from official public data sources. As of February 2018, PrEP had not been implemented. The decision is dependent on both state and regional governments. The Ministry of Health and some Autonomous Regions are working on different interventions, but without providing an implementation timetable...
June 14, 2018: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
Dmitriy Nikolavsky, Michael Hughes, Lee C Zhao
In the past decade, issues facing transgender individuals have come to the forefront of popular culture, political discourse, and medical study. The evaluating physician should have knowledge of the reconstructed anatomy, as well as potential postoperative complications. This knowledge will aid in providing appropriate care and recognizing issues that may require specialized urologic care. Transgender anatomic definitions and a synopsis of common urologic complications specific to transmen, including urethrocutaneous fistulae, neourethral strictures, and persistent vaginal cavities are discussed...
July 2018: Clinics in Plastic Surgery
Moriah E Ellen, Michael G Wilson, Marcela Vélez, Ruth Shach, John N Lavis, Jeremy M Grimshaw, Kaelan A Moat
BACKGROUND: Health systems are increasingly focusing on the issue of 'overuse' of health services and how to address it. We developed a framework focused on (1) the rationale and context for health systems prioritising addressing overuse, (2) elements of a comprehensive process and approach to reduce overuse and (3) implementation considerations for addressing overuse. METHODS: We conducted a critical interpretive synthesis informed by a stakeholder-engagement process...
June 15, 2018: Health Research Policy and Systems
Blase N Polite, Jerome E Seid, Laura A Levit, M Kelsey Kirkwood, Caroline Schenkel, Suanna S Bruinooge, Stephen S Grubbs, Deborah Y Kamin, Richard L Schilsky
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 15, 2018: Journal of Oncology Practice
M Kelsey Kirkwood, Amy Hanley, Suanna S Bruinooge, Elizabeth Garrett-Mayer, Laura A Levit, Caroline Schenkel, Jerome E Seid, Blase N Polite, Richard L Schilsky
PURPOSE: To describe the US hematology and medical oncology practice landscape and to report findings of the sixth annual ASCO Oncology Practice Census survey. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: ASCO used Medicare Physician Compare data to characterize oncology practices in the United States. Practice size, number of care sites, and geographic distribution were determined. Trends in the number and size of practices from 2013 to 2017 were examined. All US oncology practices were targeted for the survey; survey responses were linked to the practices identified from Physician Compare to augment results and assess generalizability...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Oncology Practice
Cynthia Taylor, Bryan M Dewsbury
The language of science is largely metaphorical. Scientists rely on metaphor and analogy to make sense of scientific phenomena and communicate their findings to each other and to the public. Yet, despite their utility, metaphors can also constrain scientific reasoning, contribute to public misunderstandings, and, at times, inadvertently reinforce stereotypes and messages that undermine the goals of inclusive science. This paper 1) examines the generative potential of metaphors to the advancement of scientific knowledge and science communication, 2) highlights the ways in which outdated metaphors may limit scientific inquiry and contribute to public misunderstandings, and 3) critically analyzes the implications of cryptic social and political messages embedded in common metaphors in the life sciences...
2018: Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education: JMBE
Daniela Orr, Ayelet Baram-Tsabari
This study examines the ways in which the public discusses and debates the scientific issue of vaccinations in the online social media environment of Facebook. We apply a mixed-methods approach, where a qualitative analysis is combined with a quantitative analysis of the characteristics of the debate on polio vaccinations in a Facebook group dedicated to parental and professional dialogue. The qualitative analysis suggested that dialogue became more political than scientific overall, yet the quantitative analysis showed that the discussants did not abandon the scientific nature of the issue at hand...
2018: Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education: JMBE
Rosemary Talbot Behmer Hansen, Kavita Shah Arora
Since USA constitutional precedent established in 1976, adolescents have increasingly been afforded the right to access contraception without first obtaining parental consent or authorisation. There is general agreement this ethically permissible. However, long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) methods have only recently been prescribed to the adolescent population. They are currently the most effective forms of contraception available and have high compliance and satisfaction rates. Yet unlike other contraceptives, LARCs are associated with special procedural risks because they must be inserted and removed by trained healthcare providers...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Medical Ethics
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