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HIV and Inflammation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817706/hiv-infection-antiretroviral-therapy-and-measures-of-endothelial-function-inflammation-metabolism-and-oxidative-stress
#1
Andrew Dysangco, Ziyue Liu, James H Stein, Michael P Dubé, Samir K Gupta
BACKGROUND: HIV-infected patients have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Impaired endothelial function is an early risk factor for CVD in the general population. It is presumed that HIV infection is associated with impaired endothelial function, but results have been inconsistent. OBJECTIVES: Our objectives were to determine the relationships between HIV infection, virologic suppression with antiretroviral therapy (ART), in vivo measures of conduit artery and microvascular endothelial function, and circulating biomarkers of pathways associated with CVD...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809773/a-macaque-model-for-rectal-lymphogranuloma-venereum-and-non-lymphogranuloma-venereum-chlamydia-trachomatis-impact-on-rectal-simian-human-immunodeficiency-virus-acquisition
#2
Sundaram Ajay Vishwanathan, Rachael D Aubert, Monica R Morris, Chunxia Zhao, Christi Philips, George M Khalil, Frank Deyounks, Kristen Kelley, Jana M Ritter, C Y Chen, Ellen N Kersh, Janet M McNicholl
BACKGROUND: Sustained genital tract inflammation caused by sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is known to increase risk of vaginal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections but, to our knowledge, there are no nonhuman primate studies that have evaluated its link to rectal HIV acquisition. METHODS: Rhesus macaques inoculated with Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) (serovars LGV-L2 and CT-E; n = 7) or saline (n = 7) received up to 20 rectal challenges twice a week of simian/HIV immunodeficiency virus (SHIVSF162p3)...
September 2017: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808299/gut-homing-%C3%AE-42pd1-v%C3%AE-2-t-cells-promote-innate-mucosal-damage-via-tlr4-during-acute-hiv-type-1-infection
#3
Allen Ka Loon Cheung, Hau-Yee Kwok, Yiru Huang, Min Chen, Yufei Mo, Xilin Wu, Ka-Shing Lam, Hoi-Kuan Kong, Terrence Chi Kong Lau, Jingying Zhou, Jingjing Li, Lin Cheng, Boon Kiat Lee, Qiaoli Peng, Xiaofan Lu, Minghui An, Hui Wang, Hong Shang, Boping Zhou, Hao Wu, Aimin Xu, Kwok-Yung Yuen, Zhiwei Chen
The innate immune cells underlying mucosal inflammatory responses and damage during acute HIV-1 infection remain incompletely understood. Here, we report a Vδ2 subset of gut-homing γδ T cells with significantly upregulated Δ42PD1 (a PD1 isoform) in acute (~20%) HIV-1 patients compared to chronic HIV-1 patients (~11%) and healthy controls (~2%). The frequency of Δ42PD1(+)Vδ2 cells correlates positively with plasma levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and fatty-acid-binding protein before detectable lipopolysaccharide in acute patients...
August 14, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800335/an-overview-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-type-1-associated-common-neurological-complications-does-aging-pose-a-challenge
#4
Anantha Ram Nookala, Joy Mitra, Nitish S Chaudhari, Muralidhar L Hegde, Anil Kumar
With increasing survival of patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), the manifestation of heterogeneous neurological complications is also increasing alarmingly in these patients. Currently, more than 30% of about 40 million HIV-1 infected people worldwide develop central nervous system (CNS)-associated dysfunction, including dementia, sensory, and motor neuropathy. Furthermore, the highly effective antiretroviral therapy has been shown to increase the prevalence of mild cognitive functions while reducing other HIV-1-associated neurological complications...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799997/epidemiology-of-ischemic-heart-disease-in-hiv
#5
Virginia A Triant, Steven K Grinspoon
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to summarize and synthesize recent data on the risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD) in HIV-infected individuals. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies in the field demonstrate an increasing impact of cardiovascular disease (CVD) on morbidity and mortality in HIV relative to AIDS-related diagnoses. Studies continue to support an approximately 1.5 to two-fold increased risk of IHD conferred by HIV, with specific risk varying by sex and virologic/immunologic status...
