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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081038/impact-of-hiv-infection-and-antiretroviral-treatment-on-n-terminal-prohormone-of-brain-natriuretic-peptide-as-surrogate-of-myocardial-function
#1
Christopher Schuster, Christina Binder, Robert Strassl, Maximilian C Aichelburg, Emma Blackwell, Noemi Pavo, Michael Ramharter, Martin Hülsmann, Katharina Grabmeier-Pfistershammer, Armin Rieger, Georg Goliasch
OBJECTIVE: Vasoactive cardiovascular hormones such as the N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) are produced upon ventricular stretch and play a central role in neurohumoral pathways of the heart regulating cardiovascular remodeling and volume homeostasis. The impact of HIV infection on these neurohumoral pathways of the heart and its potential reversibility by combinations of antiretroviral therapies remain unclear. METHODS: We assessed serum levels of NT-proBNP in 219 antiretroviral therapy-naïve HIV-infected patients with a normal cardiac and renal status at treatment initiation and after attainment of viremic control...
January 28, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072892/use-of-statins-and-aspirin-to-prevent-cardiovascular-disease-among-hiv-positive-patients-a-survey-among-italian-hiv-physicians
#2
Paolo Maggi, Giuseppe Vittorio De Socio, Stefania Cicalini, Maurizio D'Abbraccio, Gabriella Dettorre, Antonio Di Biagio, Canio Martinelli, Giuseppe Nunnari, Stefano Rusconi, Laura Sighinolfi, Vincenzo Spagnuolo, Nicola Squillace
We conducted a survey among Italian HIV specialists to study the utilization of statins and aspirin, administering a questionnaire aimed at investigating their use, the use of guidelines and scores, and the management of interactions. The answers were uniform in the different geographic areas. The majority directly prescribe statins and 43% of them prescribe aspirin. The majority follows guidelines and utilize scores to calculate the CV risk. Our survey demonstrates the commitment and autonomy in prescribing statins and aspirin of Italian physicians...
January 10, 2017: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068521/hiv-and-its-relationship-to-insulin-resistance-and-lipid-abnormalities
#3
REVIEW
Lemuel R Non, Gerome V Escota, William G Powderly
Antiretroviral therapy has revolutionized the care of people with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) by reducing morbidity and mortality from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related conditions. Despite longer life expectancy, however, HIV-infected individuals continue to have a higher risk of death compared with the general population. This has been attributed to the increasing incidence of noncommunicable diseases, in particular, atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. This is driven, in part, by the emergence of metabolic disorders, particularly dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and lipodystrophy, in those on antiretroviral therapy...
December 23, 2016: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062146/intensive-statin-regimens-for-reducing-risk-of-cardiovascular-diseases-among-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-population-a-nation-wide-longitudinal-cohort-study-2000-2011
#4
Huang-Tz Ou, Kai-Cheng Chang, Chung-Yi Li, Chen-Yi Yang, Nai-Ying Ko
OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in a statin-treated HIV-infected population and the effects of intensive statin regimens (i.e., high-dose or potency) on CVD risks. METHODS: 945 HIV-infected patients newly on statin treatment (144, 15.7% with CVD history) were identified from Taiwan's national HIV cohort. Using the median of the first year cumulative statin dosage as a cut-off point, patients were classified into either a high-dose or low-dose group...
December 21, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061822/cardiovascular-risk-and-endothelial-function-in-people-living-with-hiv-aids-design-of-the-multi-site-longitudinal-endoafrica-study-in-the-western-cape-province-of-south-africa
#5
Hans Strijdom, Patrick De Boever, Gerhard Walzl, M Faadiel Essop, Tim S Nawrot, Ingrid Webster, Corli Westcott, Nyiko Mashele, Frans Everson, Stephanus T Malherbe, Kim Stanley, Harald H Kessler, Evelyn Stelzl, Nandu Goswami
BACKGROUND: There is growing evidence of an interaction between HIV-infection, anti-retroviral therapy (ART) and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Epidemiological studies in Europe and North America have been observing a shift towards an increased incidence of coronary heart disease and acute myocardial infarctions in HIV-infected populations compared to the general population even after adjusting for traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Despite South Africa (and sub-Saharan Africa, SSA) being regarded as the epicentre of the global HIV epidemic, very little is known about the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and precursors of vascular disease in HIV-infected populations in this region...
