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HIV and Inflammation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935667/upregulation-of-herv-k-is-linked-to-immunity-and-inflammation-in-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#1
Toshie Saito, Kazuya Miyagawa, Shih-Yu Chen, Rasa Tamosiuniene, Lingli Wang, Orr Sharp, Erik Samayoa, Daisuke Harada, Jan-Renier A J Moonen, Aiqin Cao, Pin-I Chen, Jan K Hennigs, Mingxia Gu, Caiyun G Li, Ryan D Leib, Dan Li, Christopher M Adams, Patricia A Del Rosario, Matthew A Bill, Francois Haddad, Jose G Montoya, William Robinson, Wendy J Fantl, Garry P Nolan, Roham T Zamanian, Mark R Nicolls, Charles Y Chiu, Maria E Ariza, Marlene Rabinovitch
Background -Immune dysregulation has been linked to occlusive vascular remodeling in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) that is hereditary, idiopathic or associated with other conditions. Circulating autoantibodies, lung perivascular lymphoid tissue and elevated cytokines have been related to PAH pathogenesis but without clear understanding of how these abnormalities are initiated, perpetuated and connected in the progression of disease. We therefore set out to identify specific target antigens in PAH lung immune complexes as a starting point toward resolving these issues to better inform future application of immunomodulatory therapies...
September 21, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934432/intestinal-damage-and-inflammatory-biomarkers-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-hiv-exposed-and-hiv-infected-zimbabwean-infants
#2
Andrew J Prendergast, Bernard Chasekwa, Sandra Rukobo, Margaret Govha, Kuda Mutasa, Robert Ntozini, Jean H Humphrey
Background: Disease progression is rapid in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected infants. Whether intestinal damage and inflammation underlie mortality is unknown. Methods: We measured plasma intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP), soluble CD14 (sCD14), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and C-reactive protein (CRP) at 6 weeks and 6 months of age in 272 HIV-infected infants who either died (cases) or survived (controls), and in 194 HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) and 197 HIV-unexposed infants...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934217/elevated-humoral-response-to-cytomegalovirus-in-hiv-infected-individuals-with-poor-cd4-t-cell-immune-recovery
#3
Elisabet Gómez-Mora, Marta Massanella, Elisabet García, David Giles, Marta Bernadó, Victor Urrea, Jorge Carrillo, Dan Ouchi, Jordi Puig, Eugenia Negredo, Bonaventura Clotet, Julià Blanco, Cecilia Cabrera
Some HIV-infected c-ART-suppressed individuals show incomplete CD4+ T-cell recovery, abnormal T-cell activation and higher mortality. One potential source of immune activation could be coinfection with cytomegalovirus (CMV). IgG and IgM levels, immune activation, inflammation and T-cell death in c-ART-suppressed individuals with CD4+ T-cell counts >350 cells/μL (immunoconcordant, n = 133) or <350 cells/μL (immunodiscordant, n = 95) were analyzed to evaluate the effect of CMV humoral response on immune recovery...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934108/markers-of-microbial-translocation-and-immune-activation-predict-cognitive-processing-speed-in-heavy-drinking-men-living-with-hiv
#4
Mollie A Monnig, Christopher W Kahler, Patricia A Cioe, Peter M Monti, Kenneth H Mayer, David W Pantalone, Ronald A Cohen, Bharat Ramratnam
HIV infection and alcohol use disorder are associated with deficits in neurocognitive function. Emerging evidence points to pro-inflammatory perturbations of the gut-brain axis as potentially contributing to neurocognitive impairment in the context of HIV and chronic heavy alcohol use. This study examined whether plasma markers of microbial translocation (LPS) from the gastrointestinal tract and related immune activation (sCD14, EndoCAb) were associated with neurocognition in 21 men living with HIV who were virally suppressed on antiretroviral therapy...
September 21, 2017: Microorganisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933175/-hiv-infection-a-new-disease-of-internal-medicine
#5
Svatava Snopková
Modern antiretroviral treatment belongs to the greatest success of current medicine. HIV infection has gone from a death sentence to a manageable chronic disease which develops several decades. Thanks to treatment advances, people with HIV can and do live long and full lives. In the last two decades, the incidence AIDS defining illnesses have been dramatically reduced especially opportunistic infections and malignancies, whereas the role of non-infection comorbidities has risen than age-matched HIV uninfected adults...