August 10, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796748/diffusion-basis-spectral-imaging-detects-ongoing-brain-inflammation-in-virologically-well-controlled-hiv-patients
#6
Jeremy F Strain, Tricia H Burdo, Sheng-Kwei Song, Peng Sun, Omar El-Ghazzawy, Brittany Nelson, Elizabeth Westerhaus, Laurie Baker, Florin Vaida, Beau M Ances
Inflammation occurs after HIV infection and persists despite highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), measures HIV associated white matter changes, but can be confounded by inflammation. Currently, the influence of inflammation on white matter integrity in well-controlled HIV+ patients remains unknown. We used diffusion basis spectral imaging (DBSI) derived cellularity to isolate restricted water diffusion associated with inflammation separated from the anisotropic diffusion associated with axonal integrity...
August 5, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796027/heart-fat-in-hiv-marker-or-mediator-of-risk
#7
Jonathan Buggey, Chris T Longenecker
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The review aims to summarize the literature describing the clinical impact of cardiac fat depots in patients with HIV infection. RECENT FINDINGS: People living with HIV (PLHIV) have accelerated rates of cardiovascular disease, and are prone to the development of ectopic fat deposition. Specifically, PLHIV have higher volumes of epicardial and intracardiac fat quantified by noninvasive imaging. Higher volumes of epicardial fat may be related to antiretroviral therapy duration and chronic inflammation, independently of other measures of body adiposity such as BMI...
August 8, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779949/cardiovascular-disease-in-patients-with-hiv
#8
REVIEW
Flavia Ballocca, Fabrizio D'Ascenzo, Sebastiano Gili, Walter Grosso Marra, Fiorenzo Gaita
With the progressive increase in life expectancy of HIV-positive patient, thanks to "highly active antiretroviral therapy" (HAART), new comorbidities, and especially cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are emerging as an important concern. An increased risk of coronary artery disease, often in a younger age, has been observed in this population. The underlying pathophysiology is complex and partially still unclear, with the interaction of viral infection-and systemic inflammation-antiretroviral therapy and traditional risk factors...
June 12, 2017: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779905/prognostic-factors-in-syphilitic-uveitis
#9
Florence Hoogewoud, Laure Frumholtz, Paul Loubet, Caroline Charlier, Philippe Blanche, David Lebeaux, Nadjet Benhaddou, Neila Sedira, Laetitia Coutte, Clelia Vanhaecke, Odile Launay, Claire Le Jeunne, Emmanuel Héron, Dominique Monnet, Olivier Lortholary, José-Alain Sahel, Nicolas Dupin, Antoine Brézin, Marie-Hélène Errera, Sawsen Salah, Matthieu Groh
PURPOSE: To identify predictors of treatment success in syphilitic uveitis (SU). DESIGN: Retrospective multicentric analysis of patients treated for SU. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 95 eyes (66 patients, mean [standard deviation] aged 49 [12.5] years, 31 [47%] of whom were human immunodeficiency virus [HIV]+) were analyzed. METHODS: Activity of SU was assessed at 1 week and 1 month after treatment onset, and at last follow-up...
August 2, 2017: Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776596/ocular-syphilis-the-re-establishment-of-an-old-disease
#10
J Wells, C Wood, A Sukthankar, N P Jones
PurposeTo present the patient profiles, clinical presentations and visual outcomes in those diagnosed with ocular syphilis, attending a subspecialist uveitis service in northern England over a 15-year period.Patients and methodsRetrospective observational case series of patients presenting between January 2002 and December 2016.ResultsA total of 50 eyes of 34 patients had intraocular inflammation due to syphilis. Of these, 94% were male, and 75% were men who had sex with men. Ten (29%), all male, were HIV-positive...