January 7, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060965/the-clinical-research-landscape-in-rhode-island
#6
George Mao, Bharat Ramratnam
OBJECTIVES: To present an overview of clinical research activity and the state of medical research funding in Rhode Island. METHODS: We utilized clinicaltrials.gov registry to profile clinical studies between 2011 to 2016. NIH RePORT and other federal databases were used to extract information on levels of federal funding. Previously published hospital financial reports were reviewed for data on hospital-specific total external research funding. RESULTS: During 2011-2016, 1651 clinical studies were registered in clinicaltrials...
January 6, 2017: Rhode Island Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060868/non-communicable-disease-preventive-screening-by-hiv-care-model
#7
Corinne M Rhodes, Yuchiao Chang, Susan Regan, Virginia A Triant
IMPORTANCE: The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) epidemic has evolved, with an increasing non-communicable disease (NCD) burden emerging and need for long-term management, yet there are limited data to help delineate the optimal care model to screen for NCDs for this patient population. OBJECTIVE: The primary aim was to compare rates of NCD preventive screening in persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) by type of HIV care model, focusing on metabolic/cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer screening...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060856/hiv-infection-is-associated-with-increased-fatty-infiltration-of-the-thigh-muscle-with-aging-independent-of-fat-distribution
#8
Javzandulam Natsag, Kristine M Erlandson, Deborah E Sellmeyer, Sabina A Haberlen, Joseph Margolick, Lisa P Jacobson, Frank J Palella, Susan L Koletar, Jordan E Lake, Wendy S Post, Todd T Brown
BACKGROUND: Lower muscle density on computed tomography (CT) provides a measure of fatty infiltration of muscle, an aspect of muscle quality that has been associated with metabolic abnormalities, weakness, decreased mobility, and increased fracture risk in older adults. We assessed the cross-sectional relationship between HIV serostatus, age, thigh muscle attenuation, and thigh muscle cross-sectional area (CSA). METHODS: Mean CT-quantified Hounsfield units (HU) of the thigh muscle bundle and CSA were evaluated in 368 HIV-infected and 145 HIV-uninfected men enrolled in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) Cardiovascular Substudy using multivariable linear regression...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057254/hiv-and-nonischemic-heart-disease
#9
REVIEW
Pravin Manga, Keir McCutcheon, Nqoba Tsabedze, Ahmed Vachiat, Don Zachariah
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated heart disease encompasses a broad spectrum of diseases. HIV infection may involve the pericardium, myocardium, coronary arteries, pulmonary vasculature, and valves, as well as the systemic vasculature. Access to combination antiretroviral therapy, as well as health resources, has had a significant influence on the prevalence and severity of the effects on each cardiac structure. Investigations over the recent past have improved our understanding of the epidemiology and pathophysiology of HIV-associated cardiovascular disease...
January 3, 2017: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053011/dismantling-the-silence-lgbtq-aging-emerging-from-the-margins
#10
Karen I Fredriksen-Goldsen
Historical, environmental, and cultural contexts intersect with aging, sexuality, and gender across communities and generations. My scholarship investigates health and well-being over the life course across marginalized communities, including LGBTQ (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer) midlife and older adults, native communities experiencing cardiovascular risk, and families in China living with HIV, in order to balance the realities of unique lives in contemporary society. By probing the intersection of age, sexuality, and gender, my analysis is informed by both personal and professional experiences...
January 3, 2017: Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052699/high-prevalence-of-physical-inactivity-among-patients-from-the-swiss-hiv-cohort-study
#11
Juliane Schäfer, Jim Young, Alexandra Calmy, Dunja Nicca, Barbara Hasse, Claudia Brun Del Re, Matthias Cavassini, Enos Bernasconi, Arno Schmidt-Trucksäss, Heiner C Bucher
Physical activity (PA) can improve cardiorespiratory status, strength, body composition and quality of life for patients infected with HIV. Evidence from HIV-uninfected populations also shows that PA is associated with a lower risk of mortality, primarily death due to cardiovascular causes. There is, however, a lack of data on how physically active HIV-infected patients are. In this study, we assessed levels of self-reported PA over time in patients enrolled in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study, a large multicentre prospective observational cohort study...