2017: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931072/high-prevalence-of-non-dipping-blood-pressure-and-vascular-stiffness-in-hiv-infected-south-africans-on-antiretrovirals
#6
M S Borkum, J M Heckmann, K Manning, J A Dave, N S Levitt, B L Rayner, N Wearne
BACKGROUND: HIV-infected individuals are at increased risk of tissue inflammation and accelerated vascular aging ('inflamm-aging'). Abnormal diurnal blood pressure (BP) rhythms such as non-dipping may contribute to an increased risk of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events in HIV infected individuals. However, little data exists on ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) and measures of vascular stiffness in the black African HIV infected population. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional analysis of otherwise well, HIV infected outpatients on ART for >5 years...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930079/epicardial-adipose-tissue-volume-and-cardiovascular-risk-indices-among-asymptomatic-women-with-and-without-hiv
#7
Suman Srinivasa, Michael T Lu, Kathleen V Fitch, Travis R Hallett, Timothy K O'Malley, Lauren A Stone, Amanda Martin, Alexandra J Coromilas, Tricia H Burdo, Virginia A Triant, Janet Lo, Sara E Looby, Tomas G Neilan, Markella V Zanni
BACKGROUND: Mechanisms underlying the heightened myocardial infarction risk among HIV-infected women (versus non-HIV-infected women) remain unclear. Our objectives were to assess epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) volume and its associations among asymptomatic women with and without HIV. METHODS: Fifty-five HIV-infected and 27 non-HIV-infected women without known cardiovascular disease who underwent cardiac CT and metabolic/immune phenotyping were included. EAT volume derived from CT was compared among women with and without HIV, and within-group EAT associations were assessed...
September 20, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927747/astrocyte-elevated-gene-1-promotes-inflammation-and-invasion-of-fibroblast-like-synoviocytes-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#8
Ruilong Hong, Kun Wang, Hongguang Shi
Astrocyte elevated gene-1 (AEG-1) was initially induced by HIV-1 infection and involved in tumor progression, migration and invasion as a nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB)-dependent gene. The present study we intended to investigate the protein expression of AEG-1 significantly associated with rheumatoid arthritis. Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry demonstrated that AEG-1 was upregulated in synovial tissue of RA patients compared with the controls. Double immunofluorescent staining suggested that AEG-1 was expressed in fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) of RA patients...
September 13, 2017: Tissue & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926559/novelties-in-evaluation-and-monitoring-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-1-infection-is-standard-virological-suppression-enough-for-measuring-antiretroviral-treatment-success
#9
Valentina Svicher, Giulia Marchetti, Adrianna Ammassari, Francesca Ceccherini-Silberstein, Loredana Sarmati
The high potency and tolerability of the currently available antiretroviral drugs has modified HIV-1 infection from a life-threatening disease to a chronic illness. Nevertheless, some issues still remain open to optimize the management of HIV-1 infected patients in term of maintenance of virological suppression over time, identifying patients that could benefit from simplification therapy, and reducing co-mordibities driven by chronic inflammation. The availability of robust and affordable virological and immunological markers can help in solving these issues by providing information on the burden of HIV-1 reservoir in all the anatomical compartments in which the virus replicates as well as on persistent inflammation, immune activation and senescence despite successful virological suppression...
September 19, 2017: AIDS Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926407/dysfunctional-hdl-from-hiv-individuals-promotes-monocyte-derived-foam-cell-formation-in-vitro
#10
Thomas A Angelovich, Anna C Hearps, Michael N Oda, Mark S Borja, Diana Huynh, Stefanie Homann, Anthony Jaworowski, Theodoros Kelesidis
OBJECTIVE: The role of HDL function in HIV-related atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) is unclear. HDLs isolated from HIV+ [HIV(+)HDL] and HIV-uninfected individuals (HDL) were assessed for HDL function and ability to promote monocyte-derived foam cell formation (MDFCF) (a key event in HIV-related CVD) ex vivo. DESIGN/METHODS: Using an established in vitro model of atherogenesis and plasma samples from an established cross-sectional study of virologically-suppressed HIV+ males on stable effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) and with low CVD risk (median age: 42 years; n = 10), we explored the impact of native HDL [HIV(+)HDL] on MDFCF...