August 4, 2017: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771849/in-vivo-evaluation-of-an-engineered-cyclotide-as-specific-cxcr4-imaging-reagent
#11
Wojciech G Lesniak, Teshome Aboye, Samit Chatterjee, Julio A Camarero, Sridhar Nimmagadda
The CXCR4 chemokine receptor plays a key regulatory role in many biological functions, including embryonic development and controlling leukocyte functions during inflammation and immunity. CXCR4 has been also associated with multiple types of cancers where its overexpression/activation promotes metastasis, angiogenesis, and tumor growth and/or survival. Furthermore, CXCR4 is involved in HIV replication, as it is a co-receptor for viral entry into host cells. Altogether, these features make CXCR4 a very attractive target for the development of imaging and therapeutic agents...
August 3, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764704/objective-impairments-of-gait-and-balance-in-adults-living-with-hiv-1-infection-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-observational-studies
#12
Karina Berner, Linzette Morris, Jochen Baumeister, Quinette Louw
BACKGROUND: Gait and balance deficits are reported in adults with HIV infection and are associated with reduced quality of life. Current research suggests an increased fall-incidence in this population, with fall rates among middle-aged adults with HIV approximating that in seronegative elderly populations. Gait and postural balance rely on a complex interaction of the motor system, sensory control, and cognitive function. However, due to disease progression and complications related to ongoing inflammation, these systems may be compromised in people with HIV...
August 1, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756985/concomitant-epstein-barr-virus-associated-smooth-muscle-tumor-and-granulomatous-inflammation-of-the-liver
#13
Nhu Thuy Can, James P Grenert, Poonam Vohra
Epstein-Barr Virus-associated smooth muscle tumor (EBV-SMT) is a rare mesenchymal tumor typically seen in immunocompromised patients. Here, we report a case of EBV-SMT and associated granulomatous inflammation in the liver of a 32-year-old man with history of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS). To our knowledge, an association of these two lesions has not been previously reported. We review the literature and discuss pathogenesis, differential diagnosis and immunohistochemical (IHC) stains helpful for the diagnosis of this rare entity...
July 13, 2017: Pathology, Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754798/frontline-science-cxcr7-mediates-cd14-cd16-monocyte-transmigration-across-the-blood-brain-barrier-a-potential-therapeutic-target-for-neuroaids
#14
Mike Veenstra, Dionna W Williams, Tina M Calderon, Kathryn Anastos, Susan Morgello, Joan W Berman
CD14(+)CD16(+) monocytes transmigrate into the CNS of HIV-positive people in response to chemokines elevated in the brains of infected individuals, including CXCL12. Entry of these cells leads to viral reservoirs, neuroinflammation, and neuronal damage. These may eventually lead to HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. Although antiretroviral therapy (ART) has significantly improved the lives of HIV-infected people, the prevalence of cognitive deficits remains unchanged despite ART, still affecting >50% of infected individuals...
July 28, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752134/hiv-infection-of-macrophages-implications-for-pathogenesis-and-cure
#15
Kiera L Clayton, J Victor Garcia, Janice E Clements, Bruce D Walker
Although CD4(+) T cells represent the major reservoir of persistent HIV and SIV infection, accumulating evidence suggests that macrophages also contribute. However, investigations of the role of macrophages are often underrepresented at HIV pathogenesis and cure meetings. This was the impetus for a scientific workshop dedicated to this area of study, held in Cambridge, MA in January 2017. The workshop brought together experts in the fields of HIV/SIV immunology and virology, macrophage biology and immunology, and animal models of HIV/SIV infection to discuss the role of macrophages as a physiologically relevant viral reservoir, and the implications of macrophage infection for HIV pathogenesis and strategies for cure...
