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HIV and coagulation

Irini Sereti, Shelly J Krebs, Nittaya Phanuphak, James L Fletcher, Bonnie Slike, Suteeraporn Pinyakorn, Robert J O'Connell, Adam Rupert, Nicolas Chomont, Victor Valcour, Jerome H Kim, Merlin L Robb, Nelson L Michael, Daniel C Douek, Jintanat Ananworanich, Netanya S Utay
BACKGROUND:  Serious non-AIDS events cause substantial morbidity and mortality despite HIV suppression with antiretroviral therapy (ART). Biomarkers of inflammation, coagulation cascade activation, and fibrosis predict these end-organ events. We aimed to determine whether ART initiation during acute HIV infection would attenuate changes in these biomarker levels. METHODS:  Plasma samples were obtained from participants starting ART during acute HIV infection, chronic HIV infection, and HIV-uninfected participants, from Bangkok, Thailand...
October 12, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Maryse A Wiewel, Michaëla A Huson, Lonneke A van Vught, Arie J Hoogendijk, Peter M C Klein Klouwenberg, Janneke Horn, René Lutter, Olaf L Cremer, Marcus J Schultz, Marc J Bonten, Tom van der Poll
BACKGROUND: Sepsis is a prominent reason for intensive care unit (ICU) admission in patients with HIV. We aimed to investigate the impact of HIV infection on presentation, outcome and host response in sepsis. METHODS: We performed a prospective observational study in the ICUs of two tertiary hospitals. For the current analyses, we selected all patients diagnosed with sepsis within 24 hours after admission. Host response biomarkers were analyzed in a more homogeneous subgroup of admissions involving HIV-positive patients with pneumosepsis, matched to admissions of HIV-negative patients for age, gender and race...
October 10, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
M Holmström, A Nangarhari, J Öhman, A-S Duberg, A Majeed, S Aleman
INTRODUCTION: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is common in patients with inherited bleeding disorders treated with clotting factor concentrates prior to the introduction of viral inactivation of these products. The long-term consequences of hepatitis C infection in Swedish patients are not fully understood. AIM: To examine the impact of HCV infection on liver-related morbidity and mortality in Swedish patients with inherited bleeding disorders. METHODS: We retrospectively collected data on 183 patients with inherited bleeding disorders infected with HCV who attended the Coagulation Unit at Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden...
October 5, 2016: Haemophilia: the Official Journal of the World Federation of Hemophilia
Joseph C Mudd, Soumya Panigrahi, Benjamin Kyi, So Hee Moon, Maura M Manion, Souheil-Antoine Younes, Scott F Sieg, Nicholas T Funderburg, David A Zidar, Michael M Lederman, Michael L Freeman
Increases in inflammation, coagulation, and CD8 T cell numbers are associated with elevated cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in antiretroviral therapy (ART)-treated HIV infection. Circulating memory CD8 T cells that express the vascular endothelium-homing receptor CX3CR1 (fractalkine receptor) are enriched in ART-treated HIV-infected subjects. Thrombin-activated receptor (PAR-1) expression is increased in ART-treated HIV-infected subjects and is particularly elevated on CX3CR1+ CD8 T cells, suggesting that these cells could interact with coagulation elements...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Katherine W Kooij, Ferdinand W N M Wit, Thijs Booiman, Marc van der Valk, Maarten F Schim van der Loeff, Neeltje A Kootstra, Peter Reiss
Smoking may affect cardiovascular disease risk more strongly in HIV-infected compared to HIV-uninfected individuals. We hypothesized that an interaction at the level of the immune system may contribute to this increased risk. We assessed soluble markers of inflammation (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein [hsCRP]), immune activation (soluble [s]CD14 and sCD163) and coagulation (D-dimer) in HIV-infected and uninfected never, former and current smokers. Smoking was independently associated with higher hsCRP levels and lower sCD163 levels, and at borderline significance with higher sCD14 and D-dimer levels; we found no evidence of a differential effect of smoking in HIV-infected compared to uninfected individuals...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Leonardo Calza, Vincenzo Colangeli, Eleonora Magistrelli, Ilaria Contadini, Isabella Bon, Maria Carla Re, Matteo Conti, Rita Mancini, Pierluigi Viale
OBJECTIVES: Statins have shown anti-inflammatory and immune-modulatory properties in both general and HIV-infected population, but their effect on plasma D-dimer levels is controversial and it has not been investigated to date in HIV-positive patients. The aim of our study was to assess the effect of rosuvastatin on D-dimer and other serum inflammation markers among these subjects. METHODS: Prospective, cohort study of HIV-1-infected adult patients receiving a stable combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), who started a lipid-lowering therapy with rosuvastatin (10 mg daily) and were followed up for at least 12 months...