September 18, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918424/systemic-inflammatory-response-is-a-prognostic-marker-in-hiv-infected-patients-with-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#11
David J Pinato, Marco Merli, Alessia Dalla Pria, Shiraz Jamshaid, Kizzy Parker, Nicole Pagani, Hamid Hasson, Caterina Uberti Foppa, Emanuela Messina, Rohini Sharma, Mark Nelson, Mark Bower
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is increasingly prevalent in people living with HIV. Systemic inflammation is a prognostic factor requiring validation in HIV-associated HCC. AIMS: Using a multi-centre database of consecutive HCC cases, we investigated the prognostic role of a panel of inflammatory markers, including neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), using univariate and multivariate survival analyses. RESULTS: Fifty-nine patients with HIV-associated HCC secondary to hepatitis C (69%) or B virus infection (32%) were identified...
September 16, 2017: Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916780/preserved-immune-functionality-and-high-cmv-specific-t-cell-responses-in-hiv-infected-individuals-with-poor-cd4-t-cell-immune-recovery
#12
Elisabet Gómez-Mora, Elisabet García, Victor Urrea, Marta Massanella, Jordi Puig, Eugenia Negredo, Bonaventura Clotet, Julià Blanco, Cecilia Cabrera
Poor CD4(+) T-cell recovery after cART has been associated with skewed T-cell maturation, inflammation and immunosenescence; however, T-cell functionality in those individuals has not been fully characterized. In the present study, we assessed T-cell function by assessing cytokine production after polyclonal, CMV and HIV stimulations of T-cells from ART-suppressed HIV-infected individuals with CD4(+) T-cell counts >350 cells/μL (immunoconcordants) or <350 cells/μL (immunodiscordants). A group of HIV-uninfected individuals were also included as controls...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915327/adipose-tissue-in-hiv-infection
#13
John R Koethe
HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy (ART) treatment exert diverse effects on adipocytes and stromal-vascular fraction cells, leading to changes in adipose tissue quantity, distribution, and energy storage. A HIV-associated lipodystrophic condition was recognized early in the epidemic, characterized by clinically apparent changes in subcutaneous, visceral, and dorsocervical adipose depots. Underlying these changes is altered adipose tissue morphology and expression of genes central to adipocyte maturation, regulation, metabolism, and cytokine signaling...
September 12, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906351/prevalence-evolution-and-related-risk-factors-of-kidney-disease-among-spanish-hiv-infected-individuals
#14
Javier Juega-Mariño, Anna Bonjoch, Nuria Pérez-Alvarez, Eugenia Negredo, Beatriu Bayes, Josep Bonet, Buenaventura Clotet, Ramon Romero
Prevalence of kidney disease (KD) is increasing among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected population. Different factors have been related, varying on different published series.The objectives were to study prevalence of KD in those patients, its evolution, and associated risk factors.An observational cohort study of 1596 HIV-positive patients with cross-sectional data collection in 2008 and 2010 was conducted. We obtained clinical and laboratory markers, and registered previous or current treatment with tenofovir (TDF) and indinavir (IDV)...
September 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903520/hepatic-renal-hematologic-and-inflammatory-markers-in-hiv-infected-children-on-long-term-suppressive-antiretroviral-therapy
#15
Ann J Melvin, Meredith Warshaw, Alexandra Compagnucci, Yacine Saidi, Linda Harrison, Anna Turkova, Gareth Tudor-Williams
Background: Data on long-term toxicity of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV-infected children are sparse. PENPACT-1 was an open-label trial in which HIV-infected children were assigned randomly to receive protease inhibitor (PI)- or nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based ART. Methods: We examined changes in clinical, immunologic, and inflammatory markers from baseline to year 4 in the subset of children in the PENPACT-1 study who experienced viral suppression between week 24 and year 4 of ART...