January 5, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052152/types-of-myocardial-infarction-among-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-individuals-in-the-united-states
#12
Heidi M Crane, Pathmaja Paramsothy, Daniel R Drozd, Robin M Nance, J A Chris Delaney, Susan R Heckbert, Matthew J Budoff, Greer A Burkholder, James H Willig, Michael J Mugavero, William C Mathews, Paul K Crane, Richard D Moore, Joseph J Eron, Sonia Napravnik, Peter W Hunt, Elvin Geng, Priscilla Hsue, Carla Rodriguez, Inga Peter, Greg S Barnes, Justin McReynolds, William B Lober, Kristina Crothers, Mathew Feinstein, Carl Grunfeld, Michael S Saag, Mari M Kitahata
Importance: The Second Universal Definition of Myocardial Infarction (MI) divides MIs into different types. Type 1 MIs result spontaneously from instability of atherosclerotic plaque, whereas type 2 MIs occur in the setting of a mismatch between oxygen demand and supply, as with severe hypotension. Type 2 MIs are uncommon in the general population, but their frequency in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals is unknown. Objectives: To characterize MIs, including type; identify causes of type 2 MIs; and compare demographic and clinical characteristics among HIV-infected individuals with type 1 vs type 2 MIs...
January 4, 2017: JAMA Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051979/barriers-and-health-beliefs-related-to-weight-management-among-veterans-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus
#13
Shannon Munro, Emily Dinatale, Sarah Hartley, Monica St Jacques, Kris Ann Oursler
INTRODUCTION: The success of antiretroviral therapy has led to dramatic changes in causes of morbidity and mortality among U.S. Veterans with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Among the 25,000 Veterans treated for HIV, 70% are over age 50 and the rate of obesity has doubled in this population. Veterans with HIV have a 50% increased risk of myocardial infarction yet have limited presence in prevention-related programs designed to lower cardiovascular disease risk. METHODS: This mixed methods study (focus groups, Schwarzer and Renner physical activity, and nutrition self-efficacy questionnaires) was used to explore factors related to health behavior and identify barriers that overweight Veterans with HIV face in enrolling in the MOVE weight management program...
January 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051897/prevalence-of-metabolic-syndrome-among-people-living-with-hiv-in-developing-countries-a-systematic-review
#14
Sivaraj Naidu, Sasheela Ponnampalvanar, Shahrul Bahyah Kamaruzzaman, Adeeba Kamarulzaman
Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a group of components associated with cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The prevalence of MS in the HIV population is increasing in epidemic proportions globally. However, the magnitude and characteristics of MS are not fully elucidated in developing countries. The aim of this systematic review was to assess the prevalence of MS and its components among people living with HIV (PLWH) in developing countries. Searches were carried out in MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science, CINAHL, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Scopus, other web sources, and by hand search...
January 2017: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050758/effect-of-the-anti-retroviral-drugs-efavirenz-tenofovir-and-emtricitabine-on-endothelial-cell-function-role-of-parp
#15
Mary Faltz, Hild Bergin, Elly Pilavachi, Guy Grimwade, Jon G Mabley
Highly active anti-retroviral therapy has proved successful in reducing morbidity and mortality associated with HIV infection though it has been linked to increased risk of cardiovascular disease. To date, the direct effects of the anti-retroviral drugs Efavirenz, Tenofovir and Emtricitabine on the vasculature relaxant response have not been elucidated, which impaired may predispose individuals to cardiovascular disease. Increased cellular oxidative stress and overactivation of the DNA repair enzyme poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) have been identified as central mediators of vascular dysfunction...