October 14, 2016: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
I A Nasir, A Owolagba, A E Ahmad, M M Barma, P O Musa Po, M Bakare, Y Ibrahim, D O Amadu
BACKGROUND: Blood coagulation abnormalities are common in persons infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). However, few studies showed the association of these abnormalities with anti-retroviral therapy (ART). OBJECTIVE: This cross-sectional study investigated the effects of ART on blood coagulation parameters of patients infected with HIV attending HIV special clinics of the University of Abuja Teaching Hospital (UATH), Gwagwalada, Abuja, Nigeria. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 191 patients comprising 128 HIV subjects on ART (test subjects) and 63 other HIV patients not on ART (control subjects) were included in the study...
August 2016: Malaysian Journal of Pathology
Judith M Haissman, Anna K Haugaard, Andreas Knudsen, Ulrik S Kristoffersen, Ingebjørg Seljeflot, Karin K Pedersen, Anne-Mette Lebech, Philip Hasbak, Andreas Kjær, Sisse R Ostrowski, Jan Gerstoft, Marius Trøseid, Susanne D Nielsen
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) contributes to excess morbidity and mortality in HIV infection, and endothelial dysfunction may contribute to this pattern. We aimed to determine endothelial function in treated and untreated HIV-infected individuals and investigate potential associations with viral replication, immune activation, coagulation, platelet function, and subclinical atherosclerosis. METHODS: Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA, marker of endothelial dysfunction) and soluble CD14 (sCD14, marker of monocyte activation) were measured in plasma from two previously established cross-sectional cohorts: Cohort A including 50 untreated and 50 anti-retroviral therapy (ART) treated HIV-infected individuals with previously assessed coagulation and platelet function, and Cohort B including 105 HIV-infected individuals on ART and 105 uninfected controls with previously assessed coronary artery calcium score (CACS), myocardial perfusion defects (MPD), and carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT)...
August 1, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
R Thulasi Raman, D Manimaran, Praveen Rachakatla, K Bharathi, Tameem Afroz, Radha Sagar
INTRODUCTION: HIV infection is known to cause coagulation abnormalities by various mechanism, especially during its late course. AIM: The objective of this study was to analyse platelet count, prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time among HIV infected patients and to analyse these parameters with respect to their CD4 count and ART status. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A case control study was conducted with 120 HIV infected patients and 40 normal individuals...
May 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Wesley G Willeford, Luis Barroso, Jennifer Keller, Nora Fino, Laura H Bachmann
BACKGROUND: Persistent human papillomavirus infection in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals has been strongly associated with anal squamous cell carcinoma. The incidence of anal squamous cell carcinoma continues to increase in this population despite advances in HIV therapy. There are few studies describing the prevalence of anal cancer precursors, treatment outcomes, and associated factors among HIV-infected populations in the southern United States. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed on 355 HIV-infected patients from a Southern HIV clinic who were 18 years or older and had received at least one anal Pap smear...
August 2016: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Nathalie Willems, Agnès Libois, Marcel Nkuize, Francesco Feoli, Marc Delforge, Stéphane DeWit
OBJECTIVES: Over the last few decades, incidence of anal cancer among HIV-positive men has been on the rise. In this context, programmes of screening and treatment of anal dysplasia which is a precursor of anal cancer have been developed. The aim of our study was to describe the efficiency, side effects and outcome of anal dysplasia treatment in a population of HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM). METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of HIV-positive MSM who received treatment for anal dysplasia between May 2010 and February 2014 in the Saint-Pierre University Hospital, Brussels...
June 16, 2016: Acta Clinica Belgica
Gelila Alebachew, Brhanu Teka, Mengistu Endris, Yitayal Shiferaw, Belay Tessema
Background. Bacterial sepsis is a major cause of illness in human immunodeficiency virus infected patients. There is scarce evidence about sepsis among HIV patients in Ethiopia. This study aimed to determine the etiologic agents of bacterial sepsis and their antibiotic susceptibility patterns among HIV infected patients. Methods. A cross-sectional study was carried out from March 1 to May 2, 2013. One hundred patients infected with HIV and suspected of having sepsis were included. Sociodemographic data were collected by interview and blood sample was aseptically collected from study participants...
2016: BioMed Research International
Maaike Krikke, Kiki Tesselaar, Joop E Arends, Julia Drylewicz, Sigrid A Otto, Steven F L van Lelyveld, Frank J L Visseren, Andy I M Hoepelman
BACKGROUND: The increased risk of abacavir in cardiovascular disease (CVD) in HIV-infected patients is still being debated. Maraviroc, a CCR5 blocker, has been shown to decrease immune activation and monocyte infiltration in atherosclerotic plaques in murine experiments. Therefore, we examined the effect of maraviroc intensification on flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) in abacavir-treated HIV-infected patients and its effect on immunological and inflammatory parameters. METHODS: A open-label prospective crossover study with a duration of 16 weeks: 8 weeks of intervention (maraviroc intensification) and 8 weeks of control (unchanged cART regimen)...