September 1, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902919/factors-associated-with-pulmonary-impairment-in-hiv-infected-south-african-adults
#16
Akshay N Gupte, Michelle L Wong, Reginah Msandiwa, Grace L Barnes, Jonathan Golub, Richard E Chaisson, Christopher J Hoffmann, Neil A Martinson
BACKGROUND: HIV-infected individuals have increased risk of developing obstructive lung disease (OLD). Studies from developed countries report high viral load, low CD4 counts, and anti-retroviral therapy (ART) to be associated with OLD; but these findings may not be generalizable to populations in resource-limited settings. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study of lung function in 730 HIV-infected black South African adults. Pre-bronchodilator spirometry was performed at enrollment and repeated annually for three years...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902848/the-effect-of-hiv-infection-and-hcv-viremia-on-inflammatory-mediators-and-hepatic-injury-the-women-s-interagency-hiv-study
#17
Sheila M Keating, Jennifer L Dodge, Philip J Norris, John Heitman, Stephen J Gange, Audrey L French, Marshall J Glesby, Brian R Edlin, Patricia S Latham, Maria C Villacres, Ruth M Greenblatt, Marion G Peters
Hepatitis C virus infection induces inflammation and while it is believed that HIV co-infection enhances this response, HIV control may reduce inflammation and liver fibrosis in resolved or viremic HCV infection. Measurement of systemic biomarkers in co-infection could help define the mechanism of inflammation on fibrosis and determine if HIV control reduces liver pathology. A nested case-control study was performed to explore the relationship of systemic biomarkers of inflammation with liver fibrosis in HCV viremic and/or seropositive women with and without HIV infection...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893288/potential-contribution-of-gut-microbiota-and-systemic-inflammation-on-hiv-vaccine-effectiveness-and-vaccine-design
#18
REVIEW
Jean-Pierre Routy, Vikram Mehraj
The quest for an effective HIV-1 vaccine began as soon as the virus causing AIDS was identified. After several disappointing attempts, results of the Phase-III RV144 trial in Thailand were a beacon of hope for the field demonstrating correlation between protection and immunological markers. In order to optimize vaccine response, we underline results from yellow fever and hepatitis B vaccines, where protective responses were predicted by the pre-vaccination level of immune activation in healthy individuals. Such findings support the assessment and reduction of pre-vaccine immune activation in order to optimize vaccine response...
September 12, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893284/role-of-sex-hormones-and-the-vaginal-microbiome-in-susceptibility-and-mucosal-immunity-to-hiv-1-in-the-female-genital-tract
#19
REVIEW
Danielle Vitali, Jocelyn M Wessels, Charu Kaushic
While the prevalence of Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infection has stabilized globally, it continues to be the leading cause of death among women of reproductive age. The majority of new infections are transmitted heterosexually, and women have consistently been found to be more susceptible to HIV-1 infection during heterosexual intercourse compared to men. This emphasizes the need for a deeper understanding of how the microenvironment in the female genital tract (FGT) could influence HIV-1 acquisition...
September 12, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893184/the-canadian-hiv-and-aging-cohort-study-determinants-of-increased-risk-of-cardio-vascular-diseases-in-hiv-infected-individuals-rationale-and-study-protocol
#20
Madeleine Durand, Carl Chartrand-Lefebvre, Jean-Guy Baril, Sylvie Trottier, Benoit Trottier, Marianne Harris, Sharon Walmsley, Brian Conway, Alexander Wong, Jean-Pierre Routy, Colin Kovacs, Paul A MacPherson, Kenneth Marc Monteith, Samer Mansour, George Thanassoulis, Michal Abrahamowicz, Zhitong Zhu, Christos Tsoukas, Petronela Ancuta, Nicole Bernard, Cécile L Tremblay
BACKGROUND: With potent antiretroviral drugs, HIV infection is becoming a chronic disease. Emergence of comorbidities, particularly cardiovascular disease (CVD) has become a leading concern for patients living with the infection. We hypothesized that the chronic and persistent inflammation and immune activation associated with HIV disease leads to accelerated aging, characterized by CVD. This will translate into higher incidence rates of CVD in HIV infected participants, when compared to HIV negative participants, after adjustment for traditional CVD risk factors...
September 11, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
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