2017: Pathogens & Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743816/penile-anaerobic-dysbiosis-as-a-risk-factor-for-hiv-infection
#16
Cindy M Liu, Jessica L Prodger, Aaron A R Tobian, Alison G Abraham, Godfrey Kigozi, Bruce A Hungate, Maliha Aziz, Fred Nalugoda, Sanjeev Sariya, David Serwadda, Rupert Kaul, Ronald H Gray, Lance B Price
Sexual transmission of HIV requires exposure to the virus and infection of activated mucosal immune cells, specifically CD4(+) T cells or dendritic cells. The foreskin is a major site of viral entry in heterosexual transmission of HIV. Although the probability of acquiring HIV from a sexual encounter is low, the risk varies even after adjusting for known HIV risk factors. The genital microbiome may account for some of the variability in risk by interacting with the host immune system to trigger inflammatory responses that mediate the infection of mucosal immune cells...
July 25, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737591/hiv-incidence-and-predictors-of-hiv-acquisition-from-an-outside-partner-in-serodiscordant-couples-in-lusaka-zambia-1995-2012
#17
Dvora L Joseph Davey, Kristin M Wall, William Kilembe, Htee Khu Naw, Ilene Brill, Bellington Vwalika, Elwyn Chomba, Joseph Mulenga, Amanda Tichacek, Marjan Javanbakt, Pamina Gorbach, Susan Allen
OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the incidence and predictors of HIV acquisition from outside partners in serodiscordant couples. METHODS: Demographic, behavioral, and clinical exposures were measured quarterly in a cohort of serodiscordant cohabiting couples in Zambia from 1995-2012 (n=3049). Genetic analysis classified incident infections as those acquired from the study partner (linked) or acquired from an outside partner (unlinked). Factors associated with time to unlinked HIV infection were evaluated using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression stratified by gender...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735813/atypical-memory-b-cells-in-human-chronic-infectious-diseases-an-interim-report
#18
Silvia Portugal, Nyamekye Obeng-Adjei, Susan Moir, Peter D Crompton, Susan K Pierce
Immunological memory is a remarkable phenomenon in which survival of an initial infection by a pathogen leads to life-long protection from disease upon subsequent exposure to that same pathogen. For many infectious diseases, long-lived protective humoral immunity is induced after only a single infection in a process that depends on the generation of memory B cells (MBCs) and long-lived plasma cells. However, over the past decade it has become increasingly evident that many chronic human infectious diseases to which immunity is not readily established, including HIV-AIDS, malaria and TB, are associated with fundamental alterations in the composition and functionality of MBC compartments...
July 11, 2017: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723708/subclinical-herpesvirus-shedding-among-hiv-1-infected-men-on-antiretroviral-therapy
#19
Arcadio Agudelo-Hernandez, Yue Chen, Arlene Bullotta, William G Buchanan, Cynthia R Klamar-Blain, Luann Borowski, Sharon A Riddler, Charles R Rinaldo, Bernard Jc Macatangay
DESIGN: We evaluated the subclinical shedding of 6 different herpesviruses in antiretroviral drug-treated HIV(+) men who have sex with men (MSM), and determined how this is associated with markers of inflammation and immune activation. METHODS: We obtained blood, semen, throat washing, urine, and stool from 15 antiretroviral-treated HIV-1-infected MSM with CD4 T cell reconstitution, and 12 age-matched HIV(-) MSM from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study at 4 timepoints over 24 weeks to measure DNA levels of cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), herpes simplex virus 1 and 2, human herpesvirus 6 (HHV6), and HHV8...
July 18, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713869/association-of-anisocytosis-with-markers-of-immune-activation-and-exhaustion-in-treated-hiv
#20
Sadeer G Al-Kindi, David A Zidar, Grace A McComsey, Chris T Longenecker
BACKGROUND: Treated HIV infection is associated with heightened inflammation which can contribute to increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). We have previously shown that anisocytosis, as measured by red cell distribution width (RDW), is independently associated with prevalent CVD in people living with HIV (PLHIV). In this study, we sought to identify immune correlates of RDW in PLHIV receiving antiretroviral therapy. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis of 147 virally-suppressed PLHIV, who had LDL < 130 mg/dL and evidence of heightened inflammation, in a randomized trial of statin therapy...
2017: Pathogens & Immunity
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