January 3, 2017: Cardiovascular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045766/baseline-vitamin-d-deficiency-decreases-the-effectiveness-of-statins-in-hiv-infected-adults-on-antiretroviral-therapy
#16
Corrilynn O Hileman, Vin Tangpricha, Abdus Sattar, Grace A McComsey
OBJECTIVE: Vitamin D deficiency is common in HIV. Statins may increase vitamin D and it is unknown whether vitamin D modifies the effect of statins on cardiovascular disease. DESIGN: SATURN-HIV was a 96-week, randomized, placebo-controlled trial designed to evaluate the effect of rosuvastatin on immune activation and subclinical vascular disease in HIV-infected adults on antiretroviral therapy. This analysis focuses on the pre-specified secondary endpoint 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28019192/lipid-lowering-effect-and-changes-in-estimated-cardiovascular-risk-after-switching-to-a-tenofovir-containing-regimen-for-the-treatment-of-hiv-infected-patients
#17
Roberta Gagliardini, Massimiliano Fabbiani, Manuela Colafigli, Alessandro D'Avino, Annalisa Mondi, Alberto Borghetti, Silvia Lamonica, Roberto Cauda, Andrea De Luca, Simona Di Giambenedetto
Tenofovir could have a direct lipid-lowering effect. The aim of our retrospective study was to investigate changes in cardiovascular risk after switching from a tenofovir-sparing to a tenofovir-containing backbone. Lipid parameters and cardiovascular risk [calculated using 10-years Framingham Risk Score (FRS) and 5-years DAD Risk Score (DRS)] were analysed at baseline and after three months. 273 patients were enrolled. After switching, significant decreases in total cholesterol (TC) (-8.2mg/dl, p < 0.001), LDL (-8...
December 26, 2016: Journal of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011249/lack-of-effects-of-statins-on-high-density-lipoprotein-subfractions-in-hiv-1-infected-patients-receiving-protease-inhibitors
#18
Randa Bittar, Élisabeth Aslangul, Philippe Giral, Lambert Assoumou, Marc-Antoine Valantin, Olga Kalmykova, Marie-Christine Federspiel, Corinne Cherfils, Dominique Costagliola, Dominique Bonnefont-Rousselot
BACKGROUND: We evaluated the effect of 45 days of rosuvastatin or pravastatin treatment on the distribution of HDL subfractions in HIV-1-infected individuals receiving boosted protease inhibitors (PIs) with cardiovascular risk. METHODS: The distribution of HDL subclasses by gradient gel electrophoresis was blindly assessed in 74 HIV-1-infected individuals receiving boosted PIs at baseline and at day 45 of statin treatment, and compared with the distribution obtained in 63 healthy normolipidemic individuals taken as controls...
December 20, 2016: Comptes Rendus Biologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005710/time-trend-in-hypertension-prevalence-awareness-treatment-and-control-in-a-contemporary-cohort-of-hiv-infected-patients-the-hiv-and-hypertension-study
#19
Giuseppe Vittorio De Socio, Elena Ricci, Paolo Maggi, Giustino Parruti, Benedetto Maurizio Celesia, Giancarlo Orofino, Giordano Madeddu, Canio Martinelli, Barbara Menzaghi, Lucia Taramasso, Paolo Bonfanti, Giacomo Pucci, Giuseppe Schillaci
BACKGROUND: Hypertension control is often inadequate in HIV patients. In a contemporary, nationwide cohort of Italian HIV-infected adults, we assessed time trends in hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control. We also evaluated predictors of cardiovascular events and of new-onset hypertension. METHODS: Multicenter prospective cohort study, sampling 961 consecutive HIV patients (71% men, mean age 46 ± 9 years, 30% hypertensive) examined in 2010-2014 and after a median follow-up of 3...
February 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003289/burden-of-multimorbidity-in-relation-to-age-gender-and-immigrant-status-a-cross-sectional-study-based-on-administrative-data
#20
Jacopo Lenzi, Vera Maria Avaldi, Paola Rucci, Giulia Pieri, Maria Pia Fantini
OBJECTIVES: Many studies have investigated multimorbidity, whose prevalence varies according to settings and data sources. However, few studies on this topic have been conducted in Italy, a country with universal healthcare and one of the most aged populations in the world. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of multimorbidity in a Northern Italian region, to investigate its distribution by age, gender and citizenship and to analyse the correlations of diseases. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study based on administrative data...
December 21, 2016: BMJ Open
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