September 2016: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
Melese Abate, Tesfaye Wolde
BACKGROUND: Transfusion-transmissible infectious agents such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and Syphilis are among the greatest threats to blood safety for recipients. They are also the leading causes of death and chronic and life-threatening abnormalities. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of consecutive blood donors' records covering the period between January 2010 and December 2014 was conducted to analyze for seroprevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV and syphilis among blood donors aged 17-65 years...
March 2016: Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences
K V Shmagel, E V Saidakova, N G Shmagel, L B Korolevskaya, V A Chereshnev, J Robinson, J-C Grivel, D C Douek, L Margolis, D D Anthony, M M Lederman
OBJECTIVES: Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HIV viral infections are characterized by systemic inflammation. Yet the relative levels, drivers and correlates of inflammation in these settings are not well defined. METHODS: Seventy-nine HIV-infected patients who had been receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) for more than 2 years and who had suppressed plasma HIV levels (< 50 HIV-1 RNA copies/mL) were included in the study. Two patient groups, HCV-positive/HIV-positive and HCV-negative/HIV-positive, and a control group comprised of healthy volunteers (n = 20) were examined...
September 2016: HIV Medicine
Birgit Grund, Jason V Baker, Steven G Deeks, Julian Wolfson, Deborah Wentworth, Alessandro Cozzi-Lepri, Calvin J Cohen, Andrew Phillips, Jens D Lundgren, James D Neaton
BACKGROUND: Despite effective antiretroviral treatment (ART), HIV-positive individuals are at increased risk of serious non-AIDS conditions (cardiovascular, liver and renal disease, and cancers), perhaps due in part to ongoing inflammation and/or coagulation. To estimate the potential risk reduction in serious non-AIDS conditions or death from any cause that might be achieved with treatments that reduce inflammation and/or coagulation, we examined associations of interleukin-6 (IL-6), D-dimer, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) levels with serious non-AIDS conditions or death in 3 large cohorts...
2016: PloS One
Emmanuel A Oga, Jessica P Brown, Clayton Brown, Eileen Dareng, Victor Adekanmbi, Michael Odutola, Olayinka Olaniyan, Richard Offiong, Kayode Obende, Ayodele Stephen Adewole, Achara Peter, Patrick Dakum, Clement Adebamowo
BACKGROUND: The burden of cervical cancer remains huge globally, more so in sub-Saharan Africa. Effectiveness of screening, rates of recurrence following treatment and factors driving these in Africans have not been sufficiently studied. The purpose of this study therefore was to investigate factors associated with recurrence of cervical intraepithelial lesions following thermo-coagulation in HIV-positive and HIV-negative Nigerian women using Visual Inspection with Acetic Acid (VIA) or Lugol's Iodine (VILI) for diagnosis...
2016: BMC Women's Health
Sulggi A Lee, Joel A Mefford, Yong Huang, John S Witte, Jeffrey N Martin, David W Haas, Paul J Mclaren, Taisei Mushiroda, Michiaki Kubo, Helen Byakwaga, Peter W Hunt, Deanna L Kroetz
OBJECTIVE: Plasma kynurenine/tryptophan ratio, a biomarker of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-1 (IDO) activity, is a strong independent predictor of mortality in HIV-infected Ugandans initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) and may play a key role in HIV pathogenesis. We performed a genome-wide study to identify potential host genetic determinants of kynurenine/tryptophan ratio in HIV-infected ART-suppressed Ugandans. DESIGN/METHODS: We performed genome-wide and exome array genotyping and measured plasma kynurenine/tryptophan ratio during the initial 6-12 months of suppressive ART in Ugandans...
July 17, 2016: AIDS
Michaëla A M Huson, Rachel Kalkman, Arie J Hoogendijk, Abraham S Alabi, Cornelis van 't Veer, Martin P Grobusch, Joost C M Meijers, Tom van der Poll
Patients positive for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are more susceptible to sepsis and malaria, two conditions known to activate the coagulation system. As chronic HIV infection also influences haemostatic mechanisms, we determined the influence of HIV co-infection on coagulation, anticoagulation and the endothelium during sepsis or malaria. We performed a prospective observational study in 325 subjects with or without HIV infection (103 with sepsis, 127 with malaria and 95 asymptomatic controls) in an HIV endemic area in Central Africa...
June 2016: British Journal of Haematology
Tooba Naz Shamsi, Romana Parveen, Sadaf Fatima
This review describes Protease Inhibitors (PIs) which target or inhibit proteases, protein digesting enzymes. These proteases play a crucial task in many biological events including digestion, blood coagulation, apoptosis etc. Regardless of their crucial roles, they need to be checked regularly by PIs as their excess may possibly damage host organism. On basis of amino acid composition of PIs where Protease-PI enzymatic reactions occur i.e. serine, cysteine, and aspartic acid, they are classified. Nowadays, various PIs are being worked upon to fight various parasitic or viral diseases including malaria, schistosomiasis, colds, flu', dengue etc...
October 